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Tsai Ing-wen (Peh-oe-ji: Chhòa Eng-bûn, [t͡sʰua˧˩ ɪŋbun˨˦], born 31 August 1956) is a Taiwanese politician and professor who is serving as the President of the Republic of China, commonly known as Taiwan, since May 20, 2016. The first woman to be elected to the office, Tsai is the seventh president of the Republic of China under the 1947 Constitution and the second president from the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP); part of Taiwan's Pan-Green Coalition. She is also the first president to be of both Hakka and aboriginal descent (a quarter Paiwan from her grandmother),[1] the first unmarried president, the first to have never held an elected executive post before presidency and the first to be popularly elected without having previously served as the Mayor of Taipei (Lee Teng-hui, Chen Shui-bian, and Ma Ying-jeou all served as the Mayor of Taipei). She was the Democratic Progressive Party candidate in the 2012 and 2016 presidential elections. Tsai previously served as party chair from 2008 to 2012, and from 2014 to 2018.

Tsai Ing-wen
蔡英文
蔡英文官方元首肖像照.png
President of the Republic of China
Assumed office
20 May 2016
PremierLin Chuan
Lai Ching-te
Su Tseng-chang
Vice PresidentChen Chien-jen
Preceded byMa Ying-jeou
Chairwoman of the Democratic Progressive Party
In office
28 May 2014 – 24 November 2018
Preceded bySu Tseng-chang
Succeeded byLin Yu-chang (acting)
Cho Jung-tai
In office
27 April 2011 – 14 January 2012
Preceded byKer Chien-ming (Acting)
Succeeded byChen Chu (Acting)
In office
20 May 2008 – 17 March 2011
Preceded byFrank Hsieh (Acting)
Succeeded byKer Chien-ming (Acting)
Vice Premier of the Republic of China
In office
25 January 2006 – 21 May 2007
PremierSu Tseng-chang
Preceded byWu Rong-i
Succeeded byChiou I-jen
Member of the Legislative Yuan
In office
1 February 2005 – 24 January 2006
Succeeded byWu Ming-ming
ConstituencyRepublic of China
Minister of the Mainland Affairs Council
In office
20 May 2000 – 20 May 2004
PremierTang Fei
Chang Chun-hsiung
Yu Shyi-kun
DeputyChen Ming-tong
Preceded bySu Chi
Succeeded byJoseph Wu
Personal details
Born (1956-08-31) 31 August 1956 (age 62)
Zhongshan, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
Political partyIndependent (before 2004)
Democratic Progressive Party (since 2004)
ResidenceYonghe Residence
EducationNational Taiwan University (LLB)
Cornell University (LLM)
London School of Economics (PhD)
Signature
Tsai Ing-wen
Tsai Ing-wen (Chinese characters).svg
"Tsai Ing-wen" in Chinese characters
Chinese
Hanyu PinyinCài Yīngwén

Tsai studied law and international trade, and later became a law professor at Soochow University School of Law and National Chengchi University after earning an LLB from National Taiwan University, an LLM from Cornell Law School and a Ph.D. in law from the London School of Economics and Political Science. In 1993, as an independent (without party affiliation), she was appointed to a series of governmental positions, including trade negotiator for WTO affairs, by the then-ruling Kuomintang (KMT) and was one of the chief drafters of the special state-to-state relations doctrine of then President Lee Teng-hui.

After DPP President Chen Shui-bian took office in 2000, Tsai served as Minister of the Mainland Affairs Council throughout Chen's first term as a non-partisan. She joined the DPP in 2004 and served briefly as a DPP-nominated at-large member of the Legislative Yuan. From there, she was appointed Vice Premier under Premier Su Tseng-chang until the cabinet's mass resignation in 2007. She was elected and assumed DPP leadership in 2008, following her party's defeat in the 2008 presidential election. She resigned as chair after losing her 2012 presidential election bid.

Tsai ran for New Taipei City mayorship in the November 2010 municipal elections but was defeated by another former vice premier, Eric Chu (KMT). In April 2011, Tsai became the first female presidential candidate of a major party in the history of the Republic of China after defeating her former superior, Su Tseng-chang, in the DPP's primary by a slight margin. She was defeated by incumbent Kuomintang candidate Ma Ying-jeou in the 5th direct presidential election in 2012, but was elected by a landslide four years later in the sixth direct presidential election in 2016.

Contents

Early careerEdit

Tsai was born in Zhongshan District, Taipei, Taiwan[2] on 31 August 1956,[3] the youngest of 11 children of her father.[4][5][6] Her father, Tsai Chieh-sheng (1918–2006), was a businessman who ran an auto repair shop,[7] and her mother Chang Chin-fong (1925–2018) was a housewife.[citation needed] Her given name, Ing-wen (英文), could be translated as "heroic literature" or "English language".[8] During her middle school period, she studied in Taipei Municipal Zhongshan Girls High School.[9] She studied law at the behest of her father.[10] After graduating at the College of Law, National Taiwan University, in 1978, Tsai obtained a Master of Laws at Cornell University Law School in 1980 and then a Ph.D. in law at the London School of Economics in 1984.[11][12] Upon her return to Taiwan, she taught law at the School of Law of Soochow University and National Chengchi University, both in Taipei.[13][14]

She was also appointed to the Fair Trade Commission and the Copyright Commission. She served as consultant for the Mainland Affairs Council and the National Security Council.[13] She also led the drafting team on the Statute Governing Relations with Hong Kong and Macau (Chinese: 港澳關係條例).[15][16]

Rise in politicsEdit

In 2000, Tsai was given the high-profile appointment of chair of the Mainland Affairs Council. Confirming the widely held belief that she maintained Pan-Green sympathies, Tsai joined the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) in 2004.[3] She was subsequently nominated by the DPP to be a candidate in the 2004 legislative election and was elected as a legislator-at-large.

On 26 January 2006, Tsai was appointed to the post of vice president of the Executive Yuan, a position commonly referred to as vice premier. She concurrently served as chairwoman of the Consumer Protection Commission.

On 17 May 2007, Tsai, along with the rest of the cabinet of out-going Premier Su Tseng-chang, resigned to make way for incoming Premier Chang Chun-hsiung and his cabinet. Premier Chang named Chiou I-jen, the incumbent secretary-general of the Presidential Office to replace Tsai as vice premier.[17] She then served as the chair of TaiMedBiologics, a biotechnology company based in Taiwan. The Kuomintang accused Tsai of contracting government work out to TaiMedBiologics during her term as vice premier, while planning to leave the government and lead the company afterward.[18][19] She was later cleared of all alleged wrongdoing.[20]

In Kuomintang candidate Ma Ying-jeou's search for his running mate for the 2008 ROC presidential election, Tsai, a DPP member, was surprisingly suggested. Ma stated that there were no set criteria for a running mate, that his search would not be defined by gender, occupation, or even political party affiliations.[21]

On 19 May 2008, Tsai defeated Koo Kwang-ming in the election for DPP chair, and succeeded outgoing Frank Hsieh as the 12th-term chair of the party. She was the first woman to chair a major Taiwanese political party.

DPP chairEdit

First term: 2008–2012Edit

 
Tsai in 2008

Tsai took office on 20 May 2008, the same day Ma Ying-jeou was inaugurated as president. She said that DPP would work to deepen the Taiwanese localization movement while defending social justice. She criticized Ma for mentioning closer Cross-Strait relations but nothing about Taiwan's sovereignty and national security.[22]

Tsai questioned Ma's stand on Taiwan's sovereign status. Ma emphasized the importance of the so-called 1992 Consensus and called Tsai a Taiwan independence extremist. Tsai criticized Ma's government for not answering her question and labeling others.[23]

After former President Chen Shui-bian's acknowledgment of transferring past campaign funds overseas, Tsai apologized to the public and also said that the DPP would not try to cover up for Chen's alleged misdeeds.[24] The Clean Government Commission was set up to investigate corruption within the DPP.[25]

On 25 April 2010, Tsai participated in a televised debate against President and Kuomintang chairman Ma Ying-jeou over a proposed trade agreement, the Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA); while President Ma believed ECFA would increase Taiwanese exports to mainland China and lower unemployment rates, Tsai said it "will force Taiwan to open up for cheap Chinese exports eventually" and certain domestic industries will be harmed by the mainland trade invasion. Tsai also said that the pact "will make Taiwan lose its independence in cross-strait relations and become a Chinese parasite" and that Taiwan should negotiate with China under the multilateral-framework World Trade Organization, which would offer more trade protections and emphasize Taiwan's distinct status.[26]

Under Tsai's leadership, along with some of KMT's unpopular policies, the DPP regained momentum in elections of 2009, after major defeats from 2006 to 2008.[27] In 2010, she was re-elected as the chair of the DPP.

Tsai made a controversial statement in May 2010 claiming that the Republic of China was a "government-in-exile" non-native to Taiwan;[28] however on 8 October 2011, two days prior to the 100-year anniversary celebrations of the Double Ten Day, Tsai changed her statement, stating that "The ROC is Taiwan, Taiwan is the ROC, and the current ROC government is no longer ruled by a non-native political power".[28][29]

Tsai resigned as chair of the DPP after losing her 2012 presidential election bid to incumbent Ma Ying-jeou.[30]

Second term: 2014–2018Edit

On 15 March 2014, Tsai announced that she would once more run for party chief of the DPP against incumbent Su Tseng-chang and Frank Hsieh.[31] However, both Su and Hsieh dropped out of the election in the aftermath of the Sunflower Student Movement. Tsai defeated Kaohsiung County deputy commissioner Kuo Tai-lin by 79,676 votes.[32][33]

Tsai led the DPP to an historic victory in the local elections held on 29 November 2014, in which the party secured leadership of 13 of Taiwan's 22 municipalities and counties. The DPP's stunning victory in the elections strengthened Tsai's position within the party and placed her as the front-runner in the 2016 Presidential Elections; she announced her second bid for the Presidency on 15 February 2015.[34] On 16 January 2016, she won the election by a landslide, winning 56.12% of votes, beating her opponent Eric Chu, who won 31.07% of the votes.[35]

On 24 November 2018, she resigned as leader of the Democratic Progressive Party and refused Premier William Lai's offer to quit after a major defeat in local elections.[36]

Presidential campaignsEdit

2012Edit

On 11 March 2011, Tsai Ing-wen officially announced her run for the presidential nomination of the Democratic Progressive Party.[37] On 27 April 2011, Tsai became the first female presidential candidate in Taiwan after she defeated former Premier Su Tseng-chang by a small margin in a nationwide phone poll (of more than 15,000 samples) that served as the party's primary.[38] Tsai ran against incumbent President Ma Ying-jeou of the Kuomintang and James Soong of the People First Party in the 5th direct presidential election, which was held on 14 January 2012.[39] Garnering 45% of the vote, she conceded defeat to President Ma in an international press conference, resigning her seat as Chairman of the DPP.[40]

e • d Summary of the 2012 Taiwanese presidential election results
Party Candidate Votes Percentage
President Vice president
  Kuomintang Ma Ying-jeou Wu Den-yih 6,891,139 51.60%
 
  Democratic Progressive Party Tsai Ing-wen Su Jia-chyuan 6,093,578 45.63%
 
  People First Party James Soong Lin Ruey-shiung 369,588 2.77%
 
Total 13,354,305 100%

2016Edit

 
Tsai's campaign headquarters in 2016
 
President Tsai and Paraguay's President Horacio Cartes in Taiwan, 20 May 2016

On 15 February 2015, Tsai officially registered for the Democratic Progressive Party's presidential nomination primary.[41] Though William Lai and Su Tseng-chang were seen as likely opponents,[42] Tsai was the only candidate to run in the primary and the DPP officially nominated her as the presidential candidate on 15 April.[43][44] She was the first-ever female candidate for President of Taiwan.

During summer of 2015, Tsai embarked on a visit to the United States and met a number of US policy makers including Senators John McCain and Jack Reed.[45] In her speech addressing Taiwanese diaspora on the east coast of the United States, Tsai signaled a willingness to cooperate with the rising Third Party coalition in Taiwan in the incoming general election.[46] On November 14, Tsai's campaign announced that she had chosen Chen Chien-jen as DPP vice presidential candidate.[47] On 16 January 2016, Tsai won the presidential election, beating her opponent Eric Chu by a margin of 25.04%.[35] Tsai was inaugurated as president on 20 May 2016.

After her election, Tsai was named one of "The 100 Most Influential People" in TIME magazine 2 May 2016 issue.[48]

e • d Summary of the 16 January 2016 Taiwanese presidential election results
Party Candidate Votes Percentage
President Vice president
  Democratic Progressive Party Tsai Ing-wen Chen Chien-jen 6,894,744 56.12%
 
  Kuomintang Eric Chu Wang Ju-hsuan 3,813,365 31.04%
 
  People First Party James Soong Hsu Hsin-ying 1,576,861 12.84%
 
Total 12,284,970 100%

2020Edit

 
President Tsai attends the 108 Anti-drug Responsible Persons Group in June 2019

Tsai announced on 19 February 2019 via an interview with CNN that she would run for reelection as president in 2020.[49][50] She registered to run in the Democratic Progressive Party presidential primary on 21 March 2019.[51]

Political positions and PresidencyEdit

United StatesEdit

 
President Tsai meets with Republican U.S. Senate delegation led by John McCain, 5 June 2016

Tsai supports strong and stable relationships between Taiwan (ROC) and the United States. She endorsed Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton in the 2016 U.S. presidential election.[52][53] In early December 2016, Tsai held an unprecedented telephone call with President-elect Donald Trump. This was the first time that the President of ROC spoke with the president or president-elect of the United States since 1979. Afterwards, she indicated there had been no major "policy shift".[54]

Cross-strait relationsEdit

 
Member of the House of Representatives of Japan Keiji Furuya and President Tsai, 20 May 2016

The DPP's traditional position on the issue of cross-strait relations is that the Republic of China, widely known as Taiwan, is already an independent state governing the territories of Kinmen, Matsu, Penghu Islands, and the island of Taiwan, thus rendering a formal declaration of independence unnecessary. While Tsai has never departed fundamentally from the party line, her personal approach to the issue is nuanced and evolving.[citation needed]

During the 2012 presidential election cycle, Tsai said that she disagreed with the 1992 Consensus as the basis for negotiations between Taiwan and mainland China, that such a consensus only served to buttress the "One China Principle", and that "no such consensus exists" because the majority of the Taiwanese public does not necessarily agree with this consensus. She believed that broad consultations should be held at all levels of Taiwanese society to decide the basis on which to advance negotiations with Beijing, dubbed the "Taiwan consensus". During the 2016 election cycle, Tsai was notably more moderate, making "maintaining the status quo" the centerpiece of party policy. She vowed to work within the Republic of China governing framework in addition to preserving the progress made in cross-strait relations by previous governments, while preserving "freedom and democracy" for the residents of Taiwan.[55]

Tsai believes in the importance of economic and trade links with mainland China, but publicly spoke out against the Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA), a preferential trade agreement that increased economic links between Taiwan and mainland China. She generally supports the diversification of Taiwan's economic partners.[citation needed]

In response to the death of Chinese Nobel Peace Prize laureate Liu Xiaobo, who died of organ failure while in government custody, Tsai pleaded with the Communist government to "show confidence in engaging in political reform so that the Chinese can enjoy the God-given rights of freedom and democracy."[56]

Tsai has accused the Communist Party of China's troll army of spreading fake news via social media to influence voters and support candidates more sympathetic to Beijing ahead of the 2018 Taiwanese local elections.[57][58][59]

In a speech in January 2019, she stated that Taiwan does not recognize the 1992 Consensus and does not accept "one country, two systems".[60]

 
Tsai and Marshall Islands President Hilda Heine in October 2017

Domestic policyEdit

Tsai has traditionally been supportive of disadvantaged groups in society, including the poor, women and children, Taiwanese aborigines, and LGBT groups. She favours government action to reduce unemployment, introducing incentives for entrepreneurship among youth, expanding public housing, and government-mandated childcare support. She supports government transparency and more prudent and disciplined fiscal management.[citation needed]

 
Tsai attends the commencement of her alma mater, Zhongshan Girls High School in Taipei, June 2016

Tsai advocated for the non-partisanship of the president of the Legislative Yuan, the increase in the number of "at-large" seats in the legislature, the broadening of participation among all political parties and interest groups. She supports proactively repairing the damage done to Taiwanese aboriginal groups, as well as the government actions in the February 28 Incident and during the phase of White Terror. She has also called for the de-polarization of Taiwanese politics, and advocates for a more open and consensus-based approach to addressing issues and passing legislation.[61]

Stance on LGBT issuesEdit

Tsai supports LGBT rights and endorsed same-sex marriage to be legalised in Taiwan. On 21 August 2015, which is the Qixi Festival, she released a campaign video in which three same-sex couples actors appeared.[62][63] On 31 October 2015, when the biggest gay pride parade in Asia was held in Taipei, Tsai expressed her support for same-sex marriage.[64] She posted a 15-second video on her Facebook page saying "I am Tsai Ing-wen, and I support marriage equality" and "Let everyone be able to freely love and pursue happiness".[65][66]

Family and personal lifeEdit

Tsai's paternal grandfather, of Hakka descent, came from a prominent family in Fangshan, Pingtung, while her grandmother, from Shizi, Pingtung, was of aboriginal Paiwan descent.[67][68] Tsai's father, Tsai Chieh-sheng (蔡潔生; Cài Jiéshēng) owned a car repair business.[69] Tsai's mother is Chang Chin-fong (張金鳳; Zhāng Jīnfèng), the last of her father's four mistresses. She is the youngest of her father's 11 children, having three full siblings among them; she also has a maternal half-brother.[70] Tsai is unmarried and has no children. Tsai is known to be a cat lover, and her two cats, "Think Think" and "Ah Tsai", featured prominently in her election campaign.[71] In October 2016, she adopted three retired guide dogs, named Bella, Bunny, and Maru.[72]

According to the traditional Chinese naming practice, Tsai's name would have been 蔡瀛文, since her generation name is (yíng), not (yīng).[73] However, her father believed the former to have too many strokes for the girl to learn, so she was instead named 英文, which can be literally translated by its individual parts as "heroic" and "literature; culture", or the Chinese word for the English language if taken even more literally.[73]

Further readingEdit

  • Yang, Wan-Ying; Lee, Kuan-Chen (July 2016). "Ready for a Female President in Taiwan?". Journal of Women, Politics & Policy. 37 (4): 464–489. doi:10.1080/1554477X.2016.1192433.

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External linksEdit

Political offices
Preceded by
Su Chi
Minister of the Mainland Affairs Council
2000–2004
Succeeded by
Joseph Wu
Preceded by
Wu Rong-i
Vice Premier of the Republic of China
2006–2007
Succeeded by
Chiou I-jen
Preceded by
Ma Ying-jeou
President of the Republic of China
2016–present
Incumbent
Party political offices
Preceded by
Frank Hsieh
Acting
Leader of the Democratic Progressive Party
2008–2011
Succeeded by
Ker Chien-ming
Acting
Preceded by
Ker Chien-ming
Acting
Leader of the Democratic Progressive Party
2011–2012
Succeeded by
Chen Chu
Acting
Preceded by
Su Tseng-chang
Leader of the Democratic Progressive Party
2014–2018
Succeeded by
Lin Yu-chang
Acting