Donald Kagan (//; May 1, 1932 – August 6, 2021) was a Lithuanian-born American historian and classicist at Yale University specializing in ancient Greece, notable for his four-volume history of the Peloponnesian War. He formerly taught in the Department of History at Cornell University. Kagan was considered among the foremost American scholars of Greek history.
|Died||August 6, 2021 (aged 89)|
Washington, D.C., U.S.
|Education||Brooklyn College (BA)|
Brown University (MA)
Ohio State University (PhD)
|Known for||History of the Peloponnesian War|
(m. 1954; died 2017)
|Awards||National Humanities Medal (2002)|
Early life and educationEdit
Kagan was born in Kuršėnai, Lithuania, on May 1, 1932. His father, Shmuel, died before Kagan turned two years old, and his mother, Leah (Benjamin), consequently emigrated to the United States with Kagan and his sister. He grew up in the Brownsville section of Brooklyn. He attended Thomas Jefferson High School, where he played football, before becoming the first person in his family to go to college. He graduated from Brooklyn College in 1954, received an MA in classics from Brown University in 1955, and a PhD in history from the Ohio State University in 1958.
Once a liberal Democrat, Kagan changed his views around 1969. According to Jim Lobe, cited by Craig Unger, Kagan's turn away from liberalism occurred in 1969 when Cornell University was pressured into starting a Black Studies program by gun-wielding students seizing the Willard Straight Hall: "Watching administrators demonstrate all the courage of Neville Chamberlain had a great impact on me, and I became much more conservative." He was one of the original signers of the 1997 Statement of Principles by the neoconservative think tank Project for the New American Century, co-founded by his son Robert. On the eve of the 2000 presidential elections, Kagan and his other son, Frederick, published While America Sleeps, a call to increase defense spending.
Known for his prolific research on the Peloponnesian War; Kagan is also famous for his work On the Origins of War and the Preservation of Peace, a comparative history examining four major conflicts (the Peloponnesian War, World War I, the Second Punic War, and World War II) and one non-conflict (the Cuban Missile Crisis) with the purpose of identifying how and why wars do or do not begin. Remarking in 2015 on the work, Kagan summarized the causes of war by quoting Thucydides: "You know, Thucydides has this great insight. I wish I could get people to pay attention – he has one of his speakers at the beginning of the war say, 'Why do people go to war? Out of fear, honor, and interest.' Well, everybody knows interest, and fear is very credible. Nobody takes honor seriously." Kagan believes honor – better understood as "prestige" – was crucial in beginning World War I, for example.
The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) awarded Kagan the National Humanities Medal in 2002, and selected him to deliver the 2005 Jefferson Lecture. Kagan titled his lecture "In Defense of History"; he argued that history is of primary importance in the study of the humanities. In his The New Yorker review, George Steiner said of Kagan's four-volume history of the Peloponnesian War: "The temptation to acclaim Kagan's four volumes as the foremost work of history produced in North America in this century is vivid."
Until his retirement in 2013, Kagan was Sterling Professor of Classics and History at Yale University. His "The Origins of War" was one of Yale's most popular courses for twenty-five years, and was the basis of a book he published in 1995. Over an even longer timespan he taught "Introduction to Ancient Greek History", and upper level History and Classical Civilization seminars focusing on topics from Thucydides to the Lacedaimonian hegemony.
Personal life and familyEdit
Kagan married Myrna Dabrusky in 1954. They met while studying at Thomas Jefferson High School together, and remained married for 62 years until her death in 2017. Together, they had two children: Robert and Frederick.
- Kagan, Donald. (1965). The Great Dialogue: A History of Greek Political Thought from Homer to Polybius. New York: Free Press. OCLC 63980809
- Kagan, Donald. (1969). The Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-0501-7.
- Kagan, Donald. (1974). The Archidamian War. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-0889-X.
- Kagan, Donald. (1981). The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-1367-2.
- Kagan, Donald. (1987). The Fall of the Athenian Empire. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-1935-2
- Kagan, Donald. (1991). Pericles of Athens and the Birth of Democracy. New York: The Free Press. ISBN 0-684-86395-2.
- Kagan, Donald. (1995). On the Origins of War and the Preservation of Peace. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-42374-8.
- Kagan, Donald and Kagan, Frederick. (2000). While America Sleeps. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-20624-0.
- Kagan, Donald, Craig, Albert M., Graham, William A., Ozment, Steven, and Turner, Frank M. (2000). The Heritage of World Civilizations. ISBN 9780130160430
- Kagan, Donald, Ozment, Steven, and Turner, Frank M.. (2003). The Western Heritage. New York: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-182839-8.
- Kagan, Donald. (2003). The Peloponnesian War. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-03211-5.
- Kagan, Donald. (2009). Thucydides: The Reinvention of History. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-02129-6.
- Kagan, Donald. (2013). Men of Bronze: Hoplite Warfare in Ancient Greece. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9781400846306
- Risen, Clay (August 13, 2021). "Donald Kagan, Leading Historian of Ancient Greece, Dies at 89". The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- Italie, Hillel (August 13, 2021). "Donald Kagan, celebrated historian of ancient Greece, dies at 89". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- "Lion in Winter". yalealumnimagazine.com. April 2002. Archived from the original on August 9, 2007. Retrieved August 19, 2007.
- Craig Unger (2007). American Armageddon. Simon and Schuster. p. 39.
- "Statement of Principles". newamericancentury.org. Archived from the original on March 3, 2011. Retrieved August 19, 2007.
- "About PNAC". Archived from the original on March 3, 2011.
- "Donald Kagan on Conversations with Bill Kristol". Conversations with Bill Kristol.
- Kagan, Donald (May 18, 2005). "In Defense of History (2005 Jefferson Lecture in the Humanities)" (PDF). NEH. Retrieved November 19, 2019.
- Donald Kagan,"In Defense of History," text of Jefferson Lecture at NEH website.
- Philip Kennicott, "Yale Historian Donald Kagan, Mixing the Old And the Neo," The Washington Post, May 13, 2005.
- George F. Will, "History's Higher Ground," The Washington Post, May 19, 2005.
- "Donald Kagan, celebrated historian of the ancient world and revered teacher". Yale University. August 10, 2021. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- Cohen, Eliot A. (March 1, 1995). "On the Origins of War and the Preservation of Peace". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- "Open Yale Courses - Introduction to Ancient Greek History".
- Cavanaugh, Jack (August 13, 2021). "Yale Professor Turns to Sports". The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- "Thucydides and the Peloponnesian War". Hertog Foundation. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- "Donald Kagan, leading neo-conservative historian, dead at 89". Times of Israel. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
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