Fox News (officially Fox News Channel, abbreviated FNC and commonly known as Fox) is an American pay television conservative cable television news channel. It is owned by Fox News Media, which itself is owned by the Fox Corporation. The channel broadcasts primarily from studios at 1211 Avenue of the Americas in New York City. Fox News provides service to 86 countries and overseas territories worldwide, with international broadcasts featuring Fox Extra segments during ad breaks.
|Fox News Channel|
|Launched||October 7, 1996|
|Owned by||Fox Corporation|
|Picture format||720p HDTV|
(downscaled to letterboxed 480i for the SDTV feed)
|Broadcast area||United States|
|Headquarters||1211 Avenue of the Americas|
New York City, NY, U.S. 10036
|Sister channel(s)||Fox Business Network|
Fox Broadcasting Company
|DirecTV||Channel 360 (SD/HD)|
|Dish Network||Channel 205 (SD/HD)|
|Bell TV (Canada)||Channel 507|
|Shaw Direct (Canada)||Channel 154|
|Foxtel (Australia)||Channel 604|
|SKY TV (New Zealand)||Channel 088|
|Sky Italia||Channel 514|
|MEO (Portugal)||Channel 208|
|Cignal (Philippines)||Channel 131|
|beIN||Channel 147 (HD)|
|Oi TV (Brazil)||Channel 184|
|Movistar TV (Chile)||Channel 734|
|G Sat (Philippines)||Channel 50|
|Available on most U.S. providers||Channel slots vary on each operator|
|Cablevisión (Argentina)||Channel 552 (Digital)|
|Macau Cable TV (Macau)||Channel 816|
|Cable TV Hong Kong (Hong Kong)||Channel 123|
|Movistar TV (Peru)||Channel 548|
|SkyCable (Philippines)||Channel 138 Nationwide: Channel 510|
|Izzi Telecom (Mexico)||Channel 180|
|Verizon FiOS||Channel 118 (SD)|
Channel 618 (HD)
|Bell Fibe TV (Canada)||Channel 507|
|VMedia (Canada)||Channel 181|
|Optik TV||Channel 811 (HD; East) |
Channel 9811 (SD; West)
(Pay-TV subscribers only)
The channel was created by Australian-American media mogul Rupert Murdoch to appeal to a conservative audience, hiring former Republican media consultant and CNBC executive Roger Ailes as its founding CEO. It launched on October 7, 1996, to 17 million cable subscribers. Fox News grew during the late 1990s and 2000s to become the dominant subscription news network in the U.S. As of September 2018[update], approximately 87,118,000 U.S. households (90.8% of television subscribers) received Fox News. In 2019, Fox News was the top-rated cable network, averaging 2.5 million viewers. Murdoch is the current executive chairman and Suzanne Scott is the CEO.
Fox News has been described as practicing biased reporting in favor of the Republican Party, the George W. Bush and Donald Trump administrations, and conservative causes while portraying the Democratic Party in a negative light. Critics have cited the channel as detrimental to the integrity of news overall. Fox News employees have said that news reporting operates independently of its opinion and commentary programming, and have denied bias in news reporting, while former employees have said that Fox ordered them to "slant the news in favor of conservatives". During Trump's presidency, observers have noted a pronounced tendency of the Fox News Channel to serve as a "mouthpiece" for the administration, providing "propaganda" and a "feedback loop" for Trump, with one presidential scholar stating, "It's the closest we’ve come to having state TV."
In May 1985, Australian publisher Rupert Murdoch announced that he and American industrialist and philanthropist Marvin Davis intended to develop "a network of independent stations as a fourth marketing force" to compete directly with CBS, NBC, and ABC through the purchase of six television stations owned by Metromedia. In July 1985, 20th Century Fox announced Murdoch had completed his purchase of 50% of Fox Filmed Entertainment, the parent company of 20th Century Fox Film Corporation. A year later, 20th Century Fox earned $5.6 million in its fiscal third period ended May 31, 1986, in contrast to a loss of $55.8 million in the third period of the previous year.
Subsequently, and prior to founding FNC, Murdoch had gained experience in the 24-hour news business when News Corporation's BSkyB subsidiary began Europe's first 24-hour news channel (Sky News) in the United Kingdom in 1989. With the success of his fourth network efforts in the United States, experience gained from Sky News and the turnaround of 20th Century Fox, Murdoch announced on January 31, 1996, that News Corp. would launch a 24-hour news channel on cable and satellite systems in the United States as part of a News Corp. "worldwide platform" for Fox programming: "The appetite for news – particularly news that explains to people how it affects them – is expanding enormously".
In February 1996, after former U.S. Republican Party political strategist and NBC executive Roger Ailes left cable television channel America's Talking (now MSNBC), Murdoch asked him to start Fox News Channel. Ailes demanded five months of 14-hour workdays and several weeks of rehearsal shows before its launch on October 7, 1996.
At its debut 17 million households were able to watch FNC; however, it was absent from the media markets of New York City and Los Angeles. Rolling news coverage during the day consisted of 20-minute single-topic shows such as Fox on Crime or Fox on Politics, surrounded by news headlines. Interviews featured facts at the bottom of the screen about the topic or the guest. The flagship newscast at the time was The Schneider Report, with Mike Schneider's fast-paced delivery of the news. During the evening, Fox featured opinion shows: The O'Reilly Report (later The O'Reilly Factor), The Crier Report (hosted by Catherine Crier) and Hannity & Colmes.
From the beginning, FNC has placed heavy emphasis on visual presentation. Graphics were designed to be colorful and gain attention; this helped the viewer to grasp the main points of what was being said, even if they could not hear the host (with on-screen text summarizing the position of the interviewer or speaker, and "bullet points" when a host was delivering commentary). Fox News also created the "Fox News Alert", which interrupted its regular programming when a breaking news story occurred.
To accelerate its adoption by cable providers, Fox News paid systems up to $11 per subscriber to distribute the channel. This contrasted with the normal practice, in which cable operators paid stations carriage fees for programming. When Time Warner bought Ted Turner's Turner Broadcasting System, a federal antitrust consent decree required Time Warner to carry a second all-news channel in addition to its own CNN on its cable systems. Time Warner selected MSNBC as the secondary news channel, not Fox News. Fox News claimed this violated an agreement (to carry Fox News). Citing its agreement to keep its U.S. headquarters and a large studio in New York City, News Corporation enlisted the help of Mayor Rudolph Giuliani's administration to pressure Time Warner Cable (one of the city's two cable providers) to transmit Fox News on a city-owned channel. City officials threatened to take action affecting Time Warner's cable franchises in the city.
During the September 11, 2001 attacks, Fox News was the first news organization to run a news ticker on the bottom of the screen to keep up with the flow of information that day. The ticker has remained, informing viewers about additional news which reporters may not mention on-screen and repeating news mentioned during a broadcast; it has proven popular with viewers.
Fox News has been described as practicing biased reporting in favor of the Republican Party, the George W. Bush and Donald Trump administrations, and conservative causes while portraying the Democratic Party in a negative light. Critics have cited the channel as detrimental to the integrity of news overall. Fox News employees have said that news reporting operates independently of its opinion and commentary programming, and have denied bias in news reporting, while former employees have said that Fox ordered them to "slant the news in favor of conservatives". During Trump's presidency, observers have noted a pronounced tendency of the Fox News Channel to serve as a "mouthpiece" for the administration, providing "propaganda" and a "feedback loop" for Trump, with one presidential scholar stating, "It's the closest we’ve come to having state TV."
FNC maintains an archive of most of its programs. This archive also includes Movietone News series of newsreels from its now Disney-owned namesake movie studio, 20th Century Fox. Licensing for the Fox News archive is handled by ITN Source, the archiving division of ITN.
FNC presents a variety of programming, with up to 15 hours of live broadcasting per day in addition to programming and content for the Fox Broadcasting Company. Most programs are broadcast from Fox News headquarters in New York City (at 1211 Avenue of the Americas), in its streetside studio on Sixth Avenue in the west wing of Rockefeller Center, sharing its headquarters with sister channel Fox Business Network. Fox News Channel has eight studios at its New York City headquarters that are used for its and Fox Business' programming: Studio B (used for Fox Business programming), Studio D (which has an area for studio audiences; and is used by The Greg Gutfeld Show, Fox and Friends First), Studio F (used for The Story with Martha MacCallum, The Five, and America's Election Headquarters, Fox and Friends, Outnumbered, Outnumbered Overtime, America's News HQ, Justice with Judge Jeanine) Studio G (which houses Fox Business shows), Studio H (Fox News Deck used for Shepard Smith Reporting and breaking news coverage), Studio J (used for America's Newsroom, Hannity and Justice with Judge Jeanine) Starting in 2018, Thursday Night Football had its pregame show, Fox NFL Thursday, originating from the Fox News studio.
The remaining programs (such as Tucker Carlson Tonight, Special Report with Bret Baier, The Ingraham Angle, Fox News @ Night, and editions of America's News HQ not broadcast from the New York City studios) are broadcast from Fox News's Washington, D.C. studios, located on Capitol Hill across from Union Station in a secured building shared by a number of other television networks (including NBC News and C-SPAN). Audio simulcasts of the channel are aired on XM Satellite Radio and Sirius Satellite Radio.
In an October 11, 2009, in a New York Times article, Fox said its hard-news programming runs from "9 AM to 4 PM and 6 to 8 PM on weekdays". However, it makes no such claims for its other broadcasts, which primarily consist of editorial journalism and commentary.
The Fox News Group produces Fox News Sunday, which airs on Fox Broadcasting and re-airs on FNC. Fox News also produces occasional special event coverage that is broadcast on FBC.
With the growth of the FNC, the company introduced a radio division, Fox News Radio, in 2003. Syndicated throughout the United States, the division provides short newscasts and talk radio programs featuring personalities from the television and radio divisions. In 2006, the company also introduced Fox News Talk, a satellite radio station featuring programs syndicated by (and featuring) Fox News personalities.
Introduced in December 1995, the Fox News website features the latest coverage, including columns by FNC television, radio and online personalities. Video clips are also available on Foxnews.com and Foxbusiness.com. Fox News Latino is the version aimed at the Hispanic audience, although presented almost entirely in English, with a Spanish section.
In September 2008, FNC joined other channels in introducing a live streaming segment to its website: The Strategy Room, designed to appeal to older viewers. It airs weekdays from 9 AM to 5 PM and takes the form of an informal discussion, with running commentary on the news. Regular discussion programs include Business Hour, News With a View and God Talk. In March 2009, The Fox Nation was launched as a website intended to encourage readers to post articles commenting on the news. Fox News Mobile is the portion of the FNC website dedicated to streaming news clips formatted for video-enabled mobile phones.
Ratings and reception
In 2003, Fox News saw a large ratings jump during the early stages of the U.S. invasion of Iraq. At the height of the conflict, according to some reports, Fox News had as much as a 300% increase in viewership (averaging 3.3 million viewers daily). In 2004, Fox News' ratings for its broadcast of the Republican National Convention exceeded those of the three major broadcast networks. During President George W. Bush's address, Fox News attracted 7.3 million viewers nationally; NBC, ABC, and CBS had a viewership of 5.9 million, 5.1 million, and 5.0 million respectively.
Between late 2005 and early 2006, Fox News saw a brief decline in ratings. One was in the second quarter of 2006, when it lost viewers for every prime-time program compared with the previous quarter. The audience for the Special Report with Brit Hume, for example, dropped 19%. Several weeks later, in the wake of the 2006 North Korean missile test and the 2006 Lebanon War, Fox saw a surge in viewership and remained the No. 1 rated cable news channel. Fox produced eight of the top ten most-watched nightly cable news shows, with The O'Reilly Factor and Hannity & Colmes finishing first and second respectively.
FNC ranked No. 8 in viewership among all cable channels in 2006, and No. 7 in 2007. The channel ranked number one during the week of Barack Obama's election (November 3–9) in 2008, and reached the top spot again in January 2010 (during the week of the special Senate election in Massachusetts). Comparing Fox to its 24-hour-news-channel competitors, in May 2010 the channel drew an average daily prime-time audience of 1.8 million viewers (versus 747,000 for MSNBC and 595,000 for CNN).
In September 2009, the Pew Research Center published a report on the public view of national news organizations. In the report, 72 percent of polled Republican Fox viewers rated the channel as "favorable", while 43 percent of polled Democratic viewers and 55 percent of all polled viewers shared that opinion. However, Fox was given the highest "unfavorable" rating of all national outlets studied (25 percent of all polled viewers). The report went on to say, "partisan differences in views of Fox News have increased substantially since 2007".
A Public Policy Polling poll concluded in 2013 that positive perceptions of FNC had declined from 2010. 41% of polled voters said they trust it, down from 49% in 2010, while 46% said they distrust it, up from 37% in 2010. It was also called the "most trusted" network by 34% of those polled, more than had said the same of any other network.
On the night of October 22, 2012, Fox set a record for its highest-rated telecast ever, with 11.5 million viewers for the third U.S. presidential debate. In prime time the week before, Fox averaged almost 3.7 million viewers with a total day average of 1.66 million viewers.
In prime time and total day ratings for the week of April 15 to 21, 2013, Fox News, propelled by its coverage of the Boston Marathon bombing, was the highest-ranked network on U.S. cable television, for the first time since August 2005, when Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast of the United States. January 2014 marked Fox News's 145th consecutive month as the number one rated cable news channel. During that month, Fox News beat CNN and MSNBC combined in overall viewers in both prime time hours and the total day. In the third quarter of 2014, the network was the most-watched cable channel during prime time hours. During the final week of the campaign for the United States elections, 2014, Fox News had the highest ratings of any cable channel, news or otherwise. On election night itself, Fox News' coverage had higher ratings than that of any of the other five cable or network news sources among viewers between 25 and 54 years of age. The network hosted the first prime-time GOP candidates' forum of the 2016 campaign on August 6. The debate reached a record-breaking 24 million viewers, by far the largest audience ever for any cable news event.
In 2018, the Fox News was rated by Nielsen as America's most watched cable network, averaging a record 2.4 million viewers in prime time and total day during the period of January 1 to December 30, 2018.
The COVID-19 pandemic led to increased viewership for all cable news networks. For the first calendar quarter of 2020 (1 January- 31 March), Fox News had their highest-rated quarter in the network's history, with Nielsen showing a prime time average total audience of 3.387 million viewers. Sean Hannity's program, Hannity,weeknights at 9PM ET was the top-rated show in cable news for the quarter averaging 4.2 million viewers, a figure that not only beat out all of its cable news competition but also placed it ahead of network competition in the same time slot. Fox ended the quarter with the top five shows in prime time, with Fox's Tucker Carlson Tonight finishing the quarter in second overall with an average audience of 4.2 million viewers, followed by The Five, The Ingraham Angle, and Special Report with Bret Baier. The Rachel Maddow Show was the highest non-Fox show on cable, coming in sixth place. Finishing the quarter in 22nd place was The Lead with Jake Tapper, CNN's highest rated show. According to a Fox News article on the subject, FOX & Friends averaged 1.8 million viewers, topping CNN's New Day and MSNBC's Morning Joe combined. The same Fox News article noted that the Fox Business Network also had its highest-rated quarter in history and that Fox News itself finished March as the highest-rated network in cable for the 45th consecutive month, "...and the digital platforms excelled, too," the article claimed.
As indicated by a New York Times article, based on Nielsen statistics, Fox appears to have a mostly aged demographic. In 2008, in the 25–54 age group, Fox News had an average of 557,000 viewers, but dropped to 379,000 in 2013 while increasing its overall audience from 1.89 million in 2010 to 2.02 million in 2013. The median age of a prime-time viewer was 68 as of 2015[update]. A study done by the Pew Research Center found that around 60% of Fox News viewers identify as conservative.
Fox News Channel originally used the slogan "Fair and Balanced", which was coined by network co-founder Roger Ailes while the network was being established. The New York Times described the slogan as being a "blunt signal that Fox News planned to counteract what Mr. Ailes and many others viewed as a liberal bias ingrained in television coverage by establishment news networks".
In August 2003, Fox News sued comedian Al Franken over his use of the slogan as a subtitle for his book, Lies and the Lying Liars Who Tell Them: A Fair and Balanced Look at the Right, which is critical of Fox News Channel. The lawsuit was dropped three days later, after Judge Denny Chin refused its request for an injunction. In his decision, Chin ruled the case was "wholly without merit, both factually and legally". He went on to suggest that Fox News' trademark on the phrase "fair and balanced" could be invalid. In December 2003, FNC won a legal battle concerning the slogan, when AlterNet filed a cancellation petition with the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) to have FNC's trademark rescinded as inaccurate. AlterNet included Robert Greenwald's documentary film Outfoxed (2004) as supporting evidence in its case. After losing early motions, AlterNet withdrew its petition; the USPTO dismissed the case. In 2008, FNC used the slogan "We Report, You Decide", referring to "You Decide 2008" (FNC's original slogan for its coverage of election issues).
In August 2016, Fox News Channel began to quietly phase out the "Fair and Balanced" slogan in favor of "Most Watched, Most Trusted"; when these changes were reported in June 2017 by Gabriel Sherman (a writer who had written a biography on Ailes), a network executive said the change "has nothing to do with programming or editorial decisions". It was speculated by media outlets that Fox News Channel was wishing to distance itself from Ailes' tenure at the network. In March 2018, the network introduced a new ad campaign, Real News. Real Honest Opinion. The ad campaign is intended to promote the network's opinion-based programming and counter perceptions surrounding "fake news". Fox News still keeps both the "Fair & Balanced" and "Most Watched. Most Trusted." slogans.
Benghazi attack and aftermath
Fox News provided extensive coverage of the 2012 Benghazi attack, which host Sean Hannity described in December 2012 as "the story that the mainstream media ignores" and "obviously, a cover-up. And we will get to the bottom of it." Programming analysis by Media Matters found that during the twenty months following the Benghazi attacks, FNC ran 1,098 segments on the issue, including:
- 478 segments involving Susan Rice's September 16, 2012 Sunday news show appearances, during which she was falsely accused of lying
- 382 segments on Special Report, the network's flagship news program
- 281 segments alleging a "cover-up" by the Obama administration
- 144 interviews of GOP members of Congress, but just five interviews of Democratic members of Congress and Obama administration officials
- 120 comparisons to Iran-Contra, Watergate, and the actions of the Nixon administration
- 100 segments falsely suggesting the administration issued a "stand-down order" to prevent a rescue operation in Benghazi
Over nearly four years after the Benghazi attack, there were ten official investigations, including six by Republican-controlled House committees. None of the investigations found any evidence of scandal, cover-up or lying by Obama administration officials.
On June 29, 2018, Fox News broadcast a segment by news anchor Bret Baier entitled "Whatever happened to the Benghazi investigation?" which repeated some of the accusations the network had previously made about Susan Rice and Hillary Clinton, but for which the women had been exonerated by the official investigations.
From 2015 into 2018, Fox News broadcast extensive coverage of an alleged scandal surrounding the sale of Uranium One to Russian interests, which host Sean Hannity characterized as "one of the biggest scandals in American history". The Fox News coverage extended throughout the programming day, with particular emphasis by Hannity. The network promoted an ultimately unfounded narrative asserting that, as Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton personally approved the Uranium One sale in exchange for $145 million in bribes paid to the Clinton Foundation. Donald Trump repeated these allegations as a candidate and as president. No evidence of wrongdoing by Clinton had been found after four years of allegations, an FBI investigation, and the 2017 appointment of a Federal attorney to evaluate the investigation. In November 2017, Fox News host Shepard Smith concisely debunked the alleged scandal, infuriating viewers who suggested he should work for CNN or MSNBC. Hannity later called Smith "clueless," while Smith stated, "I get it, that some of our opinion programming is there strictly to be entertaining. I get that. I don't work there. I wouldn't work there."
Pro-Republican and pro-Trump bias
Fox News Channel has been widely described as providing biased reporting in favor of conservative political positions, the Republican Party and President Donald Trump. Political scientist Jonathan Bernstein described Fox News as an expanded part of the Republican Party. Political scientists Matt Grossmann and David A. Hopkins write that Fox News has helped "Republicans communicate with their base and spread their ideas, and they have been effective in mobilizing voters to participate in midterm elections (as in 2010 and 2014)." Prior to 2000, Fox News lacked an ideological tilt, and even had more Democrats watch the channel than Republicans. During the 2004 presidential election, Fox News was markedly more hostile in its coverage of Democratic presidential nominee John Kerry, and distinguished itself among cable news outlets for heavy coverage of the Swift Boat smear campaign against Kerry. During Obama's first term in office, Fox News helped launch and amplify the Tea Party movement, a conservative movement within the Republican party that organized protests against Obama and his policies.
During the Republican primaries, Fox News was widely perceived as trying to prevent Trump from clinching the nomination. However, under Trump's presidency, Fox News remade itself into his image, as hardly any criticism of Trump could be heard on Fox News' prime-time shows. Even in Fox News' news reporting, the network dedicated far more coverage to Hillary Clinton-related stories, which critics say was intended to deflect attention from the investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 election. Trump provided great access to Fox News during his presidency, giving 19 interviews to the channel while only 6 in total to other news channels by November 2017; The New York Times described Trump's Fox News interviews as "softball interviews" and some of the interviewers' interview styles as "fawning"; similarly, The Economist has described the network's coverage of Trump's presidency as "reliably fawning". From 2015 to 2017, the Fox News prime-time line-up changed from one that was skeptical and questioning of Trump to a "Trump safe space, with a dose of Bannonist populism once considered on the fringe". The Fox News website has also gotten more extreme in its rhetoric since Trump's election; according to Columbia's Tow Center for Digital Journalism, the Fox News website has "gone a little Breitbart" over time. At the start of 2018, Fox News mostly ignored prominent scandals in the Trump administration which received ample coverage in other national media outlets, such as White House Staff Secretary Rob Porter's resignation amid domestic abuse allegations, the downgrading of Jared Kushner's security clearance and the existence of a non-disclosure agreement between Trump and the porn star Stormy Daniels.
In March 2019, Jane Mayer reported in The New Yorker that Fox News.com reporter Diana Falzone had the story of the Stormy Daniels–Donald Trump scandal before the 2016 election, but that Fox News executive Ken LaCorte told her, "Good reporting, kiddo. But Rupert [Murdoch] wants Donald Trump to win. So just let it go," and the story was killed. LaCorte denied making the statement to Falzone, but conceded, "I was the person who made the call. I didn't run it upstairs to Roger Ailes or others...I didn't do it to protect Donald Trump," adding "[Falzone] had put up a story that just wasn't anywhere close to being something I was comfortable publishing." Nik Richie, who claimed to be one of the sources for the story, called LaCorte's account "complete bullshit", adding "Fox News was culpable. I voted for Trump, and I like Fox, but they did their own 'catch and kill' on the story to protect him."
A 2008 study found Fox News gave disproportionate attention to polls suggesting low approval for President Bill Clinton. A 2009 study found Fox News was less likely to pick up stories that reflected well on Democrats, and more likely to pick up stories that reflected well on Republicans. A 2010 study comparing Fox News Channel's Special Report With Brit Hume and NBC's Nightly News coverage of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan during 2005 concluded "Fox News was much more sympathetic to the administration than NBC", suggesting "if scholars continue to find evidence of a partisan or ideological bias at FNC ... they should consider Fox as alternative, rather than mainstream, media".
Research finds that Fox News increases Republican vote shares and makes Republican politicians more partisan. A 2007 study, using the introduction of Fox News into local markets (1996–2000) as an instrumental variable, found that in the 2000 presidential election "Republicans gained 0.4 to 0.7 percentage points in the towns that broadcast Fox News", suggesting "Fox News convinced 3 to 28 percent of its viewers to vote Republican, depending on the audience measure". These results were confirmed by a 2015 study. A 2014 study, using the same instrumental variable, found congressional "representatives become less supportive of President Clinton in districts where Fox News begins broadcasting than similar representatives in similar districts where Fox News was not broadcast." A 2017 study, using channel positions as an instrumental variable, found "Fox News increases Republican vote shares by 0.3 points among viewers induced into watching 2.5 additional minutes per week by variation in position." Another 2014 paper found Fox News viewing increased Republican vote shares among voters who identified as Republican or independent.
Fox News publicly denies it is biased, with Murdoch and Ailes saying have included Murdoch's statement that Fox has "given room to both sides, whereas only one side had it before". Fox News host Chris Wallace has said, "I think we are the counter-weight [to NBC News] ... they have a liberal agenda, and we tell the other side of the story." In 2004, Robert Greenwald's documentary film Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch's War on Journalism argued Fox News had a conservative bias and featured clips from Fox News and internal memos from editorial vice president John Moody directing Fox News staff on how to report certain subjects.
A leaked memo from Fox News vice president Bill Sammon to news staff at the height of the health care reform in the United States debate has been cited as an example of the pro-Republican Party bias of Fox News. His memo asked the staff to "use the term 'government-run health insurance,' or, when brevity is a concern, 'government option,' whenever possible". The memo was sent shortly after Republican pollster Frank Luntz advised Sean Hannity on his Fox show, "If you call it a public option, the American people are split. If you call it the government option, the public is overwhelmingly against it".
Surveys suggest Fox News is widely perceived to be ideological. A 2009 Pew survey found Fox News is viewed as the most ideological channel in America, with 47 percent of those surveyed said Fox News is "mostly conservative", 14 percent said "mostly liberal" and 24 percent said "neither". In comparison, MSNBC had 36 percent identify it as "mostly liberal", 11 percent as "mostly conservative" and 27 percent as "neither". CNN had 37 percent describe it as "mostly liberal", 11 percent as "mostly conservative" and 33 percent as "neither". A 2004 Pew Research Center survey found FNC was cited (unprompted) by 69 percent of national journalists as a conservative news organization. A Rasmussen poll found 31 percent of Americans felt Fox News had a conservative bias, and 15 percent that it had a liberal bias. It found 36 percent believed Fox News delivers news with neither a conservative or liberal bias, compared with 37 percent who said NPR delivers news with no conservative or liberal bias and 32 percent who said the same of CNN.
David Carr, media critic for The New York Times, praised the 2012 presidential election results coverage on Fox News for the network's response to Republican adviser and Fox News contributor Karl Rove challenging its call that Barack Obama would win Ohio and the election. Fox's prediction was correct. Carr wrote:
Over many months, Fox lulled its conservative base with agitprop: that President Obama was a clear failure, that a majority of Americans saw [Mitt] Romney as a good alternative in hard times, and that polls showing otherwise were politically motivated and not to be believed. But on Tuesday night, the people in charge of Fox News were confronted with a stark choice after it became clear that Mr. Romney had fallen short: was Fox, first and foremost, a place for advocacy or a place for news? In this moment, at least, Fox chose news.
A May 2017 study conducted by Harvard University's Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy examined coverage of Trump's first 100 days in office by several major mainstream media outlets including Fox. It found Trump received 80% negative coverage from the overall media, and received the least negative coverage on Fox – 52% negative and 48% positive.
On March 14, 2017, Andrew Napolitano, a Fox News commentator, claimed on Fox & Friends that British intelligence agency GCHQ had wiretapped Trump on behalf of Barack Obama during the 2016 United States presidential election. On March 16, 2017, White House spokesman Sean Spicer repeated the claim. When Trump was questioned about the claim at a news conference, he said "All we did was quote a certain very talented legal mind who was the one responsible for saying that on television. I didn't make an opinion on it." On March 17, 2017, Shepard Smith, a Fox News anchor, admitted the network had no evidence that Trump was under surveillance. British officials said the White House was backing off the claim. Napolitano was later suspended by Fox News for making the claim.
In June 2018, Fox News executives instructed producers to head off inappropriate remarks made on the shows aired by the network by hosts and commentators. The instructions came after a number of Fox News hosts and guests made incendiary comments about the Trump administration's policy of separating migrant children from their parents. Fox News host Laura Ingraham had likened the child detention centers that the children were in to "summer camps". Guest Corey Lewandowski mocked the story of a 10-year-old child with Down syndrome being separated from her mother; the Fox News host did not address Lewandowski's statement. Guest Ann Coulter falsely claimed that the separated children were "child actors"; the Fox News host did not challenge her claim. In a segment on Trump's alleged use of racial dog whistles, one Fox News contributor told an African-American whom he was debating, "You're out of your cotton-picking mind."
According to the 2016 book Asymmetric Politics by political scientists Matt Grossmann and David A. Hopkins, "Fox News tends to raise the profile of scandals and controversies involving Democrats that receive scant attention in other media, such as the relationship between Barack Obama and William Ayers ... Hillary Clinton's role in the fatal 2012 attacks on the American consulate in Benghazi, Libya; the gun-running scandal known as 'Fast and Furious'; the business practices of federal loan guarantee recipient Solyndra; the past activism of Obama White House operative Van Jones; the 2004 attacks on John Kerry by the Swift Boat Veterans for Truth; the controversial sermons of Obama's Chicago pastor Jeremiah Wright; the filming of undercover videos of supposed wrongdoing by the liberal activist group ACORN; and even the 'war on Christmas' supposedly waged every December by secular, multicultural liberals."
In October 2018, Fox News ran laudatory coverage of a meeting between Trump-supporting rapper Kanye West and President Trump in the Oval Office. Fox News had previously run negative coverage of rappers and their involvement with Democratic politicians and causes, such as when Fox News ran headlines describing conscious hip-hop artist Common as "vile" and a "cop-killer rapper", and when Fox News ran negative coverage of Kanye West before he became a Trump supporter.
On November 4, 2018, Trump's website, DonaldJTrump.com, announced in a press release that Fox News host Sean Hannity would make a "special guest appearance" with Trump at a midterm campaign rally the following night in Cape Girardeau, Missouri. The following morning, Hannity tweeted "To be clear, I will not be on stage campaigning with the President." Hannity appeared at the president's lectern on stage at the rally, immediately mocking the "fake news" at the back of the auditorium, Fox News reporters among them. Several Fox News employees expressed outrage at Hannity's actions, with one stating, "a new line was crossed." Hannity later asserted that his action was not pre-planned, and Fox News stated it "does not condone any talent participating in campaign events". Fox News host Jeanine Pirro also appeared on stage with Trump at the rally. The Trump press release was later removed from Trump's website.
Fox News released a poll of registered voters, jointly conducted by two polling organizations, on June 16, 2019. The poll found some unfavorable results for Trump, notably that a record high 50% thought the Trump campaign had coordinated with the Russian government, and 50% thought he should be impeached — 43% saying he should also be removed from office — while 48% said they did not favor impeachment. The next morning on Fox & Friends First, host Heather Childers twice misrepresented the poll results, stating "a new Fox News poll shows most voters don't want impeachment" and "at least half of U.S. voters do not think President Trump should be impeached," while the on-screen display of the actual poll question was also incorrect. Later that morning on America's Newsroom, the on-screen display showed the correct poll question and results, but highlighted the 48% of respondents who opposed impeachment rather than the 50% who supported it (the latter being broken-out into two figures). As host Bill Hemmer drew guest Byron York's attention to the 48% opposed figure, they did not discuss the 50% support figure, while the on-screen chyron read, "Fox News Poll: 43% Support Trump's Impeachment and Removal, 48% Oppose." Later that day, Trump tweeted "@FoxNews Polls are always bad for me...Something weird going on at Fox."
Coverage of Russia investigation
On October 30, 2017, when special counsel Robert S. Mueller III indicted Paul Manafort and Rick Gates, and revealed George Papadopoulos had plead guilty (all of whom were involved in the Trump 2016 campaign), this was the focus of most media's coverage, except Fox News'. Hosts and guests on Fox News called for Mueller to be fired. Sean Hannity and Tucker Carlson focused their shows on unsubstantiated allegations that Clinton sold uranium to Russia in exchange for donations to the Clinton Foundation and on the Clinton campaign's role in funding the Donald Trump–Russia dossier. Hannity asserted, "The very thing they are accusing President Trump of doing, they did it themselves." During the segment, Hannity mistakenly referred to Clinton as President Clinton. Fox News dedicated extensive coverage to the uranium story, which Democrats said was an attempt to distract from Mueller's intensifying investigation. CNN described the coverage as "a tour de force in deflection and dismissal". On October 31, CNN reported Fox News employees were dissatisfied with their outlet's coverage of the Russia investigation, with employees calling it an "embarrassment", "laughable" and saying it "does the viewer a huge disservice and further divides the country" and that it is "another blow to journalists at Fox who come in every day wanting to cover the news in a fair and objective way".
When the investigation by special counsel Robert Mueller into Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election intensified in October 2017, the focus of Fox News coverage turned "what they see as the scandal and wrongdoing of President Trump's political opponents. In reports like these, Bill and Hillary Clinton are prominent and recurring characters because they are considered the real conspirators working with the Russians to undermine American democracy." Paul Waldman of the Washington Post described the coverage as "No puppet. You're the puppet", saying it was a "careful, coordinated, and comprehensive strategy" to distract from Mueller's investigation. German Lopes of Vox said Fox News' coverage has reached "levels of self-parody" as it dedicated coverage to low-key stories, such as a controversial Newsweek op-ed and hamburger emojis, while other networks had wall-to-wall coverage of Mueller's indictments.
A FiveThirtyEight analysis of Russia-related media coverage in cable news found most mentions of Russia on Fox News were spoken in close proximity to "uranium" and "dossier". On November 1, 2017, Vox analyzed the transcripts of Fox News, CNN and MSNBC, and found Fox News "was unable to talk about the Mueller investigation without bringing up Hillary Clinton", "talked significantly less about George Papadopoulos — the Trump campaign adviser whose plea deal with Mueller provides the most explicit evidence thus far that the campaign knew of the Russian government's efforts to help Trump — than its competitors", and "repeatedly called Mueller's credibility into question".
In December 2017, Fox News escalated its attacks on the Mueller investigation, with hosts and guest commentators suggesting the investigation amounted to a coup. Guest co-host Kevin Jackson referred to a right-wing conspiracy theory claiming Strzok's messages are evidence of a plot by FBI agents to assassinate Trump, a claim which the other Fox co-hosts quickly said is not supported by any credible evidence. Fox News host Jeanine Pirro called the Mueller investigation team a "criminal cabal" and said the team ought to be arrested. Other Fox News figures referred to the investigation as "corrupt", "crooked" and "illegitimate", and likened the FBI to the KGB, the Soviet-era spy organization that routinely tortured and summarily executed people. Political scientists and scholars of coups described the Fox News rhetoric as scary and dangerous. Experts on coups rejected that the Mueller investigation amounted to a coup; rather, the Fox News rhetoric was dangerous to democracy and mirrored the kind of rhetoric that occurs before purges. A number of observers argued the Fox News rhetoric was intended to discredit the Mueller investigation and sway President Donald Trump to fire Mueller.
In August 2018, Fox News was criticized for giving more prominent coverage of a murder committed by an undocumented immigrant than the convictions of Donald Trump's former campaign manager, Paul Manafort, and his long-term personal attorney, Michael Cohen. At the same time, most other national mainstream media gave wall-to-wall coverage of the convictions. Fox News hosts Dana Perrino and Jason Chaffetz argued that voters care far more about the murder than the convictions of the President's former top aides, and hosts Tucker Carlson and Sean Hannity downplayed the convictions.
False claims about other media
CNN's Jake Tapper
In November 2017, in the immediate aftermath of the 2017 New York City truck attack wherein a terrorist shouted "Allahu Akbar", Fox News distorted a statement by Jake Tapper to make it appear as if he had said "Allahu Akbar" can be used under the most "beautiful circumstances". Fox News omitted that Tapper had said the use of "Allahu Akbar" in the terrorist attack was not one of these beautiful circumstances. A headline on FoxNews.com was preceded by a tag reading "OUTRAGEOUS". The Fox News Twitter account distorted the statement even more, saying "Jake Tapper Says 'Allahu Akbar' Is 'Beautiful' Right After NYC Terror Attack" in a tweet that was later deleted. Tapper chastised Fox News for choosing to "deliberately lie" and said "there was a time when one could tell the difference between Fox and the nutjobs at Infowars. It's getting tougher and tougher. Lies are lies." Tapper had in 2009, while a White House correspondent for ABC News, come to the defense of Fox News when Obama criticized the network for not being a legitimate news organization.
Fox News guest host Jason Chaffetz apologized to Tapper for misrepresenting his statement. After Fox News had deleted the tweet, Sean Hannity repeated the misrepresentation and called Tapper "liberal fake news CNN's fake Jake Tapper" and mocked his ratings.
The New York Times
In July 2017, a report by Fox & Friends falsely said The New York Times had disclosed intelligence in one of its stories and that this intelligence disclosure helped Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the leader of the Islamic State, to evade capture. The report cited an inaccurate assertion by Gen. Tony Thomas, the head of the United States Special Operations Command, that a major newspaper had disclosed the intelligence. Fox News said it was the New York Times, repeatedly running the chyron "NYT Foils U.S. Attempt To Take Out Al-Bahgdadi". Pete Hegseth, one of the show's hosts, criticized the "failing New York Times". President Donald Trump tweeted about the Fox & Friends report shortly after it first aired, saying "The Failing New York Times foiled U.S. attempt to kill the single most wanted terrorist, Al-Baghdadi. Their sick agenda over National Security." Fox News later updated the story, but without apologizing to the New York Times or responding directly to the inaccuracies.
In a Washington Post column, Erik Wemple said Chris Wallace had covered The New York Times story himself on Fox News Sunday. "Here's another case of the differing standards between Fox News's opinion operation", which has given "a state-run vibe on all matters related to Trump", compared to Fox News's news operation, which has provided "mostly sane coverage".
Fox News has widely been described as a major platform for climate change denial. According to the fact-checking website Climate Feedback, Fox News is part of "a network of unreliable outlets for climate news." A 2011 study found Fox News "takes a more dismissive tone toward climate change than CNN and MSNBC". A 2008 study found Fox News emphasized the scientific uncertainty of climate change more than CNN, was less likely to say climate change was real, and more likely to interview climate change skeptics. Leaked emails showed that in 2009 Bill Sammon, the Fox News Washington managing editor, instructed Fox News journalists to dispute the scientific consensus on climate change: "refrain from asserting that the planet has warmed (or cooled) in any given period without IMMEDIATELY pointing out that such theories are based upon data that critics have called into question."
According to climate scientist Michael E. Mann, Fox News "has constructed an alternative universe where the laws of physics no longer apply, where the greenhouse effect is a myth, and where climate change is a hoax, the product of a massive conspiracy among scientists, who somehow have gotten the polar bears, glaciers, sea levels, superstorms, and megadroughts to play along." According to James Lawrence Powell's 2011 study of the climate science denial movement, Fox News provides "the deniers with a platform to say whatever they like without fear of contradiction." Fox News employs Steve Milloy, a prominent climate change denier with close financial and organizational ties to oil companies, as a contributor. In his columns about climate change for FoxNews.com, Fox News has failed to disclose his substantial funding from oil companies.
In 2011, the hosts of Fox & Friends described climate change as "unproven science", a "disputed fact", and criticized the Department of Education for working together with Nickelodeon to teach children about climate change. In 2001, Sean Hannity described the scientific consensus on climate change as "phony science from the left". In 2004, he falsely alleged, "scientists still can't agree on whether the global warming is scientific fact or fiction". In 2010, Hannity said the so-called "Climategate" – the leaking of e-mails by climate scientist that climate change skeptics claimed demonstrated scientific misconduct but which all subsequent enquiries have found no evidence of misconduct or wrongdoing – a "scandal" that "exposed global warming as a myth cooked up by alarmists". Hannity frequently invites contrarian fringe scientists and critics of climate change to his shows. In 2019, a widely shared Fox News news report falsely claimed that new climate science research showed that the Earth might be heading to a new Ice Age; the author of the study that Fox News cited said that Fox News "utterly misrepresents our research" and the study did not in any way suggest that Earth was heading to an Ice Age. Fox News later corrected the story.
Shepard Smith has drawn attention for being one of few voices on Fox News to forcefully state that climate change is real, that human activities are a primary contributor to it and that there is a scientific consensus on the issue. His acceptance of the scientific consensus on climate change has drawn criticism from Fox News viewers and conservatives.
Murder of Seth Rich conspiracy
On May 16, 2017, a day when other news organizations were extensively covering Donald Trump's revelation of classified information to Russia, Fox News ran a lead story about a private investigator's uncorroborated claims about the murder of Seth Rich, a DNC staffer. The private investigator said he had uncovered evidence that Rich was in contact with Wikileaks and law enforcement were covering it up. The killing of Rich has given rise to conspiracy theories in rightwing circles that Hillary Clinton and the Democratic Party had Seth Rich killed allegedly because he was the source of the DNC leaks. U.S. intelligence agencies determined Russia was the source of the leaks. In reporting the investigator's claims, the Fox News report reignited right-wing conspiracy theories about the killing.
The Fox News story fell apart within hours. Other news organizations quickly revealed the investigator was a Donald Trump supporter and had according to NBC News "developed a reputation for making outlandish claims, such as one appearance on Fox News in 2007 in which he warned that underground networks of pink pistol-toting lesbian gangs were raping young women." The family of Seth Rich, the Washington D.C. police department, the Washington D.C. mayor's office, the FBI, and law enforcement sources familiar with the case rebuked the investigator's claims. The family said, "We are a family who is committed to facts, not fake evidence that surfaces every few months to fill the void and distract law enforcement and the general public from finding Seth's murderers." The spokesperson for the family criticized Fox News for its reporting, alleging the outlet was motivated by a desire to deflect attention from the Trump-Russia story: "I think there's a very special place in hell for people that would use the memory of a murder victim in order to pursue a political agenda." The family has called for retractions and apologies from Fox News for the inaccurate reporting. Over the course of the day, Fox News altered the contents of the story and the headline, but did not issue corrections. When CNN contacted the private investigator later that day, the investigator said he had no evidence that Rich had contacted Wikileaks. The investigator claimed he only learned about the possible existence of the evidence from a Fox News reporter. Fox News did not respond to inquiries by CNN, and the Washington Post. Fox News later on 23 May, seven days after the story was published, retracted its original report, saying the original report did not meet its standards.
Nicole Hemmer, then assistant professor at the Miller Center of Public Affairs, wrote that the promotion of the conspiracy theory demonstrated how Fox News was "remaking itself in the image of fringe media in the age of Trump, blurring the lines between real and fake news." Max Boot of the Council on Foreign Relations said while intent behind Fox News, as a counterweight to the liberal media was laudable, the culmination of those efforts have been to create an alternative news source that promotes hoaxes and myths, of which the promotion of the Seth Rich conspiracy is an example. Fox News was also criticized by conservative outlets, such as the Weekly Standard, National Review, and conservative columnists, such as Jennifer Rubin, Michael Gerson, and John Podhoretz.
Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville
Various Fox News hosts and contributors defended Trump's remarks that "many sides" were to blame for violence at a gathering of hundreds of white nationalists in Charlottesville, Virginia. Some criticized Trump. In a press conference on August 15, Trump used the term "alt-left" to describe counterprotesters at the white supremacist rally, a term which had been used in Fox News' coverage of the white supremacist rally. Several of Trump's comments at the press conference mirrored those appearing earlier on Fox News.
According to Dylan Byers of CNN, Fox News' coverage on the day of the press conference "was heavy with "whataboutism". The average Fox viewer was likely left with the impression that the media's criticism of Trump and leftist protestors' toppling of some Confederate statues were far greater threats to America than white supremacism or the president's apparent defense of bigotry." Byers wrote, "it showed that if Fox News has a line when it comes to Trump's presidency, it was not crossed on Tuesday."
Glenn Beck's comments about George Soros
During Glenn Beck's tenure at Fox News, he became one of the most high-profile proponents of conspiracy theories about George Soros, a Jewish Hungarian-American businessman and philanthropist known for his donations to American liberal political causes. Beck regularly described Soros as a "puppet-master" and used common anti-Semitic tropes to refer to Soros and his activities. In a 2010 three-part series, Beck depicted George Soros as a cartoonish villain trying to "form a shadow government, using humanitarian aid as a cover," and that Soros wanted a one-world government. Beck promoted the false and anti-Semitic conspiracy theory that Soros was a Nazi collaborator as a 14-year old in Nazi-occupied Hungary. Beck also characterized Soros's mother as a "wildly anti-Semitic" Nazi collaborator. According to The Washington Post, "Beck's series was largely considered obscene and delusional, if not outright anti-Semitic", but Beck's conspiracy theory became popular on the rightwing of American politics. Amid criticism of Beck's false smears, Fox News defended Beck, stating "information regarding Mr. Soros's experiences growing up were taken directly from his writings and from interviews given by him to the media, and no negative opinion was offered as to his actions as a child." Roger Ailes, then-head of Fox News, dismissed criticism levied at Beck by hundreds of rabbis, saying that they were "left-wing rabbis who basically don't think that anybody can ever use the word, Holocaust, on the air."
During the first few weeks of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic spread into the United States, Fox News was far more likely than other mainstream news outlets to promote misinformation about coronavirus. The network promoted the narrative that the emergency response to the pandemic was politically motivated or otherwise unwarranted, with one commentator even calling it a "hoax". This coverage was consistent with the messaging of Trump at the time. Only in mid March did the network change the tone of its coverage, after President Trump declared a national emergency.
Two of Fox News's commentators - Sean Hannity and Laura Ingraham - promoted use of the drug hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of Coronavirus - off-label usage which at the time was supported only by anecdotal evidence - after it was touted by Trump as a possible cure. As a result of this continued skewed reporting, Washington Post media critic Erik Wemple has called Hannity to be fired. Fox News promoted a conspiracy theory that coronavirus death toll numbers were inflated with people who would have died anyway from preexisting conditions. This was refuted by White House coronavirus task force members Dr. Anthony Fauci and Dr. Deborah Birx, with Fauci describing conspiracy theories as "nothing but distractions" during public health crises.
In a USA Today article, "Coronavirus: How Fox News and other right-wing media endanger our health", the author cited as an example, a Fox News interview with Arkansas Senator Tom Cotton who raised the "escaped virus conspiracy theory" by saying the coronavirus may have started in a "...biosafety level 4 super laboratory" in Wuhan, China. The article said that Cotton had mentioned the "debunked theory ... at least two other times on Fox." Several weeks later Washington Post columnist Josh Rogin detailed a 2018 trip made to the Wuhan Institute of Virology by scientists from the U.S. Embassy. Rogin cited cables sent back to Washington, warning "...about safety and management weaknesses at the WIV lab and that the lab's work on bat coronaviruses and their potential human transmission represented a risk of a new SARS-like pandemic." Rogin's article quoted Xiao Qiang, a research scientist at the University of California, Berkeley, "I don't think it's a conspiracy theory. I think it's a legitimate question that needs to be investigated and answered." Days later, multiple media outlets confirmed that U.S. intelligence officials were investigating the possibility that the virus started in the same lab Cotton cited during the Fox News interview.
At the same time that Fox News commentators downplayed the threat of the virus in public, Fox's management and the Murdoch family took a broad range of internal measures to protect themselves and their employees against it.
This section may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. (February 2018)
The network has been accused of permitting sexual harassment and racial discrimination by on-air hosts, executives, and employees, paying out millions of dollars in legal settlements. Prominent Fox News figures such as Roger Ailes, Bill O'Reilly and Eric Bolling were eventually fired after a multitude of women accused them of sexual harassment. At least four lawsuits alleged Fox News co-president Bill Shine ignored, enabled or concealed Roger Ailes' alleged sexual harassment. Fox News CEO Rupert Murdoch has dismissed the high-profile sexual misconduct allegations as "largely political" and speculated they were made "because we are conservative".
Bill O'Reilly and Fox News settled six agreements, totaling $45 million, with women who accused O'Reilly of sexual harassment. In January 2017, shortly after Bill O'Reilly settled a sexual harassment lawsuit for $32 million ("an extraordinarily large amount for such cases"), Fox News renewed Bill O'Reilly's contract. Fox News's parent company, 21st Century Fox, said it was aware of the lawsuit. The contract between O'Reilly and Fox News read he could not be fired from the network unless sexual harassment allegations were proved in court.
Fox News's extensive coverage of the Harvey Weinstein scandal in October 2017 was seen by some as hypocritical. Fox News dedicated at least 12 hours of coverage to the Weinstein scandal, yet only dedicated 20 minutes to Bill O'Reilly, who just like Weinstein had been accused of sexual harassment by a multitude of women. Indira Lakshmana, an expert in journalism ethics at the Poynter Institute, said "to devote hours of airtime to crowing about Weinstein's well-deserved downfall because of his liberal politics, while ignoring the massive, decades-long pattern of harassment by powerful men at Fox, is both hypocritical and sad". A few weeks later, when a number of women under the age of 18, including a 14-year old, accused Alabama Senate candidate Roy Moore of making sexual advances, Hannity dismissed the sexual misconduct allegations and dedicated coverage on his TV show to casting doubt on the accusers. Other prime-time Fox News hosts Tucker Carlson and Laura Ingraham questioned the Washington Post's reporting or opted to bring up sexual misconduct allegations regarding show business figures such as Harvey Weinstein and Louis C.K. Fox News figures Jeanine Pirro and Gregg Jarrett questioned both the validity of the Washington Post's reporting and that of the women. In December 2017, a few days before the Alabama Senate election, Fox News, along with the conspiracy websites Breitbart and Gateway Pundit, ran an inaccurate headline which claimed one of Roy Moore's accusers admitted to forging an inscription by Roy Moore in her yearbook; Fox News later added a correction to the story.
A number of Fox News hosts have welcomed Bill O'Reilly to their shows and paid tributes to Roger Ailes after his death. In May 2017, Hannity called Ailes "a second father" and said to Ailes's "enemies" that he was "preparing to kick your a** in the next life". Ailes had the year before been fired from Fox News after a number of women alleged he sexually harassed them. In September 2017, several months after Bill O'Reilly was fired from Fox News in the wake of a number of women alleging he sexually harassed them, Hannity hosted O'Reilly on his show. Some Fox News employees criticized the decision. According to CNN, during the interview, Hannity found kinship with O'Reilly as he appeared "to feel that he and O'Reilly have both become victims of liberals looking to silence them." Earlier, Hannity had dedicated extensive coverage to the Weinstein scandal.
Obama administration conflict
In September 2009, the Obama administration engaged in a verbal conflict with Fox News Channel. On September 20, President Barack Obama appeared on all major news programs except Fox News, a snub partially in response to remarks about him by commentators Glenn Beck and Sean Hannity and Fox coverage of Obama's health-care proposal.
In late September 2009, Obama senior advisor David Axelrod and Roger Ailes met in secret to attempt to smooth out tensions between the two camps. Two weeks later, White House chief of staff Rahm Emanuel referred to FNC as "not a news network" and communications director Anita Dunn said "Fox News often operates as either the research arm or the communications arm of the Republican Party". Obama observed, "If media is operating basically as a talk radio format, then that's one thing, and if it's operating as a news outlet, then that's another". Emanuel said it was important "to not have the CNNs and the others in the world basically be led in following Fox".
Within days, it was reported that Fox had been excluded from an interview with administration official Ken Feinberg, with bureau chiefs from the White House press pool (ABC, CBS, NBC, and CNN) coming to Fox's defense. A bureau chief said, "If any member had been excluded it would have been the same thing, it has nothing to do with Fox or the White House or the substance of the issues". Shortly after the story broke, the White House admitted to a low-level mistake, saying Fox had not made a specific request to interview Feinberg. Fox White House correspondent Major Garrett said he had not made a specific request, but had a "standing request from me as senior White House correspondent on Fox to interview any newsmaker at the Treasury at any given time news is being made".
On November 8, 2009, the Los Angeles Times reported an unnamed Democratic consultant was warned by the White House not to appear on Fox News again. According to the article, Dunn claimed in an e-mail to have checked with colleagues who "deal with TV issues" who denied telling anyone to avoid Fox. Patrick Caddell, a Fox News contributor and former pollster for President Jimmy Carter, said he had spoken with other Democratic consultants who had received similar warnings from the White House.
On October 2, 2013, Fox News host Anna Kooiman cited on the air a fake story from the National Report parody site, which claimed Obama had offered to keep the International Museum of Muslim Cultures open with cash from his own pocket.
Journalistic ethical standards
Fox News attracted controversy in April 2018 when it was revealed primetime host Sean Hannity had defended Trump's personal attorney Michael Cohen on air without disclosing that Cohen was Hannity's lawyer. On April 9, 2018, federal agents from the U.S. Attorney's office served a search warrant on Cohen's office and residence. On the air, Hannity defended Cohen and criticized the federal action, calling it "highly questionable" and "an unprecedented abuse of power". On April 16, 2018 in a court hearing, Cohen's lawyers told the judge that Cohen had ten clients in 2017–2018 but did "traditional legal tasks" for only three: Trump, Elliott Broidy, and a "prominent person" who did not wish to be named for fear of being "embarrassed". The federal judge ordered the revelation of the third client, whom Cohen's lawyers named as Hannity.
Hannity was not sanctioned by Fox News for this breach of journalistic ethics, with Fox News releasing a statement that the channel was unaware of Hannity's relationship to Cohen and that it had "spoken to Sean and he continues to have our full support." Media ethics experts said that Hannity's failure to disclose was a major breach of journalistic ethics and that the network should have suspended or fired him for it.
The Fox News Channel feed is available internationally via a number of providers, while Fox Extra segments provide alternate programming. Fox News is carried in more than 40 other countries.
In Australia, FNC is broadcast on the dominant pay television provider Foxtel, which is 65% owned by News Corp Australia, the Australian arm of News Corp and the sister company of FNC-owner Fox Corporation. Local cable news channel Sky News Australia is wholly owned by News Corp Australia and is therefore FNC's de facto sister channel, although has formal partnerships with FNC competitor CNN as well as both ABC News and CBS News.
Since 2002, FNC has been broadcast to Brazil; however, commercials are replaced with Fox Extra. It is available in packages of Vivo TV.
Fox had initially planned to launch a joint venture with Canwest's Global Television Network, tentatively named Fox News Canada, which would have featured a mixture of U.S. and Canadian news programming. As a result, the CRTC denied a 2003 application requesting permission for Fox News Channel to be carried in Canada. However, in March 2004, a Fox executive said the venture had been shelved; in November of that year, the CRTC added Fox News to its whitelist of foreign channels that may be carried by television providers.
See: United Kingdom & Ireland.
The channel's international feed is being carried by cable provider Izzi Telecom.
In the Netherlands, Fox News has been carried by cable providers UPC Nederland and CASEMA, and satellite provider Canaldigitaal; all have dropped the channel in recent years. At this time, only cable provider Caiway (available in a limited number of towns in the central part of the country) is broadcasting the channel. The channel was also carried by IPTV provider KNIPPR (owned by T-Mobile).
In New Zealand, FNC is broadcast on Channel 088 of pay satellite operator SKY Network Television's digital platform. It was formerly broadcast overnight on free-to-air UHF New Zealand TV channel Prime (owned by SKY); this was discontinued in January 2010, reportedly due to an expiring broadcasting license. Fox News' former parent company News Corporation had a stake in both SKY and Prime until 2014.
Between 2003 and 2006, in Sweden and the other Scandinavian countries, FNC was broadcast 16 hours a day on TV8 (with Fox News Extra segments replacing U.S. advertising). Fox News was dropped by TV8 and replaced by German news channel Deutsche Welle in September 2006.
United Kingdom and Ireland
FNC was also carried in the United Kingdom by Sky, which was 40-percent owned by 21st Century Fox at the time, and operates its own domestic news channel Sky News. On August 29, 2017, Sky dropped Fox News; the broadcaster said its carriage was not "commercially viable" due to average viewership of fewer than 2,000 viewers per day. The company said the decision was unrelated to 21st Century Fox's proposed acquisition of the remainder of Sky plc (which ultimately led to a bidding war that resulted in its acquisition by Comcast instead).
The potential co-ownership had prompted concerns from critics of the deal, who felt Sky News could similarly undergo a shift to an opinionated format with a right-wing viewpoint. However, such a move would violate Ofcom broadcast codes, which requires all news programming to show due impartiality. The channel's broadcasts in the country have violated this rule on several occasions, while the channel also violated election silence rules by broadcasting analysis of the 2016 Brexit referendum while polls were still open (the channel was blacked out while polls were open during the 2017 general election to comply with the rule).
- Bret Baier
- Maria Bartiromo
- Jedediah Bila
- Shannon Bream
- Tucker Carlson
- Neil Cavuto
- Lou Dobbs
- Steve Doocy
- Ainsley Earhardt
- Harris Faulkner
- Melissa Francis
- Greg Gutfeld
- Sean Hannity
- Pete Hegseth
- Bill Hemmer
- Steve Hilton
- Laura Ingraham
- Brian Kilmeade
- Howard Kurtz
- Harvey Levin
- Mark Levin
- Martha MacCallum
- Jillian Mele
- Arthel Neville
- Dana Perino
- Jeanine Pirro
- Rob Schmitt
- Jon Scott
- Eric Shawn
- Sandra Smith
- Leland Vittert
- Chris Wallace
- Jesse Watters
- Juan Williams
Correspondents and substitute anchors
- Manny Alvarez
- Julie Banderas
- Ellison Barber
- Christine Clayburg
- Claudia Cowan
- Janice Dean
- Peter Doocy
- Mike Emanuel
- Kristin Fisher
- Lea Gabrielle
- Trace Gallagher
- Anna Gilligan
- Lauren Green
- Jennifer Griffin
- Benjamin Hall
- Molly Henneberg
- Brit Hume
- Phil Keating
- Rick Leventhal
- Molly Line
- Bryan Llenas
- Dagen McDowell
- Hollie McKay
- Andrew Napolitano
- Kate Obenshain
- Charles Payne
- Katie Pavlich
- Geraldo Rivera
- John Roberts
- Eric Shawn
- Carley Shimkus
Regular guests and contributors
- Keith Ablow
- Mike Baker
- Guy Benson
- Donna Brazile
- Tammy Bruce
- Rep. Jason Chaffetz
- Emily Compagno
- Mo Elleithee
- Ezekiel Emanuel
- Nigel Farage
- Ari Fleischer
- Steve Forbes
- Newt Gingrich
- Bernard Goldberg
- Jonah Goldberg
- Marie Harf
- Stephen Hayes
- Mollie Hemingway
- Steve Hilton
- Governor Mike Huckabee
- Charles Hurt
- Santita Jackson
- Robert Jeffress
- Dennis Kucinich
- Tomi Lahren
- John "Bradshaw" Layfield
- Rich Lowry
- Frank Luntz
- Leslie Marshall
- Dennis Miller
- Judith Miller
- Fr. Jonathan Morris
- Lt. Col. Oliver North
- Burgess Owens
- Candace Owens
- Katie Pavlich
- Charles Payne
- Karl Rove
- Sarah Sanders
- Nicole Saphier
- Mercedes Schlapp
- Douglas Schoen
- Ben Shapiro
- Marc Siegel
- Ben Stein
- Katherine Timpf
- Joe Trippi
- Jonathan Turley
- Stuart Varney
- Brett Velicovich
- Jason Whitlock
- Lis Wiehl
- Byron York
Former hosts and contributors
- Jim Angle
- Louis Aguirre (former morning host, now at WPLG in Miami)
- Dari Alexander (now at WNYW in New York City)
- Jennifer Ashton (now at ABC News)
- Tiki Barber (now with CBS Sports Network)
- Fred Barnes
- Rudi Bakhtiar (now PR Director for the Public Affairs Alliance of Iranian Americans)
- Glenn Beck (former afternoon host; now on TheBlaze)
- Bob Beckel (terminated amid racist remarks)
- Lisa Bernhard (entertainment correspondent)
- Tony Blankley (deceased)
- Eric Bolling (terminated amid sexual harassment allegations)
- John R. Bolton (left to become U.S. National Security Advisor)
- Dave Briggs (now at CNN)
- Patti Ann Browne
- Scott Brown
- Eric Burns (not renewed)
- Brenda Buttner (deceased)
- Patrick Caddell (deceased)
- Joseph A. Cafasso (stepped down over allegations he overrepresented his military record)
- Herman Cain (deceased)
- Carl Cameron (retired in August 2017)
- Alisyn Camerota (now at CNN)
- Gretchen Carlson
- Ben Carson (joined Trump cabinet)
- Steve Centanni (retired in August 2014)
- Liz Cheney (now in public service)
- Kiran Chetry (later worked for CNN)
- Wesley Clark (now at CNN)
- Alan Colmes (deceased)
- Rita Cosby (later worked at MSNBC)
- Catherine Crier (now at TruTV)
- Monica Crowley
- S. E. Cupp (now at CNN)
- Stacey Dash (not renewed)
- Jill Dobson
- Laurie Dhue (not renewed)
- Matt Drudge
- Darby Dunn (now at CNBC)
- Erick Erickson (now at WSB Radio in Atlanta)
- Donna Fiducia (no longer active in cable news industry, went into Georgia real estate)
- Rick Folbaum (now at WFOR-TV)
- Harold Ford, Jr. (now at MSNBC)
- Courtney Friel (now at KTLA-TV)
- Neal Gabler
- Major Garrett (now at CBS News)
- Heather Childers
- John Gibson
- Alexis Glick (left Fox Business in December 2009; now at CNN)
- Wendell Goler (deceased)
- Kimberly Guilfoyle
- Mary Katharine Ham (now at CNN)
- Elisabeth Hasselbeck
- Ed Henry (terminated amid sexual harassment allegations)
- Catherine Herridge (now at CBS News)
- E. D. Hill (now at CNN)
- Marc Lamont Hill (now at BET and CNN)
- Kit Hoover (now at TLC)
- Margaret Hoover (now at PBS and CNN)
- Page Hopkins (left network September 26, 2008; now at MSNBC)
- Adam Housley
- Juliet Huddy (now at WABC Radio)
- Abby Huntsman (now on The View on ABC)
- Carol Iovanna (now runs production company)
- Marvin Kalb (not renewed)
- John Kasich (later served two terms as Governor of Ohio from 2011 to 2019)
- Terry Keenan (deceased)
- Greg Kelly (now at Newsmax TV)
- Megyn Kelly (moved to NBC News; left NBC in January 2019)
- Mort Kondracke
- Anna Kooiman (now at Network 10)
- Charles Krauthammer (deceased)
- Bill Kristol
- Jenna Lee
- Andy Levy (now at HLN)
- Dana Lewis (now at WSAW-TV in Wausau)
- G. Gordon Liddy
- Rachel Marsden (contributor and Red Eye panelist; now lives in France)
- Meghan McCain (now on The View on ABC)
- Bill McCuddy
- Zell Miller
- Maria Molina
- Clayton Morris
- Dick Morris (contributor, not renewed)
- Heather Nauert (now Senior Fellow at the Hudson Institute)
- Scottie Nell Hughes (terminated)
- Joanne Nosuchinsky
- Robert Novak (deceased)
- Bill O'Reilly (terminated amid sexual harassment allegations)
- Barbara Olson (killed in the September 11 attacks in 2001)
- Morgan Ortagus (now U.S. State Department Spokesperson)
- Lt. Col. Ralph Peters
- Uma Pemmaraju
- Julian Phillips
- Kirsten Powers (now at CNN)
- Elizabeth Prann (now at HLN)
- Judith Regan
- Julie Roginsky
- Ed Rollins (not renewed)
- James Rosen (now at the Sinclair Broadcast Group)
- Rick Santorum (now with CNN)
- Mike Schneider (left for Bloomberg Television, most recently at NJTV)
- Laura Schwartz
- Bob Sellers (was morning co-anchor at WZTV in Nashville until 2016)
- Suzanne Sena
- David Shuster (now at i24NEWS)
- Jane Skinner
- Shepard Smith (resigned)
- Tony Snow (became White House Press Secretary, deceased)
- John Stossel
- Andrea Tantaros
- Cal Thomas (not renewed)
- Greta Van Susteren (left for MSNBC, now at Gray Television)
- Linda Vester
- George Will (now at NBC News and MSNBC)
- Brian Wilson (presently morning drive time host on WMAL-FM)
- Paula Zahn (left for CNN, now at Investigation Discovery)
- "Corporate Information". FoxNews.com. Fox News Network, LLC. Retrieved July 11, 2020.
- DellaVigna, Stefano; Kaplan, Ethan (August 1, 2007). "The Fox News Effect: Media Bias and Voting". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 122 (3): 1187–1234. doi:10.1162/qjec.122.3.1187. ISSN 0033-5533.
- Nie, Norman H.; Miller, Darwin W., III; Golde, Saar; Butler, Daniel M.; Winneg, Kenneth (2010). "The World Wide Web and the U.S. Political News Market". American Journal of Political Science. 54 (2): 428–439. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5907.2010.00439.x. ISSN 1540-5907.
- "Where in the World is FOX?". FoxNews.com. March 1, 2011. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- Mifflin, Lawrie (October 7, 1996). "At the new Fox News Channel, the buzzword is fairness, separating news from bias". The New York Times. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
- Richwine, Lisa; Gibson, Ginger (July 21, 2016). "Divisive Ailes gave conservatives a TV home at Fox News". Reuters. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- King, Angela G. (October 7, 1996). "Fox Hunts TV News Niche with Channel Debut Today". New York Daily News.
- Gillette, Felix (October 1, 2008). "Viewers Continuing to Flock to Cable News Networks". The New York Observer. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Bucholtz, Andrew (September 10, 2018). "Nielsen coverage estimates for September see gains at ESPN networks, NBCSN, and NBA TV, drops at MLBN and NFLN". Awful Announcing. Retrieved January 17, 2020.
- Joyella, Mark (December 11, 2019). "Fox News Ends 2019 With Biggest Prime Time Ratings Ever". Forbes. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
- Andreeva, Nellie; Johnson, Ted (December 27, 2019). "Cable Ratings 2019: Fox News Tops Total Viewers, ESPN Wins 18-49 Demo As Entertainment Networks Slide". Deadline. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
- Schneider, Michael (December 26, 2019). "Most-Watched Television Networks: Ranking 2019's Winners and Losers". Variety. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
- Steinberg, Brian (May 17, 2018). "Suzanne Scott Named CEO of Fox News". Variety. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
- Reilly, Katie (July 21, 2016). "Roger Ailes Resigns From Fox News Amid Sexual Harassment Accusations". TIME. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
Redden, Molly (July 21, 2016). "Roger Ailes leaves Fox News in wake of sexual harassment claims". The Guardian. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Skocpol, Theda; Williamson, Vanessa (September 1, 2016). The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 5, 8, 86, 123, 125, 130–140. ISBN 978-0-19063-366-0.
the challenge of spreading and germinating the Tea Party idea was surmounted with impressive ease because a major sector of the U.S. media today is openly partisan—including Fox News Channel, the right-wing "blogosphere," and a nationwide network of right- wing talk radio programs. This aptly named conservative media "echo chamber" reaches into the homes of many Americans ... Towering above all others is the Fox News empire, the loudest voice in conservative media. Despite its claim to be "fair and balanced," multiple studies have documented FNC's conservative stance ... Fox News's conservative slant encourages a particular worldview.
- Jamieson, Kathleen Hall; Cappella, Joseph N. (February 4, 2010). Echo Chamber: Rush Limbaugh and the Conservative Media Establishment. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19539-860-1.
We do this to illustrate the ways Fox News, Limbaugh, and the print and web editorial pages of the Wall Street Journal play both offense and defense in service of conservative objectives. As these case studies will suggest, the big three reinforce each other's conservative messages in ways that distinguish them from the other major broadcast media, CBS News, NBC News, ABC News, CNN, MSNBC, CNBC and major print outlets such as the Washington Post and New York Times.
- Grossman, Matt; Hopkins, David A. (October 13, 2016). Asymmetric Politics: Ideological Republicans and Group Interest Democrats. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-19062-660-0.
- Kludt, Tom (February 28, 2018). "Fox News has avoided talking about Jared Kushner's security clearance". CNN Money. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
The network claims a uniquely powerful role in the pro-Trump echo chamber, setting the agenda for both the president and his millions of supporters. In this vein, Trump is rarely cast in an unfavorable light and the so called "mainstream media" draws little praise. Bad news, like the one surrounding Kushner, routinely gets glossed over.
- Collings, Anthony (2010). Capturing the News: Three Decades of Reporting Crisis and Conflict. University of Missouri Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-8262-7211-9.
- McCollum, Jonathan; Hebert, David G. (2014). Theory and Method in Historical Ethnomusicology. Lexington Books. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-4985-0705-9.
- Memmott, Mark (September 2, 2004). "Fox newspeople say allegations of bias unfounded". USA Today. Archived from the original on November 23, 2010. Retrieved August 15, 2009.
"White House Escalates War of Words With Fox News". Fox News. October 12, 2009. Archived from the original on November 22, 2010. Retrieved October 12, 2009.
- Mayer, Jane (March 4, 2019). "The Making of the Fox News White House". The New Yorker. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Boot, Max (August 8, 2017). "Fox News Has Completed Its Transformation Into Trump TV". Foreign Policy. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Lenzner, Robert (May 5, 1985). "Murdoch, partner plan 4th network". The Boston Globe. p. 1 – via nl.newsbank.
The six stations cover many of the nation's major markets – New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Dallas, Houston and Washington.
- "$55.9 Million Fox Film Loss". The New York Times. July 11, 1985. p. D19. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- "Turnaround for Fox Film". Chicago Tribune. July 17, 1986. Archived from the original on November 5, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Shah, Saeed (September 24, 2002). "Business Analysis: Unstoppable Sky machine rolls on as ITV troubles worsen Dawn Airey's free-to-air television experience will be invaluable to BSkyB as it moves beyond its pay-TV model". The Independent. p. 21. Archived from the original on May 8, 2013. Retrieved October 17, 2019 – via Highbeam.com.
- Schulberg, Pete (July 15, 1994). "Fox is a business, if not artistic, success". The Oregonian. p. E1.
Braxton, Greg (April 6, 1997). "How Fox broke from the pack to become cutting-edge network". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on May 15, 2007. Retrieved October 17, 2019 – via Highbeam.com.
- Williams, Scott (January 31, 1996). "Murdoch taps Ailes for new network; Former CNBC chief set to direct 24-hour news channel, take on CNN". Associated Press. Retrieved October 17, 2019 – via nl.newsbank.
- Mifflin, Lawrie (October 7, 1996). "At the new Fox News Channel, the buzzword is fairness, separating news from bias". The New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- Katz, Richard (May 1996). "Bold grab for subs: Murdoch offers $11 to carry Fox News". Multichannel News. Archived from the original on November 23, 2010. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
- Landler, Mark (October 4, 1996). "Giuliani Pressures Time Warner to Transmit a Fox Channel". The New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- Levy, Clifford J. (October 5, 1996). "City Hall Threatens Action if Time Warner Rejects Channel". The New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- Dudak, Gary (September 11, 2012). "11 Direct Effects 9/11 Had on the Sports and Entertainment Industries". Mandatory.com. Archived from the original on September 20, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
- "ITN Archive Becomes ITN Source". FOCAL International. June 19, 2006. Retrieved April 28, 2017.
- Stelter, Brian (October 11, 2009). "Fox's Volley With Obama Intensifying". The New York Times. Retrieved November 16, 2009.
- Reynolds, Mike (April 29, 2008). "Fox News to make HD bow with Time Warner". Multichannel News. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved August 15, 2009.
- Christians, Clifford G.; Fackler, Mark; Richardson, Kathy Brittan; Kreshel, Peggy & Woods, Robert H. (October 4, 2016). Media Ethics: Cases and Moral Reasoning. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-13484-156-1.
- "Fox News Latino". November 23, 2015. Archived from the original on December 1, 2015.
- Hansell, Saul (February 15, 2009). "For Talking Heads, a Spot to Relax and Sip Coffee, on Webcam". The New York Times. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- "Welcome to the Fox Nation". Foxnews.com. March 30, 2009. Archived from the original on April 2, 2009. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- "Fox News Mobile website". Foxnews.com. June 12, 2008. Archived from the original on November 3, 2010. Retrieved August 15, 2009.
- "War coverage lifts News Corp". BBC News. August 13, 2003. Archived from the original on May 12, 2011. Retrieved November 29, 2005.
- "FNC's 25-54 Prime "Downward Spiral"". TVNewser. April 26, 2005. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
"Cable TV: Content Analysis". The State of the News Media. 2005. Archived from the original on August 3, 2010. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- "Competitive Program Ranker (M-F 6a-11p programs)" (PDF). TVNewser. April 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2007. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Guthrie, Marisa (April 1, 2008). "Fox News Channel Leads in 2007 Cable News Ratings". Broadcasting & Cable. Archived from the original on September 14, 2008. Retrieved August 27, 2010.
- Crupi, Anthony (January 27, 2010). "Fox News Channel tops USA in cable ratings". Reuters. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Krashinsky, Susan (June 15, 2010). "'Fox News North' primed for launch". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on June 16, 2010. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- "Press Accuracy Rating Hits Two-Decade Low". Pew Research Center. September 14, 2009. Archived from the original on November 7, 2010. Retrieved September 16, 2009.
- "Fox News' Credibility Declines" (PDF). Public Policy Polling. February 6, 2013. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- O'Connell, Michael (October 23, 2012). "Final Debate Breaks Fox News Ratings Record With 11.5 Million, Topping Cable Competition". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
Patten, Dominic (October 23, 2012). "UPDATE: 59.2M Watch Final Presidential Debate; NBC Wins Coverage Battle". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Flint, Joe (October 23, 2012). "Fox News scores big ratings win". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- "Fox News Tops All Cable For 1st Time Since 2005". Deadline Hollywood. April 23, 2007. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
- "Fox News Channel Tops Cable News Ratings In January". Deadline Hollywood. January 28, 2014. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
- O'Connell, Michael (September 30, 2014). "Fox News Nabs Historic Cable Ratings Victory". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
- Zurawik, David (November 17, 2014). "New level of Fox News dominance demands analysis, not dismissal". Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on February 6, 2015. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
- Stelter, Brian (August 7, 2015). "Fox's GOP debate had record 24 million viewers". CNN Money. Retrieved August 8, 2015.
- Umstead, R. Thomas (January 2, 2019). "Fox News Ends 2018 as Most Watched Cable Network". Multichannel News. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
- Joyella, Mark. "Fox News Has Highest-Rated Quarter In Network's History". Forbes. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- Flood, Brian. "Fox News Channel ratings for first quarter of 2020 are the highest in network history". Fox News. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- Carter, Bill (July 22, 2013). "Fox Viewers May Be Graying, but Their Passion Still Pays". The New York Times. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Saba, Jennifer (April 4, 2017). "Fox Scandals May Weaken Murdochs' TV Future". The New York Times. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
- "In Changing News Landscape, Even Television is Vulnerable: Section 4: Demographics and Political Views of News Audiences". Pew Research Center. September 27, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Saad, Lydia (July 8, 2013). "TV Is Americans' Main Source of News". Gallup. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
Two-thirds of core Fox News viewers identify themselves as Republican, and 94% either identify as or lean Republican.
- Grynbaum, Michael M. (June 14, 2017). "Fox News Drops 'Fair and Balanced' Motto". The New York Times. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
- Sheffield, Matthew (June 15, 2017). "Fox News no longer "fair and balanced" as network sheds longtime slogan". Salon. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
- de Moraes, Lisa (August 12, 2003). "Three Little Words: Fox News Sues". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Hirschkorn, Phil (August 22, 2003). "Fox News loses attempt to block satirist's book". CNN. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Coyle, Jake (July 19, 2004). "Advocacy Groups Challenge Fox News Slogan". Associated Press.
- "Cancellation Petition" (PDF). Trademark Trial and Appeal Board. December 22, 2003. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- "Fox News drops 'fair and balanced' slogan without announcement". BBC News. June 15, 2017. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
- "Fox News Debuts New Slogan: 'Real News. Real Honest Opinion.'". The Daily Beast. March 12, 2018. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
- Balluck, Kyle (March 12, 2018). "Fox News launching new ad campaign: 'Real news. Real honest opinion'". The Hill. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
- Wemple, Erik (November 9, 2017). "Opinion - Why has Fox News abandoned Benghazi?". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- Savillo, Rob; Groch-Begley, Hannah (September 9, 2014). "Report: Fox's Benghazi Obsession By The Numbers". Media Matters. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- "Whatever happened to the Benghazi investigation?". Fox News. June 29, 2018. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
- "Hannity: Uranium One Deal 'One of the Biggest Scandals in American History'". Fox News. October 26, 2017. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
- Gertz, Matt (November 8, 2017). "Study: Fox spent nearly 12 hours pushing the Uranium One pseudoscandal over the last three weeks". Media Matters. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
- "Donald Trump Complete - Search Tweets, Speeches, Policies". Factbase. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
- Barbash, Fred (November 15, 2017). "Fox News's Shepard Smith debunks his network's favorite Hillary Clinton 'scandal,' infuriates viewers". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
- fb (November 15, 2017). "Fox News Reports: Sean Hannity Is a Liar". YouTube. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
- Tornoe, Rob (March 16, 2018). "Fox News fight: Shepard Smith, Sean Hannity trade insults". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
- Ecarma, Caleb (March 15, 2018). "Shepard Smith on Fox News 'Opinion Programming': Shows Exist 'Strictly to Be Entertaining'". Mediaite.com. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
- Azari, Julia (2016). "How the News Media Helped to Nominate Trump". Political Communication. 33 (4): 678–679. doi:10.1080/10584609.2016.1224417.
It makes sense to consider whether conservative media (namely, Fox News) function in this institutional capacity.
- Berry, Jeffrey M.; Sobieraj, Sarah (2014). The Outrage Industry: Political Opinion Media and the New Incivility. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 110–111. ISBN 978-0-19992-897-2.
As trade publication Broadcasting & Cable put it, Fox has created 'a clear and strong brand, and an unwavering commitment to stick with it. Viewers, advertisers and cable operators all know what they're getting.' 'Unwavering' is apt; no matter how much it is criticized for the ideological nature of its content, Fox remains unbowed. It continues to deliver a strong conservative perspective throughout its programming ... over the years Fox has actually moved further to the right.
- DellaVigna, Stefano; Kaplan, Ethan (August 1, 2007). "The Fox News Effect: Media Bias and Voting". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 122 (3): 1187–1234. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.333.4616. doi:10.1162/qjec.122.3.1187. ISSN 0033-5533.
The conservative Fox News Channel.
- Hemmer, Nicole (2016). Messengers of the Right: Conservative Media and the Transformation of American Politics. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-81222-430-6.
- Rydgren, Jens (2018). The Oxford Handbook of the Radical Right. Oxford University Press. p. 273. ISBN 978-0-19027-455-9.
The way the conservative media, especially Fox News, reported on the initial Tea Party demonstrations illuminates the momentum the media can give to a start-up movement. Fox became an amplifier of Tea Party activism and rhetoric, giving national momentum to its predominantly local demonstrations.
- La Monica, Paul (2009). Inside Rupert's Brain. Peter Lang. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-10101-659-6.
- "Articles by Jonathan Bernstein". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 11, 2018.
- Schwartz, Jason (November 21, 2017). "Fox adds another pro-Trump host". Politico. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
- Benkler, Yochai; Faris, Robert; Roberts, Hal (November 29, 2018). Epistemic Crisis. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oso/9780190923624.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19092-366-2.
- Benkler, Yochai; Faris, Robert; Roberts, Hal (November 29, 2018). The Fox Diet. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oso/9780190923624.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19092-366-2.
- Grossmann, Matt; Hopkins, David A. (2018). "From Fox News to Viral Views: The Influence of Ideological Media in the 2018 Elections". The Forum. 16 (4): 547–567. doi:10.1515/for-2018-0037. ISSN 1540-8884.
- Grossman, Matt; Hopkins, David A. (October 13, 2016). Asymmetric Politics: Ideological Republicans and Group Interest Democrats. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 158–159. ISBN 978-0-19062-660-0.
- Jamieson, Kathleen Hall; Cappella, Joseph N. (February 4, 2010). Echo Chamber: Rush Limbaugh and the Conservative Media Establishment. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-19539-860-1.
- Major, Mark; Andersen, David J. (October 27, 2016). "Polls and Elections: Swift Boating Reconsidered: News Coverage of Negative Presidential Ads". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 46 (4): 891–910. doi:10.1111/psq.12324. ISSN 0360-4918.
- Skinner, Richard M. (January 10, 2005). "Do 527's Add Up to a Party? Thinking About the "Shadows" of Politics". The Forum. 3 (3). doi:10.2202/1540-8884.1098. ISSN 1540-8884.
- Berry, Jeffrey M.; Sobieraj, Sarah (2014). The Outrage Industry: Political Opinion Media and the New Incivility. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 156–160. ISBN 978-0-19992-897-2.
- Grossman, Matt; Hopkins, David A. (October 13, 2016). Asymmetric Politics: Ideological Republicans and Group Interest Democrats. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 178–179. ISBN 978-0-19062-660-0.
- Street, Paul; Dimaggio, Anthony R. (2015). Crashing the Tea Party: Mass Media and the Campaign to Remake American Politics. London, UK: Routledge. pp. 139–141. ISBN 978-1-31563-540-8.
- Meyer, David S.; Van Dyke, Nella, eds. (2014). Understanding the Tea Party Movement. London, UK: Routledge. pp. 41–42. ISBN 978-1-31554-908-8.
- Mudde, Cas; Kaltwasser, Cristóbal Rovira (2017). Populism: A Very Short Introduction. Very Short Introductions. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-19023-487-4.
- Schwartz, Jason (November 9, 2017). "Fox, facing new competitors, clings tighter to Trump". Politico. Retrieved November 9, 2017.
- Poniewozik, James (November 10, 2017). "President Trump Finds His TV Niche in Softball Interviews". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
- "Donald Trump's attacks on the media may have backfired". The Economist. July 30, 2018. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Grynbaum, Michael M. (November 12, 2017). "A Rightward Tilt and Big Ratings at Fox News". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 13, 2017.
- Schwartz, Jason (December 23, 2017). "Fox News website beefs up and 'goes a little Breitbart'". Politico. Retrieved December 23, 2017.
- Darcy, Oliver (March 8, 2018). "Pro-Trump media sweeps Stormy Daniels story under rug". CNN Money. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
- McLaughlin, Aidan (January 18, 2018). "Former Head of FoxNews.Com Denies Trump-Porn Star Story Was Ignored: 'Easy Call to Make'". Mediaite.com. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Groeling, Tim (December 1, 2008). "Who's the Fairest of them All? An Empirical Test for Partisan Bias on ABC, CBS, NBC, and Fox News". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 38 (4): 631–657. doi:10.1111/j.1741-5705.2008.02668.x. ISSN 1741-5705.
- Baum, Matthew A.; Groeling, Tim (2009). "Shot by the Messenger: Partisan Cues and Public Opinion regarding National Security and War". Political Behavior. 31 (2): 157–186. doi:10.1007/s11109-008-9074-9. JSTOR 40213343.
- Aday, Sean (February 25, 2010). "Chasing the Bad News: An Analysis of 2005 Iraq and Afghanistan War Coverage on NBC and Fox News Channel". Journal of Communication. 60 (1): 144–164. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2009.01472.x. eISSN 1460-2466. ISSN 0021-9916.
- Martin, Gregory J.; Ali, Yurukoglu (2017). "Bias in Cable News: Persuasion and Polarization" (PDF). American Economic Review. 107 (9): 2565–2599. doi:10.1257/aer.20160812. ISSN 0002-8282.
- Clinton, Joshua D.; Enamorado, Ted (October 1, 2014). "The National News Media's Effect on Congress: How Fox News Affected Elites in Congress". The Journal of Politics. 76 (4): 928–943. doi:10.1017/S0022381614000425. ISSN 0022-3816.
- Schroeder, Elizabeth; Stone, Daniel F. (June 1, 2015). "Fox News and political knowledge". Journal of Public Economics. 126: 52–63. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2015.03.009.
- Hopkins, Daniel J. (March 11, 2014). "The Consequences of Broader Media Choice: Evidence from the Expansion of Fox News". Quarterly Journal of Political Science. 9 (1): 115–135. doi:10.1561/100.00012099. ISSN 1554-0626.
- "Interview transcript: Rupert Murdoch and Roger Ailes". Financial Times. October 6, 2006. p. 1. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
"News Corp denies Fox News bias". The Age. Australian Associated Press. October 26, 2004. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
"Interview transcript: Rupert Murdoch and Roger Ailes". Financial Times. October 6, 2006. p. 2. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- "Exclusive: Jon Stewart on 'Fox News Sunday'". Fox News Video. June 19, 2011. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
Corn, David (June 20, 2011). "Did Chris Wallace Really Say Fox News Isn't Fair and Balanced?". Mother Jones. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
Johnston, Garth (June 21, 2011). "Jon Stewart: Chris Wallace Admitted Fox News Was Unbalanced". Gothamist. Archived from the original on February 24, 2015. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
Hayden, Erik (June 21, 2011). "Jon Stewart Dissects Chris Wallace's Fox News Logic". The Atlantic Wire. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
- Kurtz, Howard (July 11, 2004). "Tilting at the Right, Leaning to the Left". The Washington Post. p. D01. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Christians, Clifford G.; Fackler, Mark; Richardson, Kathy (2015). Media Ethics: Cases and Moral Reasoning. Routledge. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-317-34652-4.
- MacNicol, Glynnis (December 9, 2010). "Leaked Fox News Memo Reveals News Division Told To Echo GOP Talking Point". Business Insider. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
- "Fox News Viewed as Most Ideological Network". Pew Research Center. October 29, 2009. Archived from the original on November 6, 2010. Retrieved August 27, 2010.
- "Bottom-Line Pressures Now Hurting Coverage, Say Journalists: Overview". Pew Research Center. May 23, 2004. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
- "Americans See Liberal Media Bias on TV News". Rasmussen Reports. July 13, 2007. Retrieved August 27, 2010.
- Carr, David (November 11, 2012). "For One Night at Fox, News Tops Agenda". The New York Times. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Cox, Jeff (May 19, 2017). "Trump Press Coverage 'Sets New Standard' for Negativity: Study". CNBC. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
- Richardson, Valerie (May 19, 2017). "Harvard Agrees: Trump Press Coverage Sets 'New Standard for Negativity'". The Washington Times. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
- Grynbaum, Michael M. (March 17, 2017). "Fox's Andrew Napolitano Stirred the Pot for Trump's British Tempest". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 21, 2017.
- Napolitano, Andrew (March 16, 2017). "Did Obama spy on Trump?". Fox News. Retrieved March 21, 2017.
- Baker, Peter; Erlanger, Steven (March 17, 2017). "Trump Offers No Apology for Claim on British Spying". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 21, 2017.
- Battaglio, Stephen (March 20, 2017). "Fox News pulls Judge Napolitano over his Trump wiretap claims". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved March 21, 2017.
- Schwartz, Jason (June 27, 2018). "New Fox chief cracks down on inflammatory statements". Politico. Retrieved June 28, 2018.
- Rosenberg, Eli (October 12, 2018). "Fox swooned over Kanye West at the White House. Here's how it covered rappers visiting Obama". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
- Stelter, Brian (November 5, 2018). "'Special Guest' Sean Hannity to appear at Trump rally". CNN. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
- Hannity, Sean [@seanhannity] (November 6, 2018). "To be clear..." (Tweet). Archived from the original on November 6, 2018. Retrieved November 6, 2018 – via Twitter.
- Darcy, Oliver (November 6, 2018). "'It disturbs me to my core': Fox News staffers express outrage over Hannity's rally appearance". CNN. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
- McLaughlin, Aidan (November 6, 2018). "Fox News Responds to Hannity at Trump Rally: We Do 'Not Condone' This 'Unfortunate Distraction'". Mediaite.com. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
- "Rallies". DonaldJTrump.com.
- Blanton, Dana (June 14, 2019). "Fox News Poll: Voters doubt impeachment will happen". Fox News. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- "Fox News Poll, June 16, 2019". Fox News. Retrieved October 17, 2019 – via Scribd.
- Christopher, Tommy (June 17, 2019). "WATCH: Fox News Lies About Their Own Poll Showing 50 Percent Want Impeachment". Mediaite.com. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Trump, Donald J. [@realDonaldTrump] (June 17, 2019). "@FoxNews Polls are always bad for me. They were against Crooked Hillary also. Something weird going on at Fox" (Tweet). Retrieved October 17, 2019 – via Twitter.
- Rosenberg, Eli (October 31, 2017). "'This is a nothing burger': How conservative media reacted to the Mueller indictments". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Wemple, Erik (October 30, 2017). "Opinion; The Fox News-Murdoch effect: Mueller must resign! Or be fired!". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Kludt, Tom (October 30, 2017). "How Fox News is covering the toughest day of the Trump presidency". CNN Money. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Tani, Maxwell (October 31, 2017). "Trump allies can't stop accidentally referring to Hillary Clinton's nonexistent administration". Business Insider. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Choi, David (October 28, 2017). "Fox News host Sean Hannity has Twitter meltdown after report of Robert Mueller's first charges in the Russia probe". Business Insider. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Lizza, Ryan (October 28, 2017). "As Mueller Pushes Ahead, Trump Distracts". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Darcy, Oliver (October 31, 2017). "'I want to quit': Fox News employees say their network's Russia coverage was 'an embarrassment'". CNN Money. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Tani, Maxwell (October 31, 2017). "'I'm watching now and screaming': Fox News employees anonymously trash the network's Russia coverage". Business Insider. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Peters, Jeremy W. (November 3, 2017). "Alternative Narrative Emerges in Conservative Media as Russia Inquiry Widens". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 4, 2017.
- Waldman, Paul (October 27, 2017). "Opinion; The GOP strategy on the Russia scandal: 'No puppet. You're the puppet.'". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Lopez, German (October 30, 2017). "Trump's former campaign head was indicted and Fox News talked about cheeseburger emojis". Vox. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Mehta, Dhrumil (November 6, 2017). "All The Cable News Networks Are Covering The 'Russia Story' — Just Not The Same One". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved November 7, 2017.
- Chang, Alvin (October 31, 2017). "A week of Fox News transcripts shows how they began questioning Mueller's credibility". Vox. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
- Vernon, Pete (December 18, 2017). "The media today: Fox News's intensifying anti-Mueller rhetoric raises concerns". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved December 18, 2017.
- Schmidt, Samantha (December 18, 2017). "A 'coup in America?' Fox News escalates anti-Mueller rhetoric". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved December 18, 2017.
- Beavers, Olivia (December 17, 2017). "Fox News host called 'irresponsible' after suggesting US facing a 'coup' from Mueller". The Hill. Retrieved December 18, 2017.
- Hart, Benjamin (December 17, 2017). "Jesse Watters Says We May 'Have a Coup on Our Hands in America'". Daily Intelligencer. Retrieved December 18, 2017.
- Borchers, Callum (December 18, 2017). "Analysis: Trump gets conflicting advice about firing Mueller from Sean Hannity and 'Fox & Friends'". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved December 18, 2017.
- Bowden, John (December 19, 2017). "Fox guest floats possibility of FBI assassination plot against Trump". The Hill. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
- Swenson, Kyle (December 20, 2017). "Fox News contributor, channeling Alex Jones, suggests FBI plot to assassinate Trump". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Heer, Jeet (December 18, 2017). "Trump Is Sabotaging the Russia Investigation—With Fox News' Help". The New Republic. Retrieved December 18, 2017.
- Relman, Eliza (August 21, 2018). "Fox News slammed for covering the killing of a college student more prominently than the convictions of 2 top Trump aides". Business Insider. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
- Levine, Jon (August 22, 2018). "Fox News Slammed for Covering Tooth Fairy Over Paul Manafort, Michael Cohen Convictions". TheWrap. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
- Cummings, William (August 22, 2018). "Fox News host says Manafort and Cohen crimes can't sway votes like Tibbetts murder". USA Today. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
- Tani, Maxwell (August 22, 2018). "Fox News Hosts Wave Off Cohen Plea as 'Nothing That Matters'". The Daily Beast. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
- Abadi, Mark (November 2, 2017). "Jake Tapper slams Fox News for misrepresenting comments about New York City terror attack". Business Insider. Retrieved November 2, 2017.
- Tornoe, Rob (November 2, 2017). "Jake Tapper feuds with Fox News, Sean Hannity over 'Allahu Akbar' comments". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved November 2, 2017.
- Balluck, Kyle (November 2, 2017). "Tapper hits Fox, Hannity over 'Allahu Akbar' comments after NY terror attack". The Hill. Retrieved November 2, 2017.
- Gordon, Michael R. (July 23, 2017). "How Trump Got It Wrong in Saying The Times 'Foiled' Killing of ISIS Leader". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
"NY Times requests Fox News apology for 'malicious and inaccurate segment'". The Guardian. Associated Press. July 24, 2017. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
Disis, Jill (July 24, 2017). "Why The New York Times wants an apology from Fox News". CNN Money. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- Bromwich, Jonah Engel (July 24, 2017). "New York Times Asks Fox for Apology After 'Inaccurate Segment'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- Wemple, Erik (July 24, 2017). "'Fox & Friends' issues 'update' on New York Times-ISIS flap. No apology". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- Dryzek, John S.; Norgaard, Richard B.; Schlosberg, David (October 24, 2013). Climate-Challenged Society. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-19966-011-7.
- "False claims of a coming ice age spread through ecosystem of unreliable news sites, blogs, and social media accounts". Climate Feedback. November 21, 2018. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
- Mann, Michael E.; Toles, Tom (2016). The Madhouse Effect: How Climate Change Denial Is Threatening Our Planet, Destroying Our Politics, and Driving Us Crazy. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-23154-181-7.
- Powell, James Lawrence (2011). The Inquisition of Climate Science. Columbia University Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-23152-784-2.
- Feldman, Lauren; Maibach, Edward W.; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Leiserowitz, Anthony (January 1, 2012). "Climate on Cable: The Nature and Impact of Global Warming Coverage on Fox News, CNN, and MSNBC" (PDF). The International Journal of Press/Politics. 17 (1): 3–31. doi:10.1177/1940161211425410. ISSN 1940-1612.
- Sandoval, Marisol (2014). From Corporate to Social Media: Critical Perspectives on Corporate Social Responsibility in Media and Communication Industries. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-41572-256-8.
- Oreskes, Naomi; Conway, Erik M. (2010). Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-60819-293-9.
- Nordyke, Kimberly (August 8, 2011). "'Fox & Friends' Slam SpongeBob SquarePants' 'Global Warming Agenda' (Video)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
- McKnight, David (December 1, 2010). "A change in the climate? The journalism of opinion at News Corporation". Journalism. 11 (6): 693–706. doi:10.1177/1464884910379704. ISSN 1464-8849.
- Page, Clarence (July 11, 2010). "Climate change heats up again". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on July 16, 2010. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
- Dryzek, John S.; Norgaard, Richard B.; Schlosberg, David (August 18, 2011). The Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society. OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19956-660-0.
- "Claim of a coming ice age misrepresents the study it relies on". Climate Feedback. November 1, 2019. Retrieved November 4, 2019.
- Guo, Jeff (June 2, 2017). "Fox News actually acknowledged that climate change is real". Vox. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Nuccitelli, Dana (August 17, 2015). "Fox News' inner struggle with climate misinformation". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- "Fox News viewers are gunning for Shep Smith. How will Fox News respond?". The Week. March 23, 2017. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Farhi, Paul (March 21, 2017). "Shepard Smith, the Fox News anchorman who drives the Fox News faithful crazy". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- "FACT CHECK: Did DNC Staffer Seth Rich Send 'Thousands of E-Mails' to WikiLeaks Before He Was Murdered?". Snopes.com. May 16, 2017. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
- Seitz-Wald, Alex (May 16, 2017). "DNC staffer's murder draws fresh conspiracy theories". NBC News. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
- Hermann, Peter (May 16, 2017). "Family of slain Seth Rich says reports that he fed DNC info to WikiLeaks are untrue". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
- Darcy, Oliver (May 16, 2017). "Story on DNC staffer's murder dominated conservative media -- hours later it fell apart". CNN Money. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
- "U.S. intel report identifies Russians who gave emails to WikiLeaks - officials". Reuters. January 6, 2017. Retrieved July 3, 2017.
- Darcy, Oliver (March 14, 2018). "Family of slain Democratic staffer Seth Rich sues Fox News". CNN Money. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
- Bromwich, Jonah Engel (May 17, 2017). "How the Murder of a D.N.C. Staffer Fueled Conspiracy Theories". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
- Darcy, Oliver (May 17, 2017). "Family of slain DNC staffer demands retraction and apology from Fox News, local TV station". CNN Money. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
- Waldron, Travis (May 18, 2017). "Fox Stands By DNC Murder Conspiracy Theory Even After Main Source Changes Story". Huffington Post. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- "Fox News retracts story alleging DNC staffer Seth Rich leaked information to WikiLeaks before death". Los Angeles Times. May 23, 2017. ISSN 0458-3035. Archived from the original on May 24, 2017. Retrieved May 23, 2017.
- Hemmer, Nicole (May 23, 2017). "The Breitbartization of Fox News". US News. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Boot, Max (May 22, 2017). "The Seth Rich 'Scandal' Shows That Fox News Is Morally Bankrupt". Foreign Policy. Retrieved May 23, 2017.
- McCormack, John (May 26, 2017). "Prime-Time Conspiracy Theory". Weekly Standard. Retrieved May 27, 2017.
- Geraghty, Jim (May 24, 2017). "The Facts of the Seth Rich Murder That Don't Support Conspiracy Theories". National Review. Retrieved May 27, 2017.
- French, David (May 24, 2017). "The Seth Rich Conspiracy Theory Is Shameful Nonsense". National Review. Retrieved May 27, 2017.
- Rubin, Jennifer (May 24, 2017). "Questions Fox and the right need to answer". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved May 27, 2017.
- Gerson, Michael (May 25, 2017). "The conservative mind has become diseased". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved May 29, 2017.
- Podhoretz, John (May 23, 2017). "The Shameless Conspiracy Theorizing Involving Seth Rich Must Stop". Commentary Magazine. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
- Grynbaum, Michael M. (August 15, 2017). "'Wow': Stunned TV Hosts Reacted in Real Time to Trump". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- Weigel, David (August 17, 2017). "In conservative media, an amen chorus defends Trump's comments on Charlottesville violence". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
- Byers, Dylan (August 16, 2017). "After Trump's Charlottesville remarks, Fox News focuses on the left and the media". CNN Money. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- Feinberg, Ashley (August 15, 2017). "Trump Cribbed His Charlottesville Press Conference Straight From Fox News". WIRED. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- Lee, Georgina (February 15, 2018). "FactCheck: Why the conspiracy theories about George Soros don't stack up". Channel 4 News. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
- Selk, Avi (May 30, 2018). "Debunking the George Soros-was-a-Jew-killing-Nazi conspiracy theory that Roseanne Barr spreads". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
- Mirkinson, Jack (November 11, 2010). "ADL Condemns Glenn Beck For 'Offensive,' 'Horrific' Attacks On George Soros (Video)". Huffington Post. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
- Emery, David (November 28, 2016). "Was George Soros an SS Officer or Nazi Collaborator during World War II?". Snopes. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Stelter, Brian (November 11, 2010). "Glenn Beck's Remarks About George Soros Criticized by A.D.L." The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
- Adams, Richard (November 18, 2010). "Fox News chief Roger Ailes apologises after describing NPR as 'Nazis'". The Guardian. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
- Motta, Matt. "How Right-Leaning Media Coverage of COVID-19 Facilitated the Spread of Misinformation in the Early Stages of the Pandemic". osf.io. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
- Darcy, Oliver (March 13, 2020). "How Fox News misled viewers about the coronavirus". CNN. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
- Rieger, JM (March 19, 2020). "Sean Hannity denied calling coronavirus a hoax nine days after he called coronavirus a hoax". Washington Post. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
- "On Fox News, suddenly a very different tune about the coronavirus". The Washington Post. 2020.
- Gabbatt, Adam (March 17, 2020). "'We have a responsibility': Fox News declares coronavirus a crisis in abrupt U-turn". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
- Rupar, Aaron (March 24, 2020). "Fox News's coronavirus coverage slid back off the rails spectacularly on Monday night". Vox. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
- Wemple, Erik (March 30, 2020). "Hannity must go". Washington Post. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
- Brewster, Jack (April 9, 2020). "A Fox News Conspiracy—Are Coronavirus Death Numbers Inflated?—Attacked By Fauci, Birx". Forbes. Retrieved April 11, 2020.
- Ramirez, Nikki Mccann. "Coronavirus: How Fox News and other right-wing media endanger our health". USA Today. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- Fordham, Evrie. "China 'still lying' about coronavirus outbreak: Sen. Tom Cotton". Fox News. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
- Rogin, Josh. "State Department cables warned of safety issues at Wuhan lab studying bat coronaviruses". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
- Dilanian, Ken. "U.S. intel community examining whether coronavirus emerged accidentally from a Chinese lab". NBC News. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
- Strobel, Warren P. "U.S. Intelligence Sifts Evidence for Origins of Coronavirus". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
- Gazis, Olivia. "U.S. intelligence community still investigating origins of COVID-19 outbreak, including whether it was a lab accident". CBS News. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
- Campbell, Josh. "US explores possibility that coronavirus spread started in Chinese lab, not a market". CNN. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
- James, Meg (March 12, 2020). "Fox News addresses coronavirus threat internally as on-air talent faces criticism". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
- Fox News Promotes Stay-At-Home Protests While Staying At Home | All In | MSNBC. April 20, 2020.
- Smith, Ben (March 23, 2020). "As Fox News Played Down the Coronavirus, Its Chief Protected Himself". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
- Arciga, Julia (March 24, 2020). "Murdoch's 89th Birthday Party Canceled While Fox Downplayed Virus: NYT". Daily Beast. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
- Derysh, Igor (March 25, 2020). "Murdoch family took serious precautions against coronavirus as Fox News downplayed risk to public". Salon. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
- Noguchi, Yuki (April 19, 2017). "Fox News Turmoil Highlights Workplace Culture's Role In Sexual Harassment". NPR. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
Chappell, Bill (September 6, 2016). "Fox Will Pay Gretchen Carlson $20 Million To Settle Sexual Harassment Suit". NPR. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
Guthrie, Marisa (July 21, 2016). "Roger Ailes Resigns as Fox News Chief After Sexual Harassment Accusations". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
Ember, Sydney (April 25, 2017). "11 Sue Fox News, Citing 'Intolerable' Racial Bias". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
Steel, Emily; Schmidt, Michael S. (April 19, 2017). "Bill O'Reilly Is Forced Out at Fox News". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 28, 2017.
- Grynbaum, Michael M.; Steel, Emily (April 27, 2017). "Sean Hannity Defends Executive as Fox News Turmoil Continues". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
- Sakoui, Anousha (April 28, 2017). "Sean Hannity Defends Boss, Says Ouster Would Be End of Fox News". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
- Gabbatt, Adam (May 25, 2017). "Sean Hannity targets media watchdog amid questions over future at Fox News". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
- Lima, Cristiano (December 14, 2017). "Murdoch: Sexual harassment allegations against Fox News 'largely political'". Politico. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
- Steel, Emily; Schmidt, Michael S. (October 21, 2017). "Bill O'Reilly Settled New Harassment Claim, Then Fox Renewed His Contract". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
- "Fox News: Bill O'Reilly and Megyn Kelly clash over sex claims". BBC News. October 24, 2017. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
- Ruddick, Graham (November 8, 2017). "Fox News' Bill O'Reilly's contract 'shielded him from sex claims sacking'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved November 9, 2017.
- Rothschild, Neal (October 27, 2017). "Fox News has spent 35× more time on Weinstein than O'Reilly". Axios. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
- Bauder, David (October 26, 2017). "12 hours vs. 20 minutes: Fox News focuses on Weinstein harassment, ignoring O'Reilly". chicagotribune.com. Archived from the original on November 1, 2017. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
- Perper, Rosie (November 10, 2017). "Fox News host Sean Hannity: 'I was not totally clear' while defending Roy Moore over sexual misconduct report". Business Insider. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
- Madani, Doha (November 10, 2017). "Fox News Forgets Its Own Sexual Harassment Problem And Again Attacks Victims". Huffington Post. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
- Obeidallah, Dean (November 13, 2017). "SNL gets tough on Roy Moore, Fox News defends him". CNN. Retrieved November 13, 2017.
- Tobias, Manuela (December 8, 2017). "No, Roy Moore accuser didn't admit she forged signature". Politifact. Retrieved December 9, 2017.
- Park, Andrea (May 18, 2017). "Sean Hannity has message for Roger Ailes' enemies". CBS News. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
- Lejeune, Tristan (September 26, 2017). "Hannity to host O'Reilly Tuesday on Fox News". The Hill. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
- Darcy, Oliver (September 26, 2017). "Bill O'Reilly appears on Fox News for first time since his ouster". CNN Money. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
- "Bill O'Reilly returns to Fox as Sean Hannity's guest". USA Today. September 27, 2017. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
- Tani, Maxwell (October 11, 2017). "Sean Hannity goes on 10-minute rant about left's 'hypocrisy' on Harvey Weinstein, 2 weeks after having Bill O'Reilly on his show". Business Insider. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
- Stelter, Brian (October 12, 2009). "Fox's Volley With Obama Intensifying". The New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- "White House: Fox Pushed Team Obama Over the Brink". U.S. News & World Report. October 23, 2009. Archived from the original on May 5, 2010. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
- Feldmann, Linda (October 23, 2009). "The Fox News war: What's the upside for Obama?". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on October 28, 2009. Retrieved October 23, 2009.
- Rutenberg, Jim (October 23, 2009). "Behind the War Between White House and Fox". The New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- "President Obama's Feud with FOX News". CBS News. October 23, 2009. Archived from the original on July 21, 2012. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
- Rutten, Tim (October 24, 2009). "Obama's misguided Fox hunt". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 28, 2009. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- Bellantoni, Christina (October 23, 2009). "WH: We're Happy To Exclude Fox, But Didn't Yesterday With Feinberg Interview". TPMDC. Archived from the original on July 24, 2011. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
- Krakauer, Steve (October 27, 2009). "Finally Resolved? Major Garrett Reveals His Side of Pay Czar-Gate". Mediaite. Archived from the original on December 6, 2010. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
- Nicholas, Peter (November 8, 2009). "Democratic consultant says he got a warning from White House after appearing on Fox News". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on November 12, 2009. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- Pfeiffer, Eric (October 6, 2013). "Fox News mistakenly airs parody of Obama offering to personally fund Muslim museum". Yahoo! News. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Rivlin-Nadler, Max (October 5, 2013). "Fox News Falls For Fake Story Claiming Obama is Funding Muslim Museum". Gawker. Archived from the original on October 5, 2013. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
- Mikkelson, Barbara (October 5, 2013). "Obama Uses Own Money to Open Muslim Museum Amid Government Shutdown". Snopes. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
- Grynbaum, Michael M.; Koblin, John (April 17, 2018). "No Disclosure? No Problem. Sean Hannity Gets a Pass at Fox News". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
- Strobel, Warren; Walcott, John (April 10, 2018). "FBI raids offices, home of Trump's personal lawyer: sources". Reuters. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
- Winter, Tom; Edelman, Adam (April 16, 2018). "Fox News host Sean Hannity revealed as Michael Cohen's mystery client". NBC News. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
- Miller, Hayley; Blumberg, Antonia. "Identity Of Michael Cohen's 'Mystery' Client Revealed As Sean Hannity". HuffPost. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
- Pierson, Brendan; Freifeld, Karen; Stempel, Jonathan (April 18, 2018). "Fox's Hannity revealed as mystery client of Trump's personal lawyer". Reuters. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
- Feuer, Alan; Grynbaum, Michael; Koblin, John (April 16, 2018). "Sean Hannity Is Named as Client of Michael Cohen, Trump's Lawyer". The New York Times. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
- Costa, Robert; Ellison, Sarah; Dawsey, Josh (April 17, 2018). "Hannity's rising role in Trump's world: 'He basically has a desk in the place'". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
- Lima, Cristiano (April 17, 2018). "Cohen controversy tests Hannity's Teflon Sean reputation". Politico. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
- Breuninger, Kevin (April 17, 2018). "Fox News gives Sean Hannity 'full support' as critics slam him for hiding link to Trump lawyer". CNBC. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
- "Fox Around the World". Fox News Channel. March 6, 2012. Archived from the original on April 13, 2012. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
- Battersby, Lucy (December 1, 2016). "News Corp buys Sky News in Australia and New Zealand from Seven and Nine". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
- "News Limited seals pay TV deal after Federal Court approves CMH takeover". The Australian. November 2, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
- "CRTC approves Fox News for Canada". CBC News. November 18, 2004. Archived from the original on February 7, 2011. Retrieved August 27, 2010.
- "ערוצי הטלוויזיה של סלקום tv – כל הערוצים שצריך במקום אחד" [Cellcom TV's TV channels - all the channels needed in one place]. Cellcom TV. Retrieved December 24, 2017.
- "HOT channel listing". Hot.net. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved September 4, 2017.
- "Americable". Archived from the original on January 7, 2009.
- "Mediatti". Archived from the original on January 19, 2012.
- "Pan Global TV Japan". Archived from the original on February 3, 2011.
- "Why is Fox News no longer airing on Prime?". SkyTV.co.nz. January 26, 2001. Retrieved August 27, 2010.
- "Bouquet Channels". TopTV.co.za. Archived from the original on May 1, 2010. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- "DStv Channels". DStv. May 6, 2018. Archived from the original on April 5, 2015.
- Waterson, Jim (September 26, 2018). "Rupert Murdoch's Sky reign to end as Fox sells all shares to Comcast". The Guardian. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
- Ruddick, Graham (November 6, 2017). "Fox News shows broke UK TV impartiality rules, Ofcom finds". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved November 7, 2017.
- Sweney, Mark; Ruddick, Graham (August 29, 2017). "Sky stops broadcasting rightwing US channel Fox News in UK". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- Szalai, Georg (August 30, 2017). "Fox News Stops Airing in U.K.: A Look at Ofcom Rulings Against It". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 30, 2017.
- "Sky stops broadcasting Fox News in UK". BBC News. August 29, 2017. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- "Donna Brazile: Why I am excited to join Fox News and take part in a civil - and sensible - debate". Fox News. March 18, 2019. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
- Concha, Joe (March 27, 2017). "Fox News signs Federalist's Mollie Hemingway". The Hill. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- "Nigel Farage hired by Fox News as a political analyst". BBC News. January 20, 2017. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
- "Burgess Owens (@BurgessOwens) | Twitter". twitter.com.
- Feldman, Josh (March 1, 2016). "Fox News Contributor Mary Katharine Ham Jumps to CNN, Makes Debut with Tapper". Mediaite. Retrieved March 12, 2017.
- Cassino, Dan (2016). Fox News and American Politics: How One Channel Shapes American Politics and Society. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-47999-4.
- Hopkins, Daniel J.; Ladd, Jonathan M. (March 2014). "The consequences of broader media choice: evidence from the expansion of Fox News". Quarterly Journal of Political Science. 9 (1): 115–135. doi:10.1561/100.00012099.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fox News Channel.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Fox News|