Hudson Institute

The Hudson Institute is a politically conservative,[8] 501(c)(3) non-profit American think tank based in Washington, D.C. It was founded in 1961[1] in Croton-on-Hudson, New York, by futurist, military strategist, and systems theorist Herman Kahn and his colleagues at the RAND Corporation.

Hudson Institute
Hudson Institute logo.svg
FoundedJuly 20, 1961; 59 years ago (1961-07-20)[1]
FounderHerman Kahn, Max Singer, Oscar M. Ruebhausen
TypeThink tank
Legal status501(c)(3) nonprofit organization[3]
Coordinates38°53′44″N 77°01′44″W / 38.895672°N 77.028900°W / 38.895672; -77.028900
OriginsRAND Corporation
Area served
United States of America
ServicesTo promote the discussion and exchange of ideas on issues related to national security, human rights, foreign policy, economics, and domestic policy.[2]
Kenneth R. Weinstein[4]
John P. Walters[4]
Sarah May Stern[4]
Marie-Josée Kravis[4]
SubsidiariesHudson Analytical Services Inc[2]
Revenue (2018)
Expenses (2018)$16,575,421[5]
Endowment (2017)$39,989,000[6]
Employees (2016)
Volunteers (2016)

According to its website, the Institute promotes "American leadership and global engagement for a secure, free, and prosperous future."[9] It promotes public policy change in accordance with its stated belief that "America's unique and central role in the global system offers the best foundation for security, the defense of liberty, and assuring economic growth."[10]

In March 2011, Kenneth R. Weinstein was appointed president and chief executive officer of the Hudson Institute.[11]


Founder Herman Kahn

Founding to 1982Edit

Hudson Institute was founded in 1961[12] by Herman Kahn, Max Singer, and Oscar M. Ruebhausen. In 1960, while employed at the RAND Corporation, Kahn had given a series of lectures at Princeton University on scenarios related to nuclear war. In 1960, Princeton University Press published On Thermonuclear War, a book-length expansion of Kahn's lecture notes.[13] Major controversies ensued,[14] and in the end, Kahn and RAND had a parting of ways. Kahn moved to Croton-on-Hudson, New York, intending to establish a new think tank, less hierarchical and bureaucratic in its organization.[15] Along with Max Singer, a young government lawyer who had been a RAND colleague of Kahn's, and New York attorney Oscar Ruebhausen, Kahn founded the Hudson Institute on 20 July 1961.[16] Kahn was the Hudson's driving intellect and Singer built up the institute's organization.[17] Ruebhausen was an advisor to New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller.[18]

Hudson's initial research projects largely reflected Kahn's personal interests, which included the domestic and military use of nuclear power and scenario planning exercises about present policy options and their possible future outcomes.[19] Kahn and his colleagues made pioneering contributions to nuclear deterrence theory and strategy during this period.[20]

Hudson's detailed analyses of "ladders of escalation"[21] and reports on the likely consequences of limited and unlimited nuclear exchanges, eventually published as Thinking About the Unthinkable (1962)[17] and On Escalation: Metaphors and Scenarios (1965),[22] were influential within the Kennedy administration,[23] and helped the Institute win its first major research contract from the Office of Civil Defense at the Pentagon.[24]

Kahn did not want Hudson to restrict itself to defense-related research,[25] and along with Singer recruited a full-time professional staff with widely different academic backgrounds. Hudson Institute regularly involved a broad range of outside notables in their analytic projects and policy deliberations. These included French philosopher Raymond Aron,[26] African-American novelist Ralph Ellison,[13] political scientist Henry Kissinger, conceptual artist James Lee Byars,[27] and social scientist Daniel Bell.[26] Hudson's focus expanded to include geopolitics,[28] economics,[29] demography, anthropology, science and technology,[28] education,[30] and urban planning.[31]

Kahn eventually expanded the use of scenario planning from defense policy work to economics,[32] and in 1962 became the first analyst to predict the rise of Japan as the world's second-largest economy.[8] Hudson Institute's publications soon became popular in Japan[33] and Kahn developed close ties to numerous politicians and corporate leaders there.[8]

Hudson Institute used scenario-planning techniques to forecast long-term developments and became renowned for its future studies.[34] In 1967, Hudson published The Year 2000, a bestselling book, commissioned by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.[33] Many of the predictions came to pass, including technological developments like portable telephones and network-linked home and office computers.[35]

In 1970, The Emerging Japanese Superstate, elaborating Kahn's predictions on the rise of Japan, was published.[8] After the Club of Rome's controversial 1972 report The Limits to Growth produced widespread alarm about the possibility that population growth and resource depletion might result in a 21st-century global "collapse", Hudson responded with an analysis of its own, The Next 200 Years, which concluded, instead, that scientific and practical innovations were likely to produce significantly better worldwide living standards.[31] Maintaining this optimism about the future in his 1982 book The Coming Boom, Kahn argued that pro-growth tax and fiscal policies, an emerging information technology revolution, and breakthrough developments in the energy industry would make possible a period of unprecedented prosperity in the Western world by the early 21st century.[36][37] Kahn was among the first to foresee unconventional extraction techniques like hydraulic fracturing.[31][38]

Within 20 years, Hudson had become an international think tank with offices in Bonn,[39] Paris,[40] Brussels, Montreal[41] and Tokyo.[42] Other research projects were related to South Korea, Singapore, Australia[43] and Latin America.[44]

1983 to presentEdit

Shinzō Abe, Prime Minister of Japan, at the opening of Hudson's new headquarters, March 2016
Senator Marco Rubio at a panel discussion on the Middle East crisis

Following Kahn's sudden death on July 7, 1983,[45] Hudson was restructured. Actively recruited by the City of Indianapolis and the Lilly Endowment, Hudson relocated its headquarters to Indiana in 1984.[46] In 1987, Mitch Daniels, a former aide to Senator Richard Lugar (R-IN) and President Ronald Reagan, was appointed CEO of Hudson Institute.[47]

Daniels recruited new scholars and experts to the Institute.[48] William Eldridge Odom,[49] former Director of the National Security Agency, became Hudson's director of national security studies;[50] economist Alan Reynolds became director of economic research.[51] Technologist George Gilder led a project on the implications of the digital era[52][53] for American society.[48]

In 1990, Daniels left Hudson Institute to become Vice President of Corporate Affairs at Eli Lilly and Company.[54] He was succeeded as CEO by Leslie Lenkowsky, a social scientist,[55] and former consultant to Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan.[56] Under Lenkowsky, Hudson put an emphasis on domestic and social policy. In the early 1990s, the Institute did work on education reform[57] and applied research on charter school and school choice.[58]

At the initiative of Wisconsin Governor Tommy Thompson,[55] Hudson designed the "Wisconsin Works" welfare-to-work program[59] that was adopted nationwide in the 1996 federal welfare-reform legislation signed by President Bill Clinton.[60] In 2001, President George W. Bush's initiative on charitable choice was based[61] on Hudson's research[62] into social-service programs administered by faith-based organizations.[63]

Other Hudson research from this period included 1987's "Workforce 2000", the best-selling think tank study of its day, which predicted the transformation of the American labor market and workplace arising from diversification and computerization,[64] the "Blue Ribbon Commission on Hungary" (1990)[65] and "International Baltic Economic Commission" (1991–93), which made major contributions to the adoption of market-oriented reforms in the newly independent states of Eastern Europe,[66] and the 1997 follow-up study "Workforce 2020".[64]

After the September 11 attacks, Hudson focused its efforts on international issues such as the Middle East, Latin America and Islam. On 1 July 2004, Hudson relocated its headquarters to Washington, DC,[67] and focused its research on national security and foreign policy issues.

In 2016, Hudson moved from its McPherson Square headquarters[68] to a custom-built office space on Pennsylvania Avenue, near the U.S. Capitol and the White House.[69] The new LEED-certified[70] offices were designed by FOX Architects.[71] The Prime Minister of Japan Shinzō Abe presided over the opening of the new offices.[72]

Vice President Michael Pence used the think tank as his venue for a major policy speech on China[73][74] on 4 October 2018, noting that "Beijing is employing a whole-of-government approach, using political, economic, and military tools, as well as propaganda, to advance its influence and benefit its interests in the United States".

Hudson offers two annual awards, the Herman Kahn Award[8] and the Global Leadership Awards.[75][76] Past Hudson Institute honorees include United Nations Ambassador Nikki Haley,[77] House Speaker Paul Ryan,[78] Vice President Mike Pence,[79] Ronald Reagan, Henry Kissinger, Rupert Murdoch,[80] Dick Cheney,[8] Joseph Lieberman,[81] Benjamin Netanyahu,[82] David Petraeus, and Shinzo Abe.[83]

Policy centersEdit

The Hudson Institute has various centers and programs. These include the Center for the Economics of the Internet,[84] the Center on Islam, Democracy, and the Future of the Muslim World,[85] the Center for Religious Freedom, the Center for Global Prosperity,[86][87] the Initiative on Future Innovation,[88] the Obesity Solutions Initiative,[89][90] the Bradley Center for Philanthropy & Civic Renewal,[91] the Center for American Seapower,[92] the Center for Substance Abuse Policy Research,[93] and the Kleptocracy Initiative (KI).[94]


2018 Finances:[5]

Notable Hudson personnelEdit


Board of TrusteesEdit

Other notable trustees, fellows and advisors, past and presentEdit

Politicians who have been affiliated with Hudson include former U.S. Vice President Dan Quayle and Governor of Indiana Mitch Daniels, who served as Hudson's President and CEO from 1987 to 1990.[97]


Critics question the institute's negative campaigning against organic farming, since it receives large sums of money from conventional food companies. The New York Times commented on Dennis Avery's attacks on organic farming: "The attack on organic food by a well-financed research organization suggests that, though organic food accounts for only 1 percent of food sales in the United States, the conventional food industry is worried."[124]

After it was revealed that Michael Fumento received funding from Monsanto for his 1999 book Bio-Evolution, company spokesman Chris Horner confirmed that it continues to fund the think tank. "It's our practice, that if we're dealing with an organization like this, that any funds we're giving should be unrestricted," Horner told BusinessWeek. Hudson's CEO and President Kenneth R. Weinstein told BusinessWeek that he was uncertain if the payment should have been disclosed. "That's a good question, period," he said.[125]

The New York Times accused Huntington Ingalls Industries of using the Hudson Institute to enhance the company's argument for more nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, at a cost of US$11 billion each. The Times alleged that a former naval officer was paid by Hudson to publish an analysis calling for more funding. The report was delivered to the House Armed Services subcommittee without disclosing that Huntington Ingalls had paid for part of the report. Hudson acknowledged the mistake.[126]

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Hudson Institute, Inc." Division of Corporations. New York State Department of State. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
  2. ^ a b c "Form 990: Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax". Hudson Institute Inc. Guidestar. December 31, 2015.
  3. ^ "Hudson Institute Inc". Exempt Organizations Select Check. Internal Revenue Service. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
  4. ^ a b c d "About - Leadership". Hudson Institute. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
  5. ^ a b c "2018 Annual Report" (PDF). Hudson Institute. 31 December 2018. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
  6. ^ "2017 Annual Report" (PDF). Hudson Institute. 31 December 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
  7. ^ a b "Hudson Institute Inc" (PDF). Foundation Center. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Obe, Mitsuru (23 September 2013). "Abe First Non-American to Win Conservative Hudson Institute Award". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  9. ^ "About - Hudson Institute". Hudson Institute. Retrieved 2015-06-23.
  10. ^ "Mission Statement". Hudson Institute. Retrieved 2015-06-23.
  11. ^ "Experts – Kenneth R. Weinstein". Hudson Institute. Retrieved 2015-06-23.
  12. ^ "History". Hudson Institute. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  13. ^ a b c d Menand, Louis (27 June 2005). "Fat Man". The New Yorker. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  14. ^ "About the book". Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  15. ^ Paul Dragos Aligica, Kenneth R. Weinstein (31 December 2008). The Essential Herman Kahn: In Defense of Thinking. Lexington Books. p. 269. ISBN 978-0739128299.
  16. ^ Pickett, Neil (April 1993). A History of Hudson Institute (PDF). Indianapolis: Hudson Institute. p. 5.
  17. ^ a b Pickett, Neil (April 1993). A History of Hudson Institute (PDF). Indianapolis: Hudson Institute. p. 6.
  18. ^ Douglas, Martin (12 December 2004). "Oscar M. Ruebhausen, 92, Former Rockefeller Adviser". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  19. ^ Sayers, Nicola (January 2010). A Guide to Scenario Planning in Higher Education. London: Leadership Foundation for Higher Education. p. 3. ISBN 978-1906627171.
  20. ^ Dor On, Ami (14 August 2013). "The New, Dangerous Middle East". Israeli Homeland Security. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  21. ^ Nusbacher, Lynette (29 August 2012). "Herman's Ladder: Climbing up and Climbing Down". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  22. ^ Sempa, Francis P (28 May 2015). "Does The U.S. Need to Revive Its Nuclear Strategy?". The Diplomat. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  23. ^ Kifner, John (30 January 1999). "L. C. Lewin, Writer of Satire Of Government Plot, Dies at 82". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  24. ^ Brown, William M. (2 August 1965). "A New Look at the Degign of Low-Budget Civil Defense Systems" (PDF). Defense Technical Information Center. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  25. ^ Pickett, Neil (April 1993). A History of Hudson Institute (PDF). Indianapolis: Hudson Institute. p. 12.
  26. ^ a b Pickett, Neil (April 1993). A History of Hudson Institute (PDF). Indianapolis: Hudson Institute. p. 7.
  27. ^ Duval, Steven J. (29 January 2014). "James Lee Byars and the Hudson Institute". ARC (Arts Research Collaboration at the Spencer Museum of Art, University of Kansas). Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  28. ^ a b Martin, Douglas (26 June 2012). "Anthony J. Wiener, Forecaster of the Future, Is Dead at 81". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  29. ^ "Corporate Envirenment Program" (PDF). Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library. September 1974. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  30. ^ Gagnon, Paul (1 March 1978). "Our Children's Crippled Future, by Frank E. Armbruster with Paul Bracken". Commentary. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  31. ^ a b c Kovner, Bruce (1 December 1976). "The Next 200 Years, by Herman Kahn, William Brown, and Leon Martel; RIO: Reshaping the International Order, edited by Jan Tinber". Commentary. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  32. ^ Pesner, Jeremy (3 May 2016). "How to Predict the Future(s)". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  33. ^ a b Pickett, Neil (April 1993). A History of Hudson Institute (PDF). Indianapolis: Hudson Institute. p. 15.
  34. ^ Ratcliffe, John (1 January 2000). "Scenario Building: a Suitable Method for Strategic Property Planning?". Dublin Institute for Technology. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  35. ^ Albright, Richard E. (January 2002). "What Can Past Technology Forecasts Tell Us About the Future" (PDF). Albright Strategy. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  36. ^ Passell, Peter (12 September 1982). "Why is Herman Kahn Smiling?". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  37. ^ Grier, Peter (5 November 1982). "Why Herman Kahn sees a bright economic future ahead". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  38. ^ Parisi, Anthony J. (26 February 1978). "Herman Kahn Revisited". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  39. ^ Johnston, William B. (June 1987). "Workforce 2000" (PDF). Institute of Education Sciences. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  40. ^ Pickett, Neil (April 1993). A History of Hudson Institute (PDF). Indianapolis: Hudson Institute. p. 16.
  41. ^ Pickett, Neil (April 1993). A History of Hudson Institute (PDF). Indianapolis: Hudson Institute. p. 2.
  42. ^ Pickett, Neil (April 1993). A History of Hudson Institute (PDF). Indianapolis: Hudson Institute. p. 17.
  43. ^ Pickett, Neil (April 1993). A History of Hudson Institute (PDF). Indianapolis: Hudson Institute. p. 20.
  44. ^ "Measure" (PDF). Hewlett-Packard. March 1970. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  45. ^ Teaster, Joseph B (8 July 1983). "Herman Kahn dies; Futurist and Thinker on Nuclear Strategy". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  46. ^ Feron, James (18 May 1984). "Hudson Institute Moving to Midwest". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  47. ^ Pickett, Neil (April 1993). A History of Hudson Institute (PDF). Indianapolis: Hudson Institute. p. 31.
  48. ^ a b Pickett, Neil (April 1993). A History of Hudson Institute (PDF). Indianapolis: Hudson Institute. p. 32.
  49. ^ Kingston, Margo (3 May 2004). "Is US withdrawal the least worst option?". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  50. ^ Odom, William E. (21 April 1991). "Heavy Portents in Korean Gambit : Gorbachev's visit to Roh Tae Woo, not limited results in Tokyo, offers the best clues to his Asian strategy". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  51. ^ "Alan Reynolds". U.S.News. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  52. ^ Andrews, Paul (30 October 1990). "Fiber Optics Called Key To New Era". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  53. ^ Gilder, George (March–April 1991). "Into the Telecosm". Harvard Business Review. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  54. ^ "Curriculum Vitae for Mitchell E. Daniels, Jr". Purdue University. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  55. ^ a b Miller, John J. (2003). "Strategic Investment in Ideas" (PDF). PhilanthropyRoundtable. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  56. ^ "Curriculum Vitae" (PDF). Indiana University Bloomington. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  57. ^ Celis, William (20 December 1992). "A Would-Be Model for Reviving Ailing Public Schools". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  58. ^ Hook, Ormand G. (6 January 1997). "Let's Get the Facts Straight on Charter Schools". Mackinac Center. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  59. ^ "THE 3-MINUTE INTERVIEW: Kenneth R. Weinstein". Washington Examiner. 7 November 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  60. ^ Jouzaitis, Carol (30 September 1996). "Welfare Reform: Now It's Up To States". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  61. ^ Burke, Vee (9 August 2004). "Charitable Choice, Faith-Based Initiatives, and TANF" (PDF). Oswego State University of New York. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  62. ^ "Charitable Choice" (PDF). United States General Accounting Office. January 2002. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  63. ^ Sherman, Amy L. "Empowering Compassion" (PDF). Faith in Communities. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  64. ^ a b D'Amico, Carol. "Back to the future: A current view of workforce 2000 and projections for 2020". BookSC. Archived from the original on 18 November 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  65. ^ Uchitelle, Louis (15 January 1990). "U.S. Foundations Seek an East Bloc Role". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  66. ^ Kusmer, Ken (28 October 1991). "Quayle Signs Agreement to Spur Private Investment in Baltics". AP News Archive. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  67. ^ "The Hudson Institute". Laurel Hall. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  68. ^ "Jewish Insider's Daily Kickoff: June 6, 2016". Haaretz Daily Newspaper. 6 June 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  69. ^ "Hudson Institute launches new HQ on Pennsylvania Ave". McMorrowReports. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  70. ^ "Hudson Institute". KGO. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  71. ^ "Hudson Institute Offices - Washington DC". Office Snapshots. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  72. ^ "Grand Opening Featuring Prime Minister Shinzo Abe". Hudson Institute. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  73. ^ Perlez, Jane (5 October 2018). "Pence's China Speech Seen as Portent of 'New Cold War'". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  74. ^ Riechmann, Deb; Miller, Zeke (5 October 2018). "Vice President Pence accuses China of meddling in US". Associated Press. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  75. ^ Gordon, Amanda L. (1 December 2015). "Rupert Murdoch and Jerry Hall Root for U.S. at Think-Tank Gala". Bloomberg. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  76. ^ Hounshell, Blake (30 November 2015). "Murdoch unloads on Kerry, Obama, the left". Politico. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  77. ^ de Haldevang, Max (3 December 2018). "Paul Ryan and Nikki Haley will be honored at a gala funded by a Russia-linked oligarch". Quartz. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  78. ^ "Speaker Ryan begins farewell tour as term in House comes to a close". WAOW. 19 December 2018. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  79. ^ Sales, Amanda (2018-12-15). Mike Pence. Influential Lives. ISBN 9781978504011. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  80. ^ Fears, Danika (1 December 2015). "Murdoch rips Kerry for defending terrorists' 'rationale'". New York Post. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  81. ^ "Rupert Murdoch receives Hudson Institute Global Leadership Award". Indiantelevision. 3 December 2015. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  82. ^ "Netanyahu to receive Hudson Institute Award during visit to NY". Jewish Journal. 25 August 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  83. ^ "Vice President Mike Pence Receives 2017 Herman Kahn Award". Hudson Institute. 28 November 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
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Further readingEdit

External linksEdit