Kinmen, alternatively known as Quemoy, is a group of islands governed as a county by the Republic of China (ROC) based on Taiwan, off the southeastern coast of mainland China. It lies roughly 10 km (6.2 mi) east of the city of Xiamen in Fujian, from which it is separated by Xiamen Bay. Kinmen is located 187 km (116 mi) west from the shoreline of the island of Taiwan across the Taiwan Strait.

Kinmen Montage.png
Flag of Kinmen
Official seal of Kinmen
Taiwan ROC political division map Kinmen County.svg
Coordinates: 24°26′N 118°20′E / 24.44°N 118.33°E / 24.44; 118.33Coordinates: 24°26′N 118°20′E / 24.44°N 118.33°E / 24.44; 118.33
Country Republic of China (Taiwan)
ProvinceFujian / Fukien, ROC (nominal subdivision)
SeatJincheng (Chincheng, Kincheng)
Largest cityJincheng
6 (3 urban, 3 rural)
37 (24 urban, 13 rural)
 • County MagistrateYang Cheng-wu (KMT)
 • Total153.011 km2 (59.078 sq mi)
Area rank20 of 22
 (December 2014)
 • Total127,723
 • Rank20 of 22
 • Density830/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (National Standard Time)
ISO 3166 codeTW-KIN
FlowerFour-season orchid
TreeCotton tree
Traditional Chinese金門
Kinmen county
Traditional Chinese金門

The county consists of the major island of Kinmen along with several surrounding islets, as well as Wuqiu Township located 133 km (83 mi) to the northeast of the rest of the county.[2] Kinmen is one of two counties that was part of the now-defunct Fujian Province, the other being Lienchiang county (Matsu).

Kinmen's strategic location in the Taiwan Strait has led to numerous confrontations, making it a tangible embodiment of political change on Cross-Strait relations. In August 1958, Kinmen was heavily bombarded by the People's Liberation Army during the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis. Travel restrictions between Kinmen and the main island of Taiwan were lifted in 1994 following the end of decades-long military administration over Kinmen. A direct ferry route to Xiamen was inaugurated in January 2001 following the establishment of the Three Links.[3]

The People's Republic of China claims Kinmen as part of Fujian Province and considers Wuqiu to be a separate territory of Fujian apart from Kinmen itself; for its part, the ROC claims the Dadeng Islands (Tateng) as part of Kinmen, even though they were effectively transferred to the control of Xiamen by the PRC.


Jiangong Islet, with a Koxinga monument, in Kinmen Harbor

Kinmen (金門) means 'golden gate'. The name was first recorded in 1387 when the Hongwu Emperor appointed Zhou Dexing to administer the island and protect it from pirate attacks.[4] The spelling "Kinmen" is a postal romanization.[5] This transcription system is a variation of Nanking Syllabary, a system developed by Herbert Giles in 1892.[6] It was adopted by the Chinese Imperial Post, part of the Chinese Maritime Customs Service led by Irishman Robert Hart. It is based on pronunciation in the Southern Mandarin, or Jianghuai, dialect. This dialect is widely spoken in Jiangsu and Anhui provinces, including the city of Nanjing. The Taiwanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs uses "Kinmen,"[7] while the U.S. Board on Geographic Names gives "Kinmen Island."[2]

Quemoy, pronounced /kɪˈmɔɪ/, is a name for the island in English and in other European languages.[8] It may have originated as a Spanish or Portuguese transcription of the Zhangzhou Hokkien pronunciation of the name, Kim-mûi.[9] This is the most common form of the islands' name in English. For example, works that deal with the First and Second Taiwan Strait Crises (the Quemoy Incident[10]) and the 1960 U.S. presidential election debates when the islands received prominent worldwide news coverage all use the word Quemoy. In addition, the former National Kinmen Institute of Technology was renamed National Quemoy University in 2010. Kinmen scholar Wei Jian-feng advocates the use of the word Quemoy to better connect the island to "international society or achieve more recognition in the world".[9]

Jinmen is the island's name both in Tongyong Pinyin and in Hanyu Pinyin.[11] Hanyu Pinyin is the international standard for transliterating Chinese.[12] It was adopted by the Taiwanese government in 2009.[13] Kimoi is a Hokkien-derived spelling also used in the postal romanization system.[14][15] Chin-men is the Wade–Giles romanization of the island's name.


The slogan "Three Principles of the People unite China" written in Traditional Chinese (official script of ROC) is founded on Dadan Island facing Mainland China by General Zhao in Aug. 1986, depositioned after 1987 Lieyu Massacre.
External image
  Declassified nuclear strike plan reveals the historical tension around Kinmen area in Cold War

Early historyEdit

Humans have lived on Kinmen for 5,800 to 8,000 years.[16] During the reign of Emperor Yuan (317 A.D.), the Five Barbarians invasion of China led six extended families to flee south and they settled in Kinmen, then called Wuzhou.[16] More people settled there during the Tang dynasty, changing the name from Wuzhou to Kinmen.[17]

During the Ming dynasty, more migrants settled in Kinmen. Koxinga used Kinmen as a base to liberate Kinmen and Penghu from the Dutch. He cut down trees to build his navy, resulting in massive deforestation that made Kinmen vulnerable to soil erosion.[17]

Attack in Quemoy (1663)

The Prince of Lu, a member of the Southern Ming dynasty, resisted the invading Manchu Qing dynasty forces. In 1651, he fled to Kinmen, which the Qing dynasty took in 1663.[18] During the Qing Dynasty, the Kinmen area was part of Tungan County.[19][20]

Republic of ChinaEdit

After the establishment of the Republic of China (ROC) in 1912, Kinmen became part of Fujian Province. In 1913, the Kinmen area was made part of Siming County.[20] Kinmen County was established in 1914.[20][21] In 1928, the county came under direct administration of the provincial government.[20]

Japan occupied Kinmen County during the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945. During this period, the county government was moved to Dadeng.[19]

After the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC) by the Chinese Communists in October 1949, Kinmen County was claimed by both the Nationalists and the Communists. Dadeng, Xiaodeng and Jiaoyu were taken by the Communists on October 9[21] or October 15,[22] 1949. The islands are claimed by the ROC.[23] They are part of Dadeng Subdistrict, Xiang'an District, Xiamen, Fujian, China.[24][25]

On October 25, 1949, PLA forces landed on Kinmen Island near Guningtou beginning the Battle of Kuningtou. ROC forces successfully defended the island and prevented an attack on Taiwan.

At the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, retired Admiral Charles M. Cooke Jr., advisor to President Chiang Kai-shek, opposed withdrawing ROC forces from Quemoy (Kinmen).[26] On July 26, 1950, ROC forces on Dadan Island (Tatan), in total 298 soldiers, repulsed an attack (大擔島戰役) from a People's Liberation Army force of 700 soldiers that landed on the island.[27]: 11, 19–20  General Douglas MacArthur and other US officials supported ROC efforts to defend the islands.[28]

Map including most of the territory of Kinmen County (AMS, 1954)

The People's Liberation Army extensively shelled the island during the First and Second Taiwan Strait crises in 1954–1955 and 1958 respectively. In 1954, the United States considered responding by using nuclear weapons against the PRC.[29] Again in 1958, General Nathan Farragut Twining and the Joint Chiefs of Staff believed that the United States should not permit the loss of the islands to the communists and recommended to President Eisenhower the use of whatever force was necessary, including atomic weapons.[30]

The phrase "Quemoy and Matsu" became part of American political language in the 1960 U.S. presidential election. During the debates, both candidates, Vice-President Richard Nixon and Senator John F. Kennedy, pledged to use American forces if necessary to protect Taiwan from invasion by the PRC, which the United States did not recognize as a legitimate government. But in the second debate on October 7, 1960, the two candidates presented different opinions about whether to use American forces to protect Taiwan's forward positions, Quemoy and Matsu, also. Senator Kennedy stated that these islands - as little as 9 kilometres (5.5 mi) off the coast of China and as much as 170 kilometres (106 mi) from Taiwan - were strategically indefensible and were not essential to the defense of Taiwan. Vice-President Nixon maintained that since Quemoy and Matsu were in the "area of freedom," they should not be surrendered to the Communists as a matter of principle.[31]

Earlier in the debate, then-Vice President Nixon mentioned:[32][33]

In the Truman Administration 600 million people went behind the Iron Curtain including the satellite countries of Eastern Europe and Communist China. In this Administration we have stopped them at Quemoy and Matsu, we have stopped them in Indo China, we have stopped them in Lebanon, we have stopped them in other parts of the world.

Later in the debate, Edward P. Morgan asked then-Senator Kennedy:[32][34][35][36]

Senator, Saturday on television, you said that you had always thought that Quemoy and Matsu were unwise places to draw our defense line in the Far East. Would you comment further on that, and also address to this question: couldn't a pull-back from those islands be interpreted as appeasement?

Chin-men Tao (Quemoy Island, Greater Kinmen), Lieh Hsü (Lesser Kinmen), Tung-ting Hsü (Dongding Island), Wu-ch'iu Hsü (Daqiu), and Hsia Hsü (Xiaoqiu)
"The Nationalist-held islands off the Chinese mainland are nominally a part of Fukien Province, but are presently under military administration." (1962)

Then-Senator Kennedy responded to Morgan's question saying:[32][33][34][35]

Well, the United States has on occasion attempted, mostly in the middle '50s to persuade Chiang Kai-shek to pull his troops back to Formosa. I believe strongly in the defense of Formosa. These islands are a few miles, five or six miles[b] off the coast of Red China within a general harbor area, and more than a hundred miles[c] from Formosa. We have never said flatly that we will defend Quemoy and Matsu if it is attacked. We say we will defend it if it's part of a general attack on Formosa, but it is extremely difficult to make that judgment.
Now, Mr. Herter, in 1958, when he was Under Secretary of State, said they were strategically indefensible. Admiral Spruance and Collins in 1955 said that we should not attempt to defend these islands in their conference on the Far East. General Ridgway has said the same thing. I believe that when you get into a war, if you're going to get into a war for the defense of Formosa, it ought to be on a clearly defined line. One of the problems, I think, at the time of South Korea was the question of whether the United States would defend it if it were attacked. I believe that we should defend Formosa, we should come to its defense. It leaves this rather in the air that we will defend it under some conditions but not under others, I think it is a mistake.
Secondly, I would not suggest a withdrawal at the point of the Communist guns. It is a decision finally that the Nationalists should make and I believe that we should consult with them and attempt to work out a plan by which the line is drawn at the Island of Formosa. It leaves 100 miles[d] between the sea. But with General Ridgway, Mr. Herter, General Collins, Admiral Spruance and many others, I think it is unwise to take the chance of being dragged into a war which may lead to a world war over two islands which are not strategically defensible, which are not according to their testimony, essential to the defense of Formosa.
I think that we should protect our commitments. I believe strongly we should do so in Berlin. I believe strongly we should do so in Formosa and I believe we should meet our commitments to every country whose security we've guaranteed. But I do not believe that that line, in case of a war, should be drawn on those islands, but instead on the island of Formosa. And as long as they are not essential to the defense of Formosa, it has been my judgement ever since 1954, at the time of the Eisenhower Doctrine for the Far East, that our line should be drawn in the sea around the island itself.

Then-Vice President Nixon retorted:[32][33][35]

I disagree completely with Senator Kennedy on this point.
I remember in the period immediately before the Korean War, South Korea was supposed to be indefensible as well. Generals testified to that, and Secretary Acheson made a very famous speech at the Press Club early in the year that the Korean War started, indicating in effect that South Korea was beyond the defense zone of the United States. I suppose it was hoped when he made that speech that we wouldn't get into a war, but it didn't mean that. We had to go in when they came in.
Now I think as far as Quemoy and Matsu are concerned, that the question is not these two little pieces of real estate- they are unimportant. It isn't the few people who live on them- they are not too important. It's the principle involved. These two islands are in the area of freedom. The Nationalists have these two islands. We should not force our Nationalist allies to get off of them and give them to the Communists. If we do that, we start a chain reaction, because the Communists aren't after Quemoy and Matsu, they're after Formosa. In my opinion, this is the same kind of woolly thinking that lead to disaster for America in Korea, I'm against it, I would never tolerate it as President of the United States, and I will hope that Senator Kennedy will change his mind if he should be elected.

Kinmen in the map on the obverse of the Commemorative NT$10 Coin in Celebration of the 50th Anniversary of Taiwan's Retrocession (1995)

After the third debate on October 13, 1960, Kennedy's advisers spoke with then Secretary of State Herter and said Kennedy was willing to revise his position on the Quemoy and Matsu issue so as not to give the Communists the impression that the USA would not stand united against aggression. Nixon pointed out the change in Kennedy's position but decided not to press the point due to the importance of the USA's role in what was an extremely tense situation.[37] Nixon's polls among Republicans and Democrats showed overwhelming support for Nixon's position on the issue.[38]

Kinmen was originally a military reserve, which eventually led to the 1987 Lieyu massacre.[39] The island was returned to the civilian government in the mid-1990s, after which travel to and from it was allowed. Direct travel between mainland China and Kinmen re-opened in January 2001 under the mini Three Links, and there has been extensive tourism development on the island in anticipation of mainland tourists.[40] Direct travel was suspended in 2003 as a result of the SARS outbreak, but has since resumed.[41]

Many Taiwanese businessmen use the link through Kinmen to enter the Chinese mainland, seeing it as cheaper and easier than entering through Hong Kong. However, this changed following the 2005 Pan-Blue visits to mainland China and the 2008 presidential and legislative victories of the KMT, that allowed easier cross-Strait relations. Kinmen has experienced a considerable economic boom as businessmen relocate to the island for easier access to the vast markets of the PRC.

On 30 June 2014, Dadan Island and Erdan Island were handed over from the military to civilians, represented by Kinmen County Government.[42] Since 1 January 2015, tourists from Mainland China could directly apply for the Exit and Entry Permit upon arrival in Kinmen. This privilege also applies to Penghu and Matsu Islands as means to boost tourism in the outlying islands of Taiwan.[43]

On August 23, 2019, the sixty-first anniversary of the beginning of the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, President Tsai Ing-wen visited the Taiwushan Martyrs' Shrine (太武山忠烈祠) where she placed flowers and offered incense.[44]


The county is made up of numerous islands and islets[45][46][20][47] including:


Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Climate of Kinmen
Climate data for Kinmen
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 27.0
Average high °C (°F) 16.8
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.7
Average low °C (°F) 10.0
Record low °C (°F) 1.3
Source: Climate of Kinmen


Kinmen, much like the surrounding Chinese mainland, is predominantly composed of Cretaceous aged granite, with lesser amounts of Eocene-Oligocene sandstone, Miocene basalt and Pleistocene-Holocene conglomerate, the thickness of the sediments varies from 150 metres in the west to only a few metres in the east.[57]


Historical population
1985 48,846—    
1990 42,754−12.5%
1995 47,394+10.9%
2000 53,832+13.6%
2005 76,491+42.1%
2010 97,364+27.3%
2015 132,799+36.4%
Source:"Populations by city and country in Taiwan". Ministry of the Interior Population Census.


Artillery shells fired by the People's Liberation Army to Kinmen in the 1950s
A shisa (wind-lion god) carving in Kinmen

The people of Kinmen see themselves as Kinmenese, Mínnánrén/Mǐnnánrén (people of Southern Fujian), or Chinese, but not so much as Taiwanese.[10][58] Kinmen's strong Chinese identity was forged during the period of the ROC's military confrontation with the People's Republic of China (1949–1992) when Kinmen was under military administration.[10] In the 1980s, as the militarization decreased and martial law was ended on Taiwan, the Taiwan independence movement and efforts in de-Sinicization grew in strength on Taiwan.[10] To Kinmenese, however, these developments were viewed with concern and there was a feeling that "Taiwan didn't identify with Kinmen".[10] Many worried that Taiwanese de jure independence from China would lead to the severing of ties with Kinmen.[10] These concerns play a strong role in Kinmenese politics as well.[10] Legally speaking, Kinmenese people are not Taiwanese either and have a unique identity from that of the Taiwanese. 'Taiwanization' is sometimes perceived as a threat to the cultural identity of the Kinmenese people.[59]


Many of the county's inhabitants speak Hokkien; the Quanzhou accent is predominant. Most residents will say they speak Kinmenese, which is mutually intelligible with Taiwanese Hokkien. The residents of Wuchiu Township speak Pu-Xian Min, as opposed to Hokkien for the rest of Kinmen.


Kinmen is notable for a number of cultural products. Due to the extensive shelling by the People's Liberation Army in the 1950s, Kinmen is famous for its artillery shell knives. Local artisans would collect the vast amounts of exploded ordnance and make high-quality knives which are still sought after by chefs and connoisseurs. Kinmen is also home of the regionally famous Kinmen Kaoliang liquor, a spirit ranging between 38 and 63 percent alcohol, which is highly appreciated by the Taiwanese. Other local culinary specialties include Kinmen noodles [zh], kòng-thn̂g [zh] and beef jerky (bakkwa).

Like the Ryukyus, Kinmen is known for shisa (wind-lion god) figures (風獅爺).[60]


Kinmen's economy is mainly based on tourism and services due to its proximity to mainland China.[61][62]


The Juguang Tower ("Brightness of Ju"), a famous landmark in Kinmen.

Because of its military importance, development on the island was extremely limited. Only by 2003, Kinmen opened up itself to tourists from Fujian in Mainland China.[63] It is now a popular weekend tourist destination for Taiwanese and is known for its quiet villages, old-style architecture and beaches. Chinese and Taiwanese tour groups also spend a short time touring the island whilst transiting between the ferry and the airport, as an intermediate stop between China and Taiwan. Large parts of Kinmen form the Kinmen National Park which highlights military fortifications and structures, historical dwellings and natural scenery.

The year 2014 recorded the highest number of passengers traveling by ferry between Kinmen and Fujian ports for as many as 1.5 million people.[64] Since 1 January 2015, Chinese mainland tourists were no longer be required to apply for Exit and Entry Permit in advance for visits to Kinmen, Penghu and Matsu Islands. Instead, they can apply for it upon arrival at a cost of NT$600.[65]

By 2016, two infrastructure projects are expected to boost tourism and meetings, incentives, conferencing, exhibitions visitors to the islands. One includes a yet-to-be-named five-star resort spearheaded by Xiamen property developer, Wu Youhua, president of Xiamen Huatian Group, the first time a Chinese interest has been allowed to invest in the Taiwan hotel sector.[66]

Tourist attractionsEdit

Tourist-related affairs in Kinmen are governed by Transportation and Tourism Bureau of Kinmen County Government. Major tourist attractions in Kinmen are:[20]


August 23 Artillery Battle Museum, Guningtou Battle Museum, Hujingtou Battle Museum, Kinmen Ceramics Museum, Landmine Museum, Lieyu Township Culture Museum, Yu Da Wei Xian Sheng Memorial Museum.


Ci Lake, Gugang Lake, Houhu Seashore Park, Jiangong Islet, Jincheng Seaside Park, Kinmen National Park, Zhongzheng Park.

Historical buildingsEdit

Beishan Old Western-style House, Chenggong Coastal Defense Tunnel, Chen Shi-yin Western Style House, Deyue Gun Tower, Gulongtou Zhenwei Residence, Jindong Movie Theater, Jinshui Elementary School, Juguang Tower, Kinmen Folk Culture Village, Kinmen Military Headquarters of Qing Dynasty, Mashan Broadcasting and Observation Station, Mofan Street, Qingtian Hall, Qionglin Tunnel, Yannan Academy, Wuqiu Lighthouse and Zhaishan Tunnel.

Religious buildingsEdit

Maoshan Pagoda, Wentai Pagoda.


Kinmen is famous for the production of Kaoliang wine, which takes up about 75% of Taiwan's market share, in which it is a strong economic backbone of the county. Traditional industries are also being kept and improved, ranging from agriculture, fishery and livestock. It has a good fishery industry also due to its nature being surrounded by unpolluted sea.

Kinmen also produces its unique Kinmen knife, in which the raw material used to produce it is taken from the remaining of shells fired by the People's Liberation Army in 1958-1978. The knife was made as gift to the visiting Head of Taiwan Affairs Office Zhang Zhijun to Kinmen on 23–24 May 2015 to symbolize mutual peace between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait and to bury the hatchet left from Chinese Civil War.[67][68]

Imported goodsEdit

Kinmen often import more goods from Mainland China than Taiwan Island because of lower costs due to the proximity of the county to the mainland. During the campaign for the 2014 county magistrate, all of the magistrate candidates spent their money on campaign materials produced in mainland provinces, such as Guangdong, Zhejiang and Fujian instead of from Taiwan Island.[69]


Yang Cheng-wu, the incumbent Magistrate of Kinmen County

The island consistently votes for the Kuomintang (KMT). Until the early 1990s, proponents of Taiwan independence argued that they would consider handing Kinmen over to the PRC in any negotiated settlement. Residents of the island have broadly opposed such measures, fearing the consequences of the PRC government's policies on their standard of living and political freedom.[citation needed]

The Democratic Progressive Party has a minor presence on the island and typically does not present candidates to stand in local elections, although it does hold a single seat in Kinmen County Council from both of the 2009 and 2014 local elections. However, the party occasionally lends support to liberal or center-left candidates.

On 29 November 2014 however, independent candidate Chen Fu-hai won the county magistrate election and took office as the Magistrate of Kinmen County on 25 December 2014, the first independent candidate to win the office. He replaced Magistrate Lee Wo-shih of the Kuomintang.[70] The 2014 Kinmen County magistrate election consisted of 10 candidates, the highest number of nominated candidates in the electoral history of Taiwan.[71]

Kinmen County Constituency is represented by a single seat in the Legislative Yuan. The incumbent Magistrate of Kinmen County is Yang Cheng-wu of the Kuomintang.[72]


Subdivision of Kinmen County into townships
Jincheng Township, the county seat of Kinmen

Kinmen County is divided into 3 urban townships and 3 rural townships.[73] Jincheng Township is the county seat which houses Kinmen County Government and Kinmen County Council. The township also houses the headquarter office of Kinmen-Matsu Joint Services Center. Kinmen County has the fewest rural townships among other counties in Taiwan.

Name Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Wade–Giles Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī English meaning
Urban townships
Jincheng Township 金城 Jīnchéng Zhèn Chin¹-ch'eng² Chen⁴ Kim-siâⁿ-tìn 'Golden City'
Jinhu Township 金湖 Jīnhú Zhèn Chin¹-hu² Chen⁴ Kim-ô͘-tìn 'Golden Lake'
Jinsha Township 金沙 Jīnshā Zhèn Chin¹-sha¹ Chen⁴ Kim-soa-tìn 'Gold Dust'[74]
Rural townships
Jinning Township 金寧 Jīnníng Xiāng Chin¹-ning² Hsiang¹ Kim-lêng-hiong 'Golden Tranquility'
Lieyu Township 烈嶼 Lièyǔ Xiāng Lie⁴-yü³ Hsiang¹ Lia̍t-sū-hiong 'Split-off Islet'[75]
Wuqiu Township 烏坵 Wūqiū Xiāng Wu¹-ch'iu¹ Hsiang¹ O͘-khiu-hiong 'Black Mound'

All those townships on Greater Kinmen Island start their names with Jin (i.e., Kin, lit. "gold"). Lieyu Township encompasses the entire Lesser Kinmen Island, and is the closest to Xiamen. Wuqiu Township comprises Greater Qiu Islet (大坵) and Lesser Qiu Islet (小坵).

Jincheng and Jinsha are the largest of the six townships. Altogether, there are 37 villages in Kinmen County.

Cross-Strait relationsEdit

In the controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has continuously claimed the territory of Kinmen County as part of its own Fujian Province, claiming the Kinmen Islands as a county of Quanzhou prefecture-level city.[76][77][21][78] The PRC claims the Wuqiu (Ockseu) Islands as part of Xiuyu District in Putian prefecture-level city.[79] Taiwan (Republic of China) claims the Dadeng (Tateng) Islands in Dadeng Subdistrict, Xiang'an District, Xiamen, Fujian as part of Kinmen County.[1][80][47]


In August 2010, National Quemoy University was established from the predecessor National Kinmen Institute of Technology and Kinmen Division of National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences established in 1997.[81] It is located in Jinning Township. The islands also have a satellite campuses of Ming Chuan University and National University of Kaohsiung. Secondary educational institutions include National Kinmen Senior High School and National Kinmen Agricultural and Industrial Vocational Senior High School. In total, there are 24 junior high schools, elementary schools and kindergartens.[82]

The Kinmen County Government have invested millions in education in Kinmen, with an average of NT$20,000 per student. Schools in the county also accept the growing number of Taiwanese students whose parents are doing business in Fujian.[83] The county government has been striving to encourage universities in Taiwan Island and Mainland China to set up branches in the county, as well as to attract Chinese mainland students to study in Kinmen.[84]



The Kinmen Power Company was founded in 1967 and gradually built five power plants in the county and is in charge of providing power resources to all residents in Kinmen. It used to rely on light diesel oil which created high cost burden to its management. Since 1992, the ROC central government approved the power company to authorize Taiwan Power Company (Taipower) for five-year management. All of the power development projects were invested by Taipower and helped the region economic development. In July 1997, Kinmen Power Company was officially incorporated to Taipower. In 1999, the diesel-fired Tashan Power Plant was built to supply electricity to Kinmen grid. The other smaller power plants were subsequently discontinued to reduce cost.[82] The county is also powered by its Jinmen Wind wind farm with a capacity of 4 MW and photovoltaic system with a capacity of 9 MW.[85][86]

Submarine telecommunication cableEdit

In August 2012, Kinmen and Xiamen established the first submarine telecommunication cable between the two sides. On Taiwan side, the infrastructure was constructed by Chunghwa Telecom, while on mainland China's side was done by China Telecom, China Unicom and China Mobile. The project was initially launched in 1996 and took 16 years to build.[87]

The telecommunication system consists of two cables, one is a 11 km (6.8 mi) long cable that runs from Kinmen's Lake Tzu and Xiamen's Mount Guanyin, and the other is a 9.7 km (6.0 mi) long cable that runs from Guningtou on Greater Kinmen Island (ROC) to Dadeng Island (PRC). The system is a non-repeater system with a bilateral transmission capacity of 90 Gbit/s, which might be expanded in the future if demand arises.[87]

Water supplyEdit

Water treatment plant in Kinmen

The current daily water demand for Kinmen is 50,000 tonnes, which are used for households, industries and agriculture sectors. One tonne of water produced for Kinmen costs about NT$50–60 and may surge to NT$70 during summer. In extreme drought condition, water shipment from Taiwan Island may cost as much as NT$200 per tonne. Because Kinmen residents pay only NT$10 for each tonne water they use, the cost of water supply has become a heavy burden for the county government.[88]

For decades, Kinmen has been facing difficulties in water supply to its residents due to its shallow lakes, lack of rainfall and geographical constraints which makes building reservoirs and dams unfeasible. Therefore, Kinmen often overuses its groundwater, causing rising tidal flood and soil salinity.

In early September 2013, the People's Republic of China government agreed to supply Kinmen with water from Jinjiang City in Fujian due to the ongoing water shortage problem in Kinmen. Kinmen draws more than 8,000 tonnes of groundwater every day and water from its reservoir is barely enough to support the residents during the dry season. The shortage problem will heavily hit the local economy by 2016 if no mitigation plan is enacted. The water supply agreement was officially signed on 20 July 2015 in Kinmen between Kinmen County Waterworks Director Weng Wen-kuei (翁文貴) and Fujian Water Supply Co chairman Zhu Jinliang (朱金良) witnessed by Kinmen County Magistrate Chen Fu-hai and Fujian Province Governor Su Shulin.[89]

The water pipeline was officially opened on 5 August 2018 when the first water supply was delivered in a ceremony held in both Kinmen County and Jinjiang City in Mainland China.[90]



Kinmen is served by Kinmen Airport, a domestic airport located at Jinhu Township, connecting Kinmen with Magong Airport, Penghu and Taipei Songshan, Kaohsiung, Taichung, Chiayi and Tainan Airport on Taiwan Island.


People coming from Mainland China can also visit Kinmen using ferry via Fujian from Xiamen at Wutong Ferry Terminal or from Quanzhou arriving at Shuitou Pier in Jincheng Township.[91] Kinmen to Xiamen Ferry, is a popular route between the Chinese Mainland and Taiwanese tourists alike, with brisk connections available between the ferry ports and Kinmen Airport (for Taiwanese destinations) and Xiamen's Airport and Xiamen North Railway Station (for Mainland destinations). The Kinmen-Quanzhou Ferry is only available to local travellers and foreigner passport holders are not permitted to use this service.

A new commercial port has been built adjacent to the Shuitou Pier on newly reclaimed land. This will handle the majority of sea freight to and from Kinmen. Previously most of this traffic was handled by a smaller port on the South-East corner of the island in Jinhu Township. In the past, due to constant artillery shelling from the Chinese mainland, an underground port was used to supply the island in times of conflict at the Jhaishan Tunnels on the South-Western tip of the island but this has been decommissioned and turned into a tourist attraction.

Greatly used as a transit route between the Chinese Mainland and Taiwan Island, buses also connect to the ferry terminal to allow for quick transfer to Xiamen.


A 5.4 km (3.4 mi) bridge, Kinmen Bridge, connecting Kinmen Island (Greater Kinmen) and Lieyu is planned to be completed by 2020, estimated to cost NT$7.5 billion (US$250 million).[92] It is expected to increase local tourism; the bridge's 1.4 km (0.87 mi) main body will have the largest span in the world when completed.[93]

In October 2019, Mainland China announced a plan to build a bridge linking Xiamen to Kinmen. Taiwan's Mainland Affairs Council (MAC) said that the plans were made unilaterally by China as part of its schemes to absorb Taiwan and divide Taiwanese society and that they see no need for bridges linking either Matsu or Kinmen to China.[94]


See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Area figure excludes the Dadeng (Tateng) Islands.
  2. ^ The northern coast of Greater Kinmen (Quemoy) is about five or six miles from the nearest point on mainland Asia in places. In the Matsu Islands, Gaodeng Island is 5.75 miles from the Beijiao Peninsula. Some ROC-controlled areas are closer than five miles from PRC-controlled areas. For instance, Jiaoyu in Dadeng Subdistrict is a little more than one mile from the tip of Greater Kinmen in Jinsha Township.
  3. ^ Wuqiu, Kinmen is about eighty miles from the closest point on the main island of Taiwan (Formosa). Juguang, Lienchiang and Dongyin, Lienchiang are a little more than ninety miles from the closest point. The main islands Greater Kinmen (Quemoy) and Nangan (Matsu) are over one hundred miles from Taiwan Island.
  4. ^ The island of Taiwan is separated from the southeast coast of China by the Taiwan Strait, which ranges from 220 km (140 mi) at its widest point to 130 km (81 mi) at its narrowest.


  1. ^ a b c d e 行政面積. 金門縣政府民政處 Civil Affairs Department, Kinmen County Government (in Chinese). 29 January 2019. Retrieved 9 August 2019. 外圍 島嶼 面積單位: (平方公里) 大嶝 22.7500 小嶝 3.3100 角嶼 2.4400{...}附記 本縣縣境總面積153.011平方公里。 (不含中共管轄之大小嶝、角嶼)
  2. ^ a b Kinmen Island (Conventional - C) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  3. ^ "`The Gibraltar of Asia' and a `park in the ocean'", Taipei Times, Sep 30, 2004.
  4. ^ Jian-Feng Wei. "An Examination of Cultural Identity of Residents of Quemoy (Kinmen)". Archived 2013-04-29 at the Wayback Machine Intercultural Communication Studies. XV:1. 2006. p. 134. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
  5. ^ Postal Romanization, Taipei, Taiwan : Directorate General of Posts, 1961, p. 6. "Kinmen (AF) and Taiwan (9) are both postal romanization."
  6. ^ Postal Romanization, p. 4.
  7. ^ 2019-2020 Taiwan at a glance, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China (Taiwan), October 2019, pp. 1, 22.
  8. ^ "Quemoy Archived 2012-03-07 at the Wayback Machine", Merriam Webster
    "Quemoy Archived 2013-07-01 at the Wayback Machine", Larousse. (in French)
  9. ^ a b Jian-Feng Wei. "'Quemoy' or 'Kinmen'?: A Translation Strategy for Communication". Archived 2013-04-29 at the Wayback Machine Intercultural Communication Studies. XVIII: 2. 2009. p. 176. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Trista di Genova. "Study explores the 'Kinmen Identity'". Archived 2011-11-04 at the Wayback Machine China Post. 11 July 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
  11. ^ "Taiwan place names". Pīnyī (in Chinese and English). Retrieved 15 September 2020. Jinmen / Jinmen / Kinmen County
  12. ^ "ISO 7098:1982 Documentation — Romanization of Chinese"
  13. ^ Shih Hsiu-Chuan, "Hanyu Pinyin to be standard system in 2009." Taipei Times, Sept. 18, 2008.
  14. ^ Index to Map of China (2 ed.). Shanghai: Far Eastern Geographical Establishment. 1915. p. 31. Kimoi Island (Kinmen) 金門島 Fukien ... ... 福建 ... 24.23N 118.20E
  15. ^ Edward Stanford (1908). Atlas of the Chinese Empire (1 ed.). p. 24. Kimoi I. (Kinmen)
  16. ^ a b "About the park". Kinmen National Park. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  17. ^ a b "History". Lonely Planet. Archived from the original on 2016-04-20. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
  18. ^ Wakeman, Frederic (1986). The Great Enterprise : The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-Century China. University of California Press. p. 114. ISBN 0-520-04804-0.
  19. ^ a b "kinmen awareness". Kinmen County Government. 8 December 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2019. Long belonging to the administration of Tungan Prefecture of Fujian Province, Kinmen had begun its county administration since 1915.{...}In 1937, the County Government was moved to Dadeng for battle and it was later returned to Kinmen after the victory in 1935.{...}The minerals within Kinmen County include china clay and granite.
  20. ^ a b c d e f 辞海第六版. Cihai (Sixth Edition) (in Chinese). 上海. Shanghai: 上海辞书出版社. Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House. September 2009. p. 1124. ISBN 9787532628599. 金门 县名。在福建省东南海上、泉州市西南部。现由台湾省管辖。由以金门岛为主的大、小59个岛屿组成。面积149平方千米,人口约6.45万(2004年)。明置金门千户所,清设金门县丞,属同安县。1913年改隶思明县,1914年析置金门县。1928年直属福建省。农产有甘薯、花生等。矿产有玻璃砂、高岭土、铝土、煤。工业有机械、食品等。特产贡糖、高粱酒、金门马等。通公路。名胜古迹有成功洞、鲁王墓、水尾塔等。{...}金门岛 亦称“大金门岛”、“吾洲屿”。在福建省东南部、厦门港口外台湾海峡中。属金门县,现由台湾省管辖。岛形如哑铃,东西宽,南北狭,中多丘陵,沿海多港湾、口岸。东西长约20千米,面积131.7平方千米。其西有小金门岛。名胜古迹有牧马侯(陈渊)祠、鲁王墓、海印寺、古岗湖、中山纪念林等。
  21. ^ a b c d e f 建治沿革. 泉州市人民政府 [Quanzhou City People's Government] (in Chinese). Retrieved 10 August 2019. 民国3年7月,金门自思明县析出置县,隶属厦门道。{...}民国22年(1933){...}12月13日,四省分别更名为闽海、延建、兴泉、龙汀。兴泉省辖莆田、仙游、晋江、南安、安溪、惠安、同安、金门、永春、德化、大田、思明十二县 ,治设晋江(今泉州市区)。{...}民国23年7月,全省设立十个行政督察区,永春、德化、惠安属第四行政督察区(专署驻仙游),晋江、南安、安溪、金门属第五行政督察区(专署驻同安)。民国24年(1935)10月,全省改为7个行政督察区、l市。惠安、晋江、南安、金门、安溪、永春、德化属第四区(专署驻同安)。民国26年4月,南安县治徙溪美。10月,日本侵略军攻陷金门岛及烈屿,金门县政府迁到大嶝乡。{...}民国27年(1938){...}8月,金门县政务由南安县兼摄。{...}民国32年(1943)9月,全省调整为8个行政督察区、2个市。第四区专署仍驻永春,下辖永春、安溪、金门、南安、晋江、惠安等九县。德化改属第六区(专署驻龙岩)。 {...}1949年8月24日,福建省人民政府(省会福州)成立。8、9月间,南安、永春、惠安、晋江、安溪相继解放。9月, 全省划为八个行政督察区。9月9日,第五行政督察专员公署成立,辖晋江、南安、同安、惠安、安溪、永春、仙游、莆田、金门(待统一)等九县。公署设晋江县城(今泉州市区)。10月9日,金门县大嶝岛、小嶝岛及角屿解放。11月24日,德化解放,归入第七行政督察区(专署驻永安县)。  1950年{...}10月17日,政务院批准德化县划归晋江区专员公署管辖;1951年1月正式接管。至此, 晋江区辖有晋江、南安、同安、安溪、永春、德化、莆田、仙游、惠安、金门(待统一)十县。{...}1955年3月12日,奉省人民委员会令,晋江区专员公署改称晋江专员公署,4月1日正式实行。同年5月,省人民政府宣布成立金门县政府。{...}1970年{...}6月18日,福建省革命委员会决定实行。于是,全区辖有泉州市及晋江、惠安、南安、同安、安溪、永春、德化、金门(待统一)八县。同年12月25日,划金门县大嶝公社归同安县管辖。{...}1992年3月6日,国务院批准,晋江撤县设市,领原晋江县行政区域,由泉州代管。1992年5月1日。晋江市人民政府成立,至此,泉州市计辖l区、2市、6县:鲤城区、石狮市、晋江市、惠安县、南安县、安溪县、永春县、德化县、金门县,(待统一)。
  22. ^ a b c d e f g 臺灣歷史地圖 增訂版. [Taiwan Historical Maps, Expanded and Revised Edition] (in Chinese). Taipei: National Museum of Taiwan History. February 2018. pp. 154, 158. ISBN 978-986-05-5274-4. 古寧頭戰役地圖1949年10月 大嶝島(原屬金門縣) 1共軍佔領大嶝、小嶝、角嶼10.15 小嶝島(原屬金門縣)角嶼{...}大嶝島 小嶝島 角嶼
  23. ^ a b c d 05-19 臺灣島嶼面積 [Location and Area of Islands in Taiwan]. Ministry of the Interior (in Chinese and English). Retrieved 20 October 2019. 05-19 金門縣島嶼及面積 Area of Islands in Kinmen County 區域別 Locality 面積(平方公里) Area (K㎡){...}外圍島嶼 Offshore Islet{...}大嶝 Dadeng 22.7500 小嶝 Xiaodeng 3.3100 角嶝 Jiaodeng 2.4400{...}資料來源:金門縣政府。 Source: Kinmen County Government. 附 註: 1.大嶝、小嶝、角嶝目前由中國大陸管轄,烏坵鄉由金門縣政府代管。 2.總面積151.656平方公里(不含大小嶝角嶝,含烏坵1.2平方公里),部分無人島未列入。 Remark: 1.Dadeng, Xiaodeng, Jiaodeng are governed by Mainland China, Wuqiu belongs to other county but mandated by Kinmen County Government. 2.Total Area of Kinmen is 151.656 K㎡(Exclude Dadeng, Xiaodeng, Jiaodeng, Include Wuqiu 1.2 K㎡), some unmanned islands and reefs are not listed.
  24. ^ a b c d 大嶝街道. 厦门市翔安区人民政府 PEOPLE'S GOVERNMENT OF XIANG'AN XIAMEN (in Chinese). 12 July 2019. Retrieved 10 August 2019. 大嶝街道位于厦门市翔安区东南部,隔海北与南安市石井镇毗邻,南与金门岛相对,西南与厦门岛相望,由大嶝、小嶝、角屿三个岛屿组成,总人口约2.6万人,土地面积13.2平方公里,海岸线25.15公里,{...}一方面加快大嶝战地旅游设施建设,另一方面开辟了“游三岛、登白哈、看金门”的旅游航线,组建了一支豪华舒适的旅游船队。
  25. ^ a b c d 魅力翔安. 厦门市翔安区人民政府PEOPLE'S GOVERNMENT OF XIANG'AN XIAMEN (in Chinese). Retrieved 9 August 2019. 翔安区设立于2003年10月19日。陆地总面积420平方公里,海域面积134平方公里,下辖一街(大嶝街道)、四镇(新店、马巷、内厝和新圩),{...}大嶝岛 小嶝岛 角屿 白蛤礁
  26. ^ Hsiao-ting Lin (6 April 2012). "Taiwan's Secret Ally". Hoover Institution. Archived from the original on 6 September 2019. Retrieved 6 September 2019. In early July, Chiang was seriously considering withdrawing from Quemoy and other tiny coastal possessions off Southeast China to bolster Taiwan’s defense and free up 33,000 combat troops for the Korean theater. Even though Cooke fully supported the Nationalist government’s probable participation in the Korean War, he vehemently opposed the evacuation from Quemoy. Cooke was convinced that it would not only look weak to the Chinese Communists but damage morale in Taiwan and the entire free world.
  27. ^ Lin Ma-Teng 林馬騰 (July 2009). 秘島:大二膽的秘境秘史 (in Chinese). 林馬騰文史工作室. ISBN 978-957-41-6438-7.
  28. ^ Fang-shang Lu 呂芳上, ed. (April 2011). 蔣中正日記與民國史研究 [Chiang Kai-Shek's Diaries and the Study of Republican Chinese History] (in Chinese). 2. Taipei: 世界大同出版有限公司. p. 643. 其實國府堅守金馬最初是受到美國鼓勵的{...}國府{...}考慮放棄金門,但因東盟總麥克阿瑟將軍(Douglas MacArthur)不贊成{...}韓戰過後到第一次臺海危機(1954年9月至1955年4月)爆發之前,美方也不願中共拿下外島,鼓勵國府增派受美援訓練的部隊駐守外島。
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  37. ^ Richard Nixon (1978). RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon. Simon & Schuster. p. 272. ISBN 0-446-93259-0 – via Internet Archive. Once again I hit hard on the Quemoy-Matsu issue, stating that Kennedy's willingness to surrender the islands to the Communists under threat of war was no different from submitting to blackmail. Shortly after the third debate I learned that one of Kennedy's top foreign policy advisers had telephoned Secretary of State Herter to say that Kennedy did not want to give the Communists the impression that America would not stand united against aggression and was therefore prepared to revise his position in order not to appear to oppose the administration on this issue. I saw this as Kennedy's way of trying to slide away from an unpopular position, and my immediate inclination was not to let him get away with it. But the Quemoy-Matsu situation was so tense, and the importance of America's role in discouraging Communist aggression was so great, that I decided not to press the point if Kennedy modified his stand. I pointed out how his changed attitude reflected his lack of experience, and then let the issue drop.
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  48. ^ "Geographic environment". Kinmen National Park. Archived from the original on 28 October 2018. Retrieved 27 July 2019. The 12 islands and islets comprising Kinmen mainland, Lieyu (small Kinmen), Da Dan, Er Dan, Dong Ding, Beiding, Cao islet, Hou islet, Jiangong islet, Fuxing islet, Menghu islet, Shi islet occupy an area of 150 square meters in total.
  49. ^ "IMPLICATIONS OF US-CHICOM GENEVA DEADLOCK". CIA. 29 November 1955. p. 6. Retrieved 9 August 2019. 2. {redacted}ChiComs are building a causeway to link Tateng Island, the Communist territory nearest Quemoy, to mainland. 3.{redacted}several thousand troops (recently arrived in Amoy from Shanghai) will be garrisoned on Tateng after the causeway is completed (in next two months).
  50. ^ "CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN". CIA. 1 December 1955. p. 6. Retrieved 9 August 2019. After a lull of several weeks in artillery duels in the Quemoy area, Chinese Nationalist 155mm howitzers on 28 November fired 240 rounds at a causeway which the Chinese Communists are constructing between the mainland and Tateng Island, four to five miles north of Quemoy. Communist artillery responded with 680 rounds. No major damage was reported. {redacted} 2. The Chinese Communists began constructing the 6,300-foot causeway to Tateng apparently in early November. Such a link with the mainland would facilitate supply of Communist military positions on Tateng. Communist artillery now on the island is believed to include only 76mm guns, but 122mm or larger weapons could take any point on Quemoy under fire.{redacted}
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External links and further readingEdit

  1. ^ Sarah Shair-Rosenfield (November 2020). "Taiwan combined" (PDF). The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 29 May 2021.