Fujian (About this sound福建; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien Province) is a province on the southeastern coast of China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, Guangdong to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the east. Its capital is Fuzhou, while its largest city by population is Xiamen, both located near the coast of the Taiwan Strait in the east of the province. The name Fujian (福建) originated from the combination of the city names of Fuzhou (福州) and nearby Jianzhou (建州 present-day Nanping) during the Tang dynasty.

Fujian Province

福建省
Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese福建省 (Fújiàn Shěng)
 • AbbreviationFJ / (pinyin: Mǐn, POJ: Bân)
 • Hokkien POJHok-kiàn
 • FoochowHók-gióng
Panorama of the Wuyi Mountains
Panorama of the Wuyi Mountains
Map showing the location of Fujian Province
Map showing the location of Fujian Province
Coordinates: 25°54′N 118°18′E / 25.9°N 118.3°E / 25.9; 118.3Coordinates: 25°54′N 118°18′E / 25.9°N 118.3°E / 25.9; 118.3
Jiangnandong Circuit626
Fujian Circuit985
Part of the Yuan dynasty1278
Taiwan Prefecture established1684
Taiwan Province established1887
Fujian People's Government1933-11-20 to 1934-01-13
Partition of Fujian1949-08-17[citation needed]
Named for : Fuzhou
Jiàn: Jianzhou
CapitalFuzhou
Largest cityXiamen
Divisions9 prefectures, 85[1] counties, 1107[1] townships
Government
 • SecretaryYu Weiguo
 • GovernorTang Dengjie
Area
 • Total121,400 km2 (46,900 sq mi)
Area rank23rd
Highest elevation
2,158 m (7,080 ft)
Population
 (2017)[3]
 • Total38,565,000
 • Rank17th
 • Density320/km2 (820/sq mi)
 • Density rank14th
Demographics
 • Ethnic compositionHan – 98%
She – 1%
Hui – 0.3%
 • Languages and dialectsMin (inc. Hokkien dialects, Fuzhounese), Mandarin, Hakka
ISO 3166 codeCN-FJ
GDP (2018)CN¥3.58 trillion
US$540.78 billion[4] (10th)
 • per capitaCN¥92,830
US$14,022 (6th)
HDI (2014)0.758[5] (high) (11th)
Websitewww.Fujian.gov.cn
Fujian
Fujian (Chinese characters).svg
"Fujian" in Chinese characters
Chinese福建
Literal meaning"Fu(zhou) and Jian(zhou)"
Abbreviation
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese
Literal meaning[the Min River]

While its population is chiefly of ethnic Han Chinese origin, it is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse provinces in China. Historically the dialects of the language group Min Chinese were most commonly spoken within the province, including the Hokkien dialects of southeastern Fujian. This is reflected in the abbreviation of the province's name (). Hakka Chinese is also spoken, by the Hakka people in Fujian. Min dialects and Hakka Chinese are unintelligible with Mandarin Chinese. Due to emigration, a sizable amount of the ethnic Chinese populations of Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines speak Southern Min (or Hokkien).

With a population of 39 million, Fujian ranks 17th in population among Chinese provinces. Its GDP is CN¥3.58 trillion, ranking 10th in GDP. Along with its coastal neighbours Zhejiang and Guangdong, Fujian's GDP per capita is above the national average, at CN¥92,830. It has benefited from its geographical proximity with Taiwan.

Surrounding IslandsEdit

Some surrounding islands off the east coast are considered part of Fujian province and are administered as such. Other islands are considered part of Taiwan.

As a result of the Chinese Civil War, 'Historical Fujian' (all territories that were once considered part of Fujian) is now divided between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC, Taiwan), and both territories are named the Fujian province in their respective administrative divisions.

The majority of the territory of historical Fujian (the mainland territory and a few islands) currently make up the Fujian province of the PRC. The ROC's Fujian includes two counties (Kinmen and Lienchiang), which consist of three offshore archipelagos namely the Kinmen Islands, the Matsu Islands and the Wuqiu Islands.

HistoryEdit

Prehistoric FujianEdit

Recent archaeological discoveries in 2011 demonstrate that Fujian had entered the Neolithic Age by the middle of the 6th millennium BC.[6] From the Keqiutou site (7450–5590 BP), an early Neolithic site in Pingtan Island located about 70 kilometres (43 mi) southeast of Fuzhou, numerous tools made of stones, shells, bones, jades, and ceramics (including wheel-made ceramics) have been unearthed, together with spinning wheels, which is definitive evidence of weaving.

The Tanshishan (曇石山) site (5500–4000 BP) in suburban Fuzhou spans the Neolithic and Chalcolithic Age where semi-underground circular buildings were found in the lower level. The Huangtulun (黃土崙) site (ca.1325 BC), also in suburban Fuzhou, was of the Bronze Age in character.

Tianlong Jiao (2013)[7] notes that the Neolithic appeared on the coast of Fujian around 6,000 B.P. During the Neolithic, the coast of Fujian had a low population density, with the population depending on mostly on fishing and hunting, along with limited agriculture.

There were four major Neolithic cultures in coastal Fujian, with the earliest Neolithic cultures originating from the north in coastal Zhejiang.[7]

  • Keqiutou culture (壳丘头文化; c. 6000–5500 BP, or c. 4050–3550 BC)
  • Tanshishan culture (昙石山文化; c. 5000–4300 BP, or c. 3050–2350 BC)
  • Damaoshan culture (大帽山文化; c. 5000–4300 BP)
  • Huangguashan culture (黄瓜山文化; c. 4300–3500 BP, or c. 2350–1550 BC)

There were two major Neolithic cultures in inland Fujian, which were highly distinct from the coastal Fujian Neolithic cultures.[7] These are the Niubishan culture (牛鼻山文化) from 5000–4000 years ago, and the Hulushan culture (葫芦山文化) from 2050 to 1550 BC.

Minyue kingdomEdit

Fujian was also where the kingdom of Minyue was located. The word "Mǐnyuè" was derived by combining "Mǐn" (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: bân), which is perhaps an ethnic name (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: mán; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: bân), and "Yuè", after the State of Yue, a Spring and Autumn period kingdom in Zhejiang to the north. This is because the royal family of Yuè fled to Fujian after its kingdom was annexed by the State of Chu in 306 BC. Mǐn is also the name of the main river in this area, but the ethnonym is probably older.

Qin dynastyEdit

The Qin deposed the king of Minyue, establishing instead a paramilitary province there called Minzhong Commandery. Minyue was a de facto kingdom until one of the emperors of the Qin dynasty, the first unified imperial Chinese state, abolished its status.[8]

Han dynastyEdit

In the aftermath of the Qin dynasty's fall, civil war broke out between two warlords, Xiang Yu and Liu Bang. The Minyue king Wuzhu sent his troops to fight with Liu and his gamble paid off. Liu was victorious and founded the Han dynasty. In 202 BC, he restored Minyue's status as a tributary independent kingdom. Thus Wuzhu was allowed to construct his fortified city in Fuzhou as well as a few locations in the Wuyi Mountains, which have been excavated in recent years. His kingdom extended beyond the borders of contemporary Fujian into eastern Guangdong, eastern Jiangxi, and southern Zhejiang.[9]

After Wuzhu's death, Minyue maintained its militant tradition and launched several expeditions against its neighboring kingdoms in Guangdong, Jiangxi, and Zhejiang, primarily in the 2nd century BC. This was stopped by the Han dynasty as it expanded southward. The Han emperor eventually decided to get rid of the potential threat by launching a military campaign against Minyue. Large forces approached Minyue simultaneously from four directions via land and sea in 111 BC. The rulers in Fuzhou surrendered to avoid a futile fight and destruction and the first kingdom in Fujian history came to an abrupt end.

Fujian was part of the much larger Yang Province (Yangzhou), whose provincial capital was designated in Liyang (歷陽; present-day He County, Anhui).

The Han dynasty collapsed at the end of the 2nd century AD, paving the way for the Three Kingdoms era. Sun Quan, the founder of the Kingdom of Wu, spent nearly 20 years subduing the Shan Yue people, the branch of the Yue living in mountains.

Jin eraEdit

The first wave of immigration of the noble class arrived in the province in the early 4th century when the Western Jin dynasty collapsed and the north was torn apart by invasions by nomadic peoples from the north, as well as civil war. These immigrants were primarily from eight families in central China: Chen (), Lin (), Huang (), Zheng (), Zhan (), Qiu (), He (), and Hu (). To this day, the first four remain the most popular surnames in Fujian.[citation needed]

Nevertheless, isolation from nearby areas owing to rugged terrain contributed to Fujian's relatively undeveloped economy and level of development, despite major population boosts from northern China during the "barbarian" invasions. Population density in Fujian remained low compared to the rest of China. Only two commanderies and sixteen counties were established by the Western Jin dynasty. Like other southern provinces such as Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan, Fujian often served as a destination for exiled prisoners and dissidents at that time.

During the Southern and Northern Dynasties era, the Southern Dynasties (Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang (Western Liang), and Chen) reigned south of the Yangtze River, including Fujian.

Sui and Tang dynastiesEdit

During the Sui and Tang eras a large influx of migrants settled in Fujian.[10][11]

During the Sui dynasty, Fujian was again part of Yang Province.

During the Tang, Fujian was part of the larger Jiangnan East Circuit, whose capital was at Suzhou. Modern-day Fujian was composed of around 5 prefectures and 25 counties.

The Tang dynasty (618–907) oversaw the next golden age of China, which contributed to a boom in Fujian's culture and economy. Fuzhou's economic and cultural institutions grew and developed. The later years of the Tang dynasty saw a number of political upheavals in the Chinese heartland, prompting even larger waves of northerners to immigrate to northern part of Fujian.

Five Dynasties Ten KingdomsEdit

As the Tang dynasty ended, China was torn apart in the period of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. During this time, a second major wave of immigration arrived in the safe haven of Fujian, led by General Wang, who set up an independent Kingdom of Min with its capital in Fuzhou. After the death of the founding king, however, the kingdom suffered from internal strife, and was soon absorbed by Southern Tang, another southern kingdom.[12]

Parts of northern Fujian were conquered by the Wuyue Kingdom to the north as well, including the Min capital Fuzhou.

Quanzhou city was blooming into a seaport under the reign of the Min Kingdom[citation needed] and was the largest seaport in the world.[when?] For a long period of time its population was also greater than Fuzhou.[13][14]

Qingyuan Jiedushi was a military/governance office created in 949 by Southern Tang's second emperor Li Jing for the warlord Liu Congxiao, who nominally submitted to him but controlled Quan (泉州, in modern Quanzhou, Fujian) and Zhang (漳州, in modern Zhangzhou, Fujian) Prefectures in de facto independence from the Southern Tang state.[15] (Zhang Prefecture was, at times during the circuit's existence, also known as Nan Prefecture (南州).)[16] Starting in 960, in addition to being nominally submissive to Southern Tang, Qingyuan Circuit was also nominally submissive to Song, which had itself become Southern Tang's nominal overlord.[17]

 
Map showing the location of Qingyuan Jiedushi (Circuit)

After Liu's death, the circuit was briefly ruled by his biological nephew/adoptive son Liu Shaozi, who was then overthrown by the officers Zhang Hansi and Chen Hongjin. Zhang then ruled the circuit briefly, before Chen deposed him and took over.[16] In 978, with Song's determination to unify Chinese lands in full order, Chen decided that he could not stay de facto independent, and offered the control of the circuit to Song's Emperor Taizong, ending Qingyuan Circuit as a de facto independent entity.[18]

Song dynastyEdit

The area was reorganized into the Fujian Circuit in 985, which was the first time the name "Fujian" was used for an administrative region.[citation needed]

Many Chinese migrated from Fujian's major ports to Vietnam's Red River Delta. The settlers then created the Tran port and Van Don.[19] Fujian and Guangdong Chinese moved to the Van Don coastal port to engage in commerce.[20]

During the Ly and Tran dynasties, many ethnic Han Chinese with surname Tran (陈) migrated to Vietnam from Fujian or Guangxi. They settled along the coast of Vietnam and the capital's southeastern area.[21][22] The Ly family married into the Fujian Tran family, who then founded the Vietnam Tran Dynasty.[23]

In Vietnam the Tran served as officials. Chinese surnames are found in the Tran and Ly dynasty Imperial exam records.[24] Ethnic Chinese are recorded in Tran and Ly dynasty records of officials.[25] Clothing, food, and language were all Chinese dominated in Van Don where the Tran had moved after leaving their home province of Fujian. The Chinese language could still be spoken by the Tran in Vietnam.[26]

In 1172 Fujian was attacked by Pi-she-ye pirates from Taiwan.[27]

Yuan dynastyEdit

After the establishment of the Yuan dynasty, Fujian became part of Jiangzhe province, whose capital was at Hangzhou. From 1357-1366 Muslims in Quanzhou participated in the Ispah Rebellion, advancing northward and even capturing Putian and Fuzhou before the rebellion was crushed by the Yuan. Afterwards, Quanzhou city lost foreign interest of trading and its formerly welcoming international image as the foreigners were all massacred or deported.

Yuan dynasty General Chen Youding, who had put down the Ispah Rebellion, continued to rule over the Fujian area even after the outbreak of the Red Turban Rebellion. Forces loyal to eventual Ming dynasty founder Zhu Yuanzhang (Hongwu Emperor) defeated Chen in 1367.[28]

Ming dynastyEdit

After the establishment of the Ming dynasty, Fujian became a province, with capital at Fuzhou. In the early Ming era, Quanzhou was the staging area and supply depot of Zheng He's naval expeditions. Further development was severely hampered by the sea trade ban, and the area was superseded by nearby ports of Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Ningbo and Shanghai despite the lifting of the ban in 1550.[citation needed] Large-scale piracy by Wokou was eventually wiped out by Chinese military.

An account of Ming dynasty Fujian was written by No In (Lu Ren 鲁认).[29][30]

The Pisheya appear in Quanzhou Ming era records.[31]

Qing dynastyEdit

The late Ming and early Qing dynasty symbolized an era of large influx of refugees and another 20 years of sea trade ban under the Kangxi Emperor, a measure intended to counter the refuge Ming government of Koxinga in the island of Taiwan.

The sea ban implented by the Qing forced many people to evacuate the coast in order to deprive Koxinga's Ming loyalists of resources. This has led to the myth that it was because Manchus were "afraid of water".

Incoming refugees did not translate into a major labor force, owing to their re-migration into prosperous regions of Guangdong. In 1683, the Qing dynasty conquered Taiwan in the Battle of Penghu and annexed it into the Fujian province, as Taiwan Prefecture. Many more Han Chinese then settled Taiwan. Today, most Taiwanese are descendants of Hokkien people from Southern Fujian. Fujian and Taiwan were originally treated as one province (Fujian-Taiwan-Province), but starting in 1885, they split into two separate provinces.[32]

In the 1890s, the Qing ceded Taiwan to Japan via the Treaty of Shimonoseki after the First Sino-Japanese War.

Republic of ChinaEdit

The Xinhai revolution overthrew the Qing dynasty and brought the province into the rule of the Republic of China.

Fujian briefly established the Fujian People's Government until it was re-controlled by the Republic of China.

Fujian came under Japanese sea blockade during World War II.

People's Republic of ChinaEdit

After the Chinese Civil War, the People's Republic of China unified the country and took over Fujian.

In its early days, Fujian's relatively slow development compared to the rest of China has proved a blessing for the province's ecology. Today, the province has the highest forest coverage rate and the most diverse biosphere in China whereas central China suffers from severe overpopulation and displays severe signs of soil erosion, with frequent droughts and floods due to lack of forest coverage.[citation needed]

Development has been accompanied by a large influx of population from the overpopulated areas to Fujian's north and west, and much of the farmland and forest, as well as cultural heritage sites such as the temples of king Wuzhu, have given way to ubiquitous high-rise buildings. Fujian faces challenges to sustain development[citation needed] while at the same time preserving Fujian's natural and cultural heritage.

GeographyEdit

The province is mostly mountainous and is traditionally said to be "eight parts mountain, one part water, and one part farmland" (八山一水一分田). The northwest is higher in altitude, with the Wuyi Mountains forming the border between Fujian and Jiangxi. It is the most forested provincial-level administrative region in China, with a 62.96% forest coverage rate in 2009.[33] Fujian's highest point is Mount Huanggang in the Wuyi Mountains, with an altitude of 2,157 metres (1.340 mi).

Fujian faces East China Sea to the east, South China Sea to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the southeast. The coastline is rugged and has many bays and islands. Major islands include Quemoy (also known as Kinmen, controlled by the Republic of China), Haitan Island, and Nanri Island. Meizhou Island occupies a central place in the cult of the goddess Matsu, the patron deity of Chinese sailors.

The Min River and its tributaries cut through much of northern and central Fujian. Other rivers include the Jin and the Jiulong. Due to its uneven topography, Fujian has many cliffs and rapids.

Fujian is separated from Taiwan by the 180 kilometres (110 mi)-wide Taiwan Strait. Some of the small islands in the Taiwan Strait are also part of the province. The islands of Quemoy and Matsu are under the administration of the Republic of China.

Fujian contains several faults, the result of collision between the Asiatic Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate. The Changle-Naoao and Longan-Jinjiang fault zones in this area have annual displacement rates of 3–5 mm. They could cause major earthquakes in the future.[34]

Fujian has a subtropical climate, with mild winters. In January, the coastal regions average around 7–10 °C (45–50 °F) while the hills average 6–8 °C (43–46 °F). In the summer, temperatures are high, and the province is threatened by typhoons coming in from the Pacific. Average annual precipitation is 1,400–2,000 millimetres (55–79 in).

TransportationEdit

RoadsEdit

As of 2012, there are 54,876 kilometres (34,098 miles) of highways in Fujian, including 3,500 kilometres (2,200 miles) of expressways. The top infrastructure projects in recent years have been the Zhangzhou-Zhaoan Expressway (US$624 million) and the Sanmingshi-Fuzhou expressway (US$1.40 billion). The 12th Five-Year Plan, covering the period from 2011 to 2015, aims to double the length of the province's expressways to 5,500 kilometres (3,400 mi).[35]

RailwaysEdit

 
Fuzhou train station

Due to Fujian's mountainous terrain and traditional reliance on maritime transportation, railways came to the province comparatively late. The first rail links to neighboring Jiangxi, Guangdong and Zhejiang Province, opened respectively, in 1959, 2000 and 2009. As of October 2013, Fujian has four rail links with Jiangxi to the northwest: the Yingtan–Xiamen Railway (opened 1957), the Hengfeng–Nanping Railway (1998), Ganzhou–Longyan Railway (2005) and the high-speed Xiangtang–Putian Railway (2013). Fujian's lone rail link to Guangdong to the west, the Zhangping–Longchuan Railway (2000), will be joined with the high-speed Xiamen–Shenzhen Railway (Xiashen Line) in late 2013. The Xiashen Line forms the southern-most section of China's Southeast Coast High-Speed Rail Corridor. The Wenzhou–Fuzhou and Fuzhou–Xiamen sections of this corridor entered operation in 2009 and links Fujian with Zhejiang with trains running at speeds of up to 250 km/h (155 mph).

Within Fujian, coastal and interior cities are linked by the Nanping–Fuzhou (1959), Zhangping–Quanzhou–Xiaocuo (2007) and Longyan–Xiamen Railways, (2012). To attract Taiwanese investment, the province intends to increase its rail length by 50 percent to 2,500 km (1,553 mi).[36]

AirEdit

The major airports are Fuzhou Changle International Airport, Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport, Quanzhou Jinjiang International Airport, Nanping Wuyishan Airport, Longyan Guanzhishan Airport and Sanming Shaxian Airport. Xiamen is capable of handling 15.75 million passengers as of 2011. Fuzhou is capable of handling 6.5 million passengers annually with a cargo capacity of more than 200,000 tons. The airport offers direct links to 45 destinations including international routes to Japan, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and Hong Kong.[36]

Administrative divisionsEdit

The People's Republic of China controls most of the province and divides it into nine prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities (including a sub-provincial city):

Administrative divisions of Fujian
Division code[37] Division Area in km2[38] Population 2010[39] Seat Divisions[40]
Districts Counties CL cities
350000 Fujian Province 121400.00 36,894,217 Fuzhou city 29 44 12
350100 Fuzhou city 12155.46 7,115,369 Gulou District 6 6 1
350200 Xiamen city 1699.39 3,531,347 Siming District 6
350300 Putian city 4119.02 2,778,508 Chengxiang District 4 1
350400 Sanming city 22928.79 2,503,388 Meilie District 2 9 1
350500 Quanzhou city 11245.00 8,128,533 Fengze District 4 5* 3
350600 Zhangzhou city 12873.33 4,809,983 Longwen District 2 8 1
350700 Nanping city 26280.54 2,645,548 Jianyang District 2 5 3
350800 Longyan city 19028.26 2,559,545 Xinluo District 2 4 1
350900 Ningde city 13452.38 2,821,996 Jiaocheng District 1 6 2

* - including Kinmen County, ROC (Taiwan). Claimed by the PRC. (included in the total Counties' count)

All of the prefecture-level cities except Nanping, Sanming, and Longyan are found along the coast.

These nine prefecture-level cities are subdivided into 85 county-level divisions (28 districts, 13 county-level cities, and 44 counties). Those are in turn divided into 1,107 township-level divisions (605 towns, 328 townships, 18 ethnic townships, and 156 subdistricts).

The People's Republic of China claims five of the six townships of Kinmen County, Republic of China (Taiwan) as a county of the prefecture-level city of Quanzhou.[41][42][43]

The PRC claims Wuqiu Township, Kinmen County, Republic of China (Taiwan) as part of Xiuyu District of the prefecture-level city of Putian.

Finally, the PRC claims Matsu Islands (Lienchiang County), Republic of China (Taiwan) as a township of its Lianjiang County, which is part of the prefecture-level city of Fuzhou.

Together, these three groups of islands make up the Republic of China's Fujian Province.

Urban areasEdit

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
# City Urban area[44] District area[44] City proper[44] Census date
1 Xiamen 3,119,110 3,531,347 3,531,347 2010-11-01
2 Fuzhou[i][ii] 2,824,414 2,921,762 7,115,369 2010-11-01
(2) Fuzhou (new district)[i] 278,007 682,626 see Fuzhou 2010-11-01
3 Jinjiang 1,172,827 1,986,447 see Quanzhou 2010-11-01
4 Quanzhou[iii] 1,154,731 1,435,185 8,128,533 2010-11-01
5 Putian 1,107,199 1,953,801 2,778,508 2010-11-01
6 Nan'an 718,516 1,418,451 see Quanzhou 2010-11-01
7 Zhangzhou 614,700 705,649 4,809,983 2010-11-01
8 Fuqing 470,824 1,234,838 see Fuzhou 2010-11-01
9 Shishi 469,969 636,700 see Quanzhou 2010-11-01
10 Longyan[iv] 460,086 662,429 2,559,545 2010-11-01
(10) Longyan (new district)[iv] 136,496 362,658 see Longyan 2010-11-01
11 Longhai 422,993 877,762 see Zhangzhou 2010-11-01
12 Sanming 328,766 375,497 2,503,388 2010-11-01
13 Fu'an 326,019 563,640 see Ningde 2010-11-01
14 Nanping[v] 301,370 467,875 2,645,548 2010-11-01
(14) Nanping (new district)[v] 150,756 289,362 see Nanping 2010-11-01
15 Fuding 266,779 276,740 see Ningde 2010-11-01
16 Ningde 252,497 429,260 2,821,996 2010-11-01
17 Yong'an 213,732 347,042 see Sanming 2010-11-01
18 Jian'ou 192,557 231,583 see Nanping 2010-11-01
19 Shaowu 183,457 140,818 see Nanping 2010-11-01
20 Wuyishan 122,801 121,317 see Nanping 2010-11-01
21 Zhangping 113,739 126,611 see Longyan 2010-11-01
  1. ^ a b New district established after census: Changle (Changle CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. ^ Does not include Beigan Township, Dongyin Township, Juguang Township, & Nangan Township (controlled by ROC) in the city proper count.
  3. ^ Does not include Jinmen County (controlled by ROC) in the city proper count.
  4. ^ a b New district established after census: Yongding (Yongding County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  5. ^ a b New district established after census: Jianyang (Jianyang CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.

PoliticsEdit

List of the Secretaries of the CPC Fujian Committee

  • Zhang Dingcheng (张鼎丞): June 1949 – October 1954
  • Ye Fei (叶飞): October 1954 – June 1958
  • Jiang Yizhen (江一真): acting 1958–1970
  • Han Xianchu (韩先楚): April 1971 – December 1973
  • Liao Zhigao (廖志高): December 1974 – February 1982
  • Xiang Nan (项南): February 1982 – March 1986
  • Chen Guangyi (陈光毅): March 1986 – December 1993
  • Jia Qinglin (贾庆林): December 1993 – October 1996
  • Chen Mingyi (陈明义): October 1996 – December 2000 
  • Song Defu (宋德福): December 2000 – February 2004
  • Lu Zhangong (卢展工): February 2004 – November 2009
  • Sun Chunlan (孙春兰): November 2009 – December 2012
  • You Quan (尤权): December 2012 – October 2017
  • Yu Weiguo (于伟国): October 2017 – present

List of Governors

  • Zhang Dingcheng (张鼎丞): August 1949 – October 1954  
  • Ye Fei (叶飞): October 1954 – January 1959
  • Jiang Yizhen (江一真): October 1959 – December 1962
  • Wen Jinshui (魏金水): December 1962 – August 1968 
  • Han Xianchu (韩先楚): August 1968 – December 1973
  • Liao Zhigao (廖志高): November 1974-December 1979
  • Ma Xingyuan (马兴元): December 1979 – January 1983
  • Hu Ping (胡平): January 1983 – September 1987
  • Wang Zhaoguo (王兆国): September 1987 – November 1990
  • Jia Qinglin (贾庆林): November 1990 – April 1994
  • Chen Mingyi (陈明义): April 1994 – October 1996
  • He Guoqiang (贺国强): October 1996 – August 1999
  • Xi Jinping (习近平): August 1999 – October 2002
  • Lu Zhangong (卢展工): October 2002 – December 2004
  • Huang Xiaojing (黄小晶): December 2004 – April 2011
  • Su Shulin (苏树林): April 2011 – November 2015
  • Yu Weiguo (于伟国): November 2015 – January 2018
  • Tang Dengjie (唐登杰): January 2018 – present

EconomyEdit

 
Fuzhou, the capital and largest city in Fujian province

Fujian is one of the more affluent provinces with many industries spanning tea production, clothing and sports manufacturers such as Anta, 361 Degrees, Xtep, Peak Sport Products and Septwolves. Many foreign firms have operations in Fujian. They include Boeing, Dell, GE, Kodak, Nokia, Siemens, Swire, TDK and Panasonic.[45]

Historical GDP of Fujian Province for 1952 –present (SNA2008)[46]
(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int'l.dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017[47])
year GDP GDP per capita (GDPpc)
based on mid-year population
Reference index
GDP in millions real
growth
(%)
GDPpc exchange rate
1 foreign currency
to CNY
CNY USD PPP
(Int'l$.)
CNY USD PPP
(Int'l$.)
USD 1 Int'l$. 1
(PPP)
2016 2,881,060 433,744 822,948 8.4 74,707 11,247 21,339 6.6423 3.5009
2015 2,623,920 421,283 739,237 9.0 68,645 11,021 19,339 6.2284 3.5495
2014 2,429,260 395,465 684,221 9.9 64,097 10,434 18,053 6.1428 3.5504
2013 2,207,780 356,485 617,233 11.0 58,702 9,478 16,411 6.1932 3.5769
2012 1,988,380 314,991 559,981 11.4 53,250 8,436 14,997 6.3125 3.5508
2011 1,770,380 274,104 505,029 12.3 47,764 7,395 13,625 6.4588 3.5055
2010 1,484,580 219,304 448,432 13.9 40,320 5,956 12,179 6.7695 3.3106
2009 1,232,420 180,416 390,315 12.3 33,677 4,930 10,666 6.8310 3.1575
2008 1,088,940 156,793 342,779 13.0 29,938 4,311 9,424 6.9451 3.1768
2007 930,190 122,329 308,531 15.2 25,730 3,384 8,534 7.6040 3.0149
2006 762,740 95,680 265,052 14.8 21,226 2,663 7,376 7.9718 2.8777
2005 658,860 80,430 230,451 11.6 18,448 2,252 6,453 8.1917 2.8590
2000 376,454 45,474 138,438 9.3 11,194 1,352 4,117 8.2784 2.7193
1990 52,228 10,919 30,675 7.5 1,763 369 1,035 4.7832 1.7026
1980 8,706 5,810 5,821 18.4 348 232 233 1.4984 1.4955
1978 6,637 4,268 17.8 273 176 1.5550
1970 3,470 1,410 9.9 173 70 2.4618
1962 2,212 899 98.6 137 56 2.4618
1957 2,203 846 6.7 154 59 2.6040
1952 1,273 573 23.3 102 46 2.2227

In terms of agricultural land, Fujian is hilly and farmland is sparse. Rice is the main crop, supplemented by sweet potatoes and wheat and barley.[48] Cash crops include sugar cane and rapeseed. Fujian leads the provinces of China in longan production, and is also a major producer of lychees and tea. Seafood is another important product, with shellfish production especially prominent.

Because of the geographic location with Taiwan, Fujian has been considered the battlefield frontline in a potential war between mainland China and Taiwan. Hence, it received much less investment from Chinese central government and developed much slower than the rest of China before 1978. Since 1978, when China opened to the world, Fujian has received significant investment from overseas Fujianese around the world, Taiwanese and foreign investment. Today, although Fujian is one of the wealthier provinces of China, its GDP per capita is only about the average of China's coastal administrative divisions.[49]

See also List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP per capita

Minnan Golden Triangle which includes Xiamen, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou accounts for 40 percent of the GDP of Fujian province.

Fujian province will be the major economic beneficiary of the opening up of direct transport with Taiwan which commenced on December 15, 2008. This includes direct flights from Taiwan to major Fujian cities such as Xiamen and Fuzhou. In addition, ports in Xiamen, Quanzhou and Fuzhou will upgrade their port infrastructure for increased economic trade with Taiwan.[50][51]

Fujian is the host of China International Fair for Investment and Trade annually. It is held in Xiamen to promote foreign investment for all of China.

In 2011, Fujian's nominal GDP was 1.74 trillion yuan (US$276.3 billion), a rise of 13 percent from the previous year.[52] Its GDP per capita was 46,802 yuan (US$7,246 (9th)).[49]

By 2015 Fujian expects to have at least 50 enterprises that have over 10 billion RMB in annual revenues. The government also expects 55 percent of GDP growth to come from the industrial sector.[53]

Economic and Technological Development ZonesEdit

 
Mud clams, oysters and shrimp are raised in Anhai Bay off Shuitou.[54]
  • Dongshan Economic and Technology Development Zone
  • Fuzhou Economic & Technical Development Zone
  • Fuzhou Free Trade Zone
  • Fuzhou Hi-Tech Park
  • Fuzhou Taiwan Merchant Investment Area
  • Jimei Taiwan Merchant Investment Area
  • Meizhou Island National Tourist Holiday Resort
  • Wuyi Mountain National Tourist Holiday Resort
  • Xiamen Export Processing Zone
  • Xiamen Free Trade Zone
  • Xiamen Haicang Economic and Technological Development Zone
  • Xiamen Torch New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone (Chinese version)
  • Xinglin Taiwan Merchant Investment Area

DemographicsEdit

 
She ethnic townships in Fujian

As of 1832, the province was described as having an estimated "population of fourteen millions."[55]

Han Chinese make up 98% of the population. Various Fujianese peoples (Min-speaking groups) make up the largest subgroups of Han Chinese in Fujian. This includes the Hoklo people, Fuzhounese people, Teochew people and Putian people.

Hakka, a Han Chinese people with its own distinct identity, live in the southwestern parts of the province bordering Guangdong. Hui'an, also a Han branch with their distinct culture and fashion, populate Fujian's southeast coastline near Chongwu in Hui'an County. The She, scattered over mountainous regions in the north, is the largest minority ethnic group of the province.[56]

Many ethnic Chinese around the world, especially in Southeast Asia, trace their ancestries to the Fujianese branches of Hoklo people and Teochew people. Descendants of Southern Min speaking emigrants make up the predominant majority ethnic Chinese populations of Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines. While Eastern Min speaking people, especially Fuzhounese people, is one of the major sources of China immigrants in the United States, especially since the 1990s.[57]

ReligionEdit

Religion in Fujian[58][a]

  Christianity (3.5%)
  Other religions or not religious people[b] (65.19%)

The predominant religions in Fujian are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 31.31% of the population believes and is involved in Chinese ancestral religion, while 3.5% of the population identifies as Christian.[58] The reports did not give figures for other types of religion; 65.19% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in Chinese folk religion, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects, and small minorities of Muslims.

CultureEdit

Because of its mountainous nature and the numerous waves of migration from north and central China in the course of history, Fujian is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse places in all ethnic Chinese areas of China. Local dialects can become unintelligible within 10 kilometres (6.2 mi), and the regional cultures and ethnic composition can be completely different from each other as well. This is reflected in the expression that "if you drive five miles in Fujian the culture changes, and if you drive ten miles, the language does".[59] Most varieties spoken in Fujian are assigned to a broad Min category. Early classifications, such as those of Li Fang-Kuei in 1937 and Yuan Jiahua in 1960, divided Min into Northern and Southern subgroups. More recent classifications subdivide Min into[60][61]

The seventh subdivision of Min, Qiong Wen, is not spoken in Fujian. Hakka, another subdivision of spoken Chinese, is spoken around Longyan by the Hakka people who live there.

As is true of other provinces, the official language in Fujian is Mandarin, which is used for communication between people of different localities,[59] although native Fujian peoples still converse in their native languages and dialects respectively.

Several regions of Fujian have their own form of Chinese opera. Min opera is popular around Fuzhou; Gaojiaxi around Jinjiang and Quanzhou; Xiangju around Zhangzhou; Fujian Nanqu throughout the south, and Puxianxi around Putian and Xianyou County.

 
Kompyang (房村光饼) sold on the streets of Fujian cities

Fujian cuisine, with an emphasis on seafood, is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine. It is composed of traditions from various regions, including Fuzhou cuisine and Min Nan cuisine. The most prestigious dish is Fotiaoqiang (literally "Buddha jumps over the wall"), a complex dish making use of many ingredients, including shark fin, sea cucumber, abalone and Shaoxing wine (a type of Chinese alcoholic beverage).

Many well-known teas originate from Fujian, including oolong, Wuyi Yancha, Lapsang souchong and Fuzhou jasmine tea. Indeed, the tea processing techniques for three major classes tea, namely, oolong, white tea and black tea were all developed in the province. Fujian tea ceremony is an elaborate way of preparing and serving tea. In fact, the English word "tea" is borrowed from Hokkien of the Min Nan languages. Mandarin and Cantonese pronounce the word chá.

Fuzhou bodiless lacquer ware, a noted type of lacquer ware, is noted for using a body of clay and/or plaster to form its shape; the body later removed. Fuzhou is also known for Shoushan stone carvings.

TourismEdit

 
Hekeng village, in Shuyang Town, is one of the many tulou villages of Fujian's Nanjing County.

Fujian is home to a number of tourist attractions, including four UNESCO World Heritage Sites, one of the highest in China.

In the capital of Fuzhou is the Yongquan Temple, a Buddhist temple built during the Tang dynasty.

The Wuyi Mountains was the first location in Fujian to be listed by UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Sites in 1999. They are a mountain range in the prefecture of Nanping and contains the highest peak in Fujian, Mount Huanggang. It is famous as a natural landscape garden and a summer resort in China.

The Fujian Tulou are Chinese rural dwellings unique to the Hakka in southwest Fujian. They were listed by the UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Sites in 2008.

Gulangyu Island, Xiamen, is notable for its beaches, winding lanes and rich architecture. The island is on China's list of National Scenic Spots and is classified as a 5A tourist attraction by the China National Tourism Administration (CNTA). It was listed by the UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Site in 2017. Also in Xiamen is the South Putuo Temple.

The Guanghua Temple is a Buddhist temple in Putian. It was built in the penultimate year of the Southern Chen Dynasty. Located in the northern half of the mouth of Meizhou Bay, it is about 1.8 nautical miles from the mainland and faces the Strait of Taiwan to the southeast. Covering an area of six square miles, the island is swathed in luxuriant green foliage. The coastline is indented with over 12 miles of beach area. Another buddhist temple, Nanshan Temple is located in Zhangzhou.

Around Meizhou Islands is the Matsu pilgrimage.

The Kaiyuan Temple, is a Buddhist temple in West Street, Quanzhou, the largest in Fujian province with an area of 78,000 square metres (840,000 square feet).[62] Although it is known as a both a Hindu and Buddhist temple, on account of added Tamil-Hindu influences, the main statue in the most important hall is that of Vairocana Buddha, the main Buddha according to Huayan Buddhism.

Mount Taimu is a mountain and a scenic resort in Fuding. It offers a grand view of mountain and sea, and is famous for its natural scenery including granite caves, odd-shaped stones, steep cliffs, clear streams, cascading waterfalls, and cultural attractions such as ancient temples and cliff Inscriptions.

The Danxia landform in Taining was listed by the UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Sites in 2010. It is a unique type of petrographic geomorphology found in China. Danxia landform is formed from red-coloured sandstones and conglomerates of largely Cretaceous age. The landforms look very much like karst topography that forms in areas underlain by limestones, but since the rocks that form danxia are sandstones and conglomerates, they have been called "pseudo-karst" landforms. They were formed by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces (including weathering and erosion).

Notable individualsEdit

The province and its diaspora abroad also has a tradition of educational achievement and has produced many important scholars, statesmen and other notable people. These include people whose ancestral home (祖籍) is Fujian (their ancestors originated from Fujian).

Some notable individuals include (in rough chronological order):

Han, Tang, Song dynasties

  • Chen Yan (849-892), Tang dynasty governor of Fujian
  • Cai Jing (1047–1126), government official and calligrapher who lived during the Northern Song dynasty
  • Li Gang (1083–1140), Song dynasty politician (ancestral home is Fujian)
  • Zhu Xi (1130–1200), Confucian philosopher
  • Chen Wenlong (1232 – 1277), a scholar-general in the last years of the Southern Song dynasty

Yuan, Ming, Qing dynasties

20th century

PRC

SportsEdit

Fujian includes professional sports teams in both the Chinese Basketball Association and the Chinese League One.

The representative of the province in the Chinese Basketball Association are the Fujian Sturgeons, who are based in Jinjiang, Quanzhou. The Fujian Sturgeons made their debut in the 2004–2005 season, and finished in seventh and last place in the South Division, out of the playoffs. In the 2005–2006 season, they tied for fifth, just one win away from making the playoffs.

The Xiamen Blue Lions formerly represented Fujian in the Chinese Super League, prior to the teams closure in 2007. Today the province is represented by Fujian Tianxin F.C., who play in the China League Two, and the Fujian Broncos.

EducationEdit

High schoolsEdit

Colleges and universitiesEdit

NationalEdit

ProvincialEdit

PrivateEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015)[58] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et al.) was not reported by Wang.
  2. ^ This may include:

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b These are the official PRC numbers from 2009 Fujian Statistic Bureau. Quemoy is included as a county and Matsu as a township.
  2. ^ "Doing Business in China - Survey". Ministry Of Commerce - People's Republic Of China. Archived from the original on August 5, 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  3. ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census [1] (No. 2)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. April 29, 2011. Archived from the original on July 27, 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
  4. ^ 福建省2017年国民经济和社会发展统计公报 (in Chinese). Fujian Bureau of Statistics. February 22, 2018. Archived from the original on June 22, 2018. Retrieved June 22, 2018.
  5. ^ "China National Human Development Report 2016" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. p. 146. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 7, 2017. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  6. ^ Rolett, Barry V.; Zheng, Zhuo; Yue, Yuanfu (April 2011). "Holocene sea-level change and the emergence of Neolithic seafaring in the Fuzhou Basin (Fujian, China)". Quaternary Science Reviews. 30 (7): 788–797. Bibcode:2011QSRv...30..788R. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2011.01.015.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ a b c Jiao, Tianlong. 2013. "The Neolithic Archaeology of Southeast China." In Underhill, Anne P., et al. A Companion to Chinese Archaeology, 599-611. Wiley-Blackwell.
  8. ^ Brittanica
  9. ^ Fuijan. Britannica.com.
  10. ^ Yeung, Yue-man; Shen, Jianfa (2008). The Pan-Pearl River Delta: An Emerging Regional Economy in a Globalizing China. p. 41. ISBN 9789629963767.
  11. ^ Britannica
  12. ^ Fukien. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 20, 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/221639/Fujian Archived February 21, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ 伊本・白图泰(著)、马金鹏(译),《伊本・白图泰游记》,宁夏人民出版社,2005年
  14. ^ 中国网事:千年古港福建"泉州港"被整合改名引网民争议. Xinhua News. Archived from the original on October 9, 2013. Retrieved August 17, 2014.
  15. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 288.
  16. ^ a b History of Song, vol. 483.
  17. ^ Xu Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 1.
  18. ^ Xu Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 9.
  19. ^ Jayne Werner; John K. Whitmore; George Dutton (August 21, 2012). Sources of Vietnamese Tradition. Columbia University Press. pp. 29–. ISBN 978-0-231-51110-0. Archived from the original on August 25, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  20. ^ Philippe Truong (2007). The Elephant and the Lotus: Vietnamese Ceramics in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. MFA Pub. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-87846-717-4. Archived from the original on January 2, 2017. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  21. ^ Cite error: The named reference Hall2008 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  22. ^ Hall (January 1, 1955). Secondary Cities & Urban Networking in the Indian Ocean Realm, c. 1400-1800. Lexington Books. pp. 159–. ISBN 978-0-7391-3043-8. Archived from the original on September 12, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  23. ^ Ainslie Thomas Embree; Robin Jeanne Lewis (1988). Encyclopedia of Asian history. Scribner. p. 190. Archived from the original on October 22, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  24. ^ Alexander Woodside (1971). Vietnam and the Chinese Model: A Comparative Study of Vietnamese and Chinese Government in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century. Harvard Univ Asia Center. pp. 8–. ISBN 978-0-674-93721-5. Archived from the original on August 21, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  25. ^ Geoffrey C. Gunn (August 1, 2011). History Without Borders: The Making of an Asian World Region, 1000-1800. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 112–. ISBN 978-988-8083-34-3. Archived from the original on August 21, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  26. ^ Cite error: The named reference Taylor2013 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  27. ^ http://www.filipiknow.net/visayan-pirates-in-china/ Archived August 28, 2016, at the Wayback Machine https://archive.org/details/cu31924023289345 Archived November 19, 2016, at the Wayback Machine https://archive.org/stream/cu31924023289345#page/n181/mode/2up Archived April 10, 2016, at the Wayback Machine pp. 165-166. http://nightskylie.blogspot.com/2015/07/philippine-quarterly-of-culture-and.html Archived October 13, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ The Great Ming Code / Da Ming lu. September 2012. ISBN 9780295804002.
  29. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 24, 2016. Retrieved May 24, 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  30. ^ https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/29740/1/Han_Hee_Yeon_C_201105_PhD_thesis.pdf Archived January 15, 2017, at the Wayback Machine pp. 269-271.
  31. ^ Chuan-chou Fu-chi (Ch.10) Year 1512
  32. ^ Skinner, George William; Baker, Hugh D. R. (1977). The City in late imperial China. Stanford University Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-8047-0892-0.
  33. ^ "Forestry in Fujian Province". English.forestry.gov.cn. January 21, 2010. Archived from the original on May 3, 2012. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
  34. ^ Guo, Jianming; Xu, Shiyang; Fan, Hailong (May 5, 2017). "Neotectonic interpretations and PS-InSAR monitoring of crustal deformations in the Fujian area of China". Open Geosciences. 9 (1): 126–132. Bibcode:2017OGeo....9...10G. doi:10.1515/geo-2017-0010. ISSN 2391-5447. Archived from the original on March 6, 2018. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
  35. ^ "China Briefing Business Reports". Asia Briefing. 2012. Archived from the original on September 4, 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
  36. ^ a b "China Expat city Guide Dalian". China Expat. 2008. Archived from the original on February 17, 2009. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
  37. ^ 中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码 (in Chinese). Ministry of Civil Affairs. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
  38. ^ Shenzhen Statistical Bureau. 《深圳统计年鉴2014》 (in Chinese). China Statistics Print. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved May 29, 2015.
  39. ^ Census Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China (2012). 中国2010人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料 (1 ed.). Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.
  40. ^ Ministry of Civil Affairs (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》 (in Chinese). China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.
  41. ^ 2018年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码:泉州市 (in Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. 2018. Retrieved August 10, 2019. 统计用区划代码 名称{...}350527000000 金门县{...}
  42. ^ 建治沿革 (in Chinese). Quanzhou People's Government. Retrieved August 10, 2019. 民国3年7月,金门自思明县析出置县,隶属厦门道。{...}民国22年(1933){...}12月13日,四省分别更名为闽海、延建、兴泉、龙汀。兴泉省辖莆田、仙游、晋江、南安、安溪、惠安、同安、金门、永春、德化、大田、思明十二县 ,治设晋江(今泉州市区)。{...}民国23年7月,全省设立十个行政督察区,永春、德化、惠安属第四行政督察区(专署驻仙游),晋江、南安、安溪、金门属第五行政督察区(专署驻同安)。民国24年(1935)10月,全省改为7个行政督察区、l市。惠安、晋江、南安、金门、安溪、永春、德化属第四区(专署驻同安)。民国26年4月,南安县治徙溪美。l0月,日本侵略军攻陷金门岛及烈屿,金门县政府迁到大嶝乡。{...}民国27年(1938){...}8月,金门县政务由南安县兼摄。{...}民国32年(1943)9月,全省调整为8个行政督察区、2个市。第四区专署仍驻永春,下辖永春、安溪、金门、南安、晋江、惠安等九县。德化改属第六区(专署驻龙岩)。 {...}1949年8月24日,福建省人民政府(省会福州)成立。8、9月间,南安、永春、惠安、晋江、安溪相继解放。9月, 全省划为八个行政督察区。9月9日,第五行政督察专员公署成立,辖晋江、南安、同安、惠安、安溪、永春、仙游、莆田、金门(待统一)等九县。公署设晋江县城(今泉州市区)。10月9日,金门县大嶝岛、小嶝岛及角屿解放。11月24日,德化解放,归入第七行政督察区(专署驻永安县)。  1950年{...}10月17日,政务院批准德化县划归晋江区专员公署管辖;1951年1月正式接管。至此, 晋江区辖有晋江、南安、同安、安溪、永春、德化、莆田、仙游、惠安、金门(待统一)十县。{...}1955年3月12日,奉省人民委员会令,晋江区专员公署改称晋江专员公署,4月1日正式实行。同年5月,省人民政府宣布成立金门县政府。{...}1970年{...}6月18日,福建省革命委员会决定实行。于是,全区辖有泉州市及晋江、惠安、南安、同安、安溪、永春、德化、金门(待统一)八县。同年12月25日,划金门县大嶝公社归同安县管辖。{...}1992年3月6日,国务院批准,晋江撤县设市,领原晋江县行政区域,由泉州代管。1992年5月1日。晋江市人民政府成立,至此,泉州市计辖l区、2市、6县:鲤城区、石狮市、晋江市、惠安县、南安县、安溪县、永春县、德化县、金门县,(待统一)。
  43. ^ 泉州市历史沿革 (in Chinese). XZQH.org. July 14, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2019. 1949年8月至11月除金门县外各县相继解放,{...}自1949年9月起除续领原辖晋江、惠安、南安、安溪、永泰、德化、莆田、仙游、金门、同安10县外,1951年从晋江县析出城区和近郊建县级泉州市。{...}2003年末,全市总户数1715866户,总人口6626204人,其中非农业人口1696232人(均不包括金门县在内);
  44. ^ a b c 中国2010年人口普查分县资料. Compiled by 国务院人口普查办公室 [Department of Population Census of the State Council], 国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 [Department of Population and Social Science and Statistics, National Bureau of Statistics]. Beijing: China Statistics Print. 2012. ISBN 978-7-5037-6659-6.CS1 maint: others (link)
  45. ^ Market Profiles on Chinese Cities and Provinces, http://info.hktdc.com/mktprof/china/mpfuj.htm Archived February 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  46. ^ China NBS / Bulletin on Reforming Fujian's GDP Accounting and Data Release System: fj.gov.cn (23-Oct-17)[permanent dead link] (Chinese)
  47. ^ Purchasing power parity (PPP) for Chinese yuan is estimate according to IMF WEO (October 2017 Archived February 14, 2006, at Archive-It) data; Exchange rate of CN¥ to US$ is according to State Administration of Foreign Exchange, published on China Statistical Yearbook Archived October 20, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
  48. ^ ukien. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 20, 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/221639/Fujian Archived February 21, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  49. ^ a b "Fujian GDP expected to hit 1 trillion yuan". China Daily. December 19, 2008. Archived from the original on February 15, 2012. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
  50. ^ "Ever cuddlier". The Economist. December 18, 2008. Archived from the original on January 13, 2009. Retrieved December 20, 2008.
  51. ^ "China Pledges Loans to Taiwan Firms to Boost Ties (Update2)". Bloomberg. December 21, 2008.
  52. ^ 福建省2009年国民经济和社会发展统计公报_中国统计信息网. Tjcn.org. March 2, 2010. Archived from the original on February 22, 2012. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
  53. ^ http://www.thechinaperspective.com/topics/province/fujian-province/ Archived June 2, 2011, at the Wayback Machine The China Perspective | Fujian Economic News and Data
  54. ^ Ruan, Jinshan (阮金山); Li, Xiuzhu (李秀珠); Lin, Kebing (林克冰); Luo, Donglian (罗冬莲); Zhou, Chen (周宸); Cai, Qinghai (蔡清海) (April 2005). 安海湾南岸滩涂养殖贝类死亡原因调查分析 [Analysis of the causes of death of farmed shellfish on the mudflats in the southern part of Anhai Bay]. 《福建水产》 [Fujian Aquaculture]. Archived from the original on December 8, 2014.
  55. ^ Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 122. Archived from the original on October 16, 2013. Retrieved October 16, 2013.
  56. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 23, 2009. Retrieved December 20, 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  57. ^ Semple, Kirk (October 21, 2009). "In Chinatown, Sound of the Future Is Mandarin". New York Times. Archived from the original on June 27, 2017. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
  58. ^ a b c China General Social Survey 2009, Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) Archived September 25, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  59. ^ a b French, Howard W. "Uniting China to Speak Mandarin, the One Official Language: Easier Said Than Done Archived April 29, 2015, at the Wayback Machine." The New York Times. July 10, 2005. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
  60. ^ Kurpaska, Maria (2010). Chinese Language(s): A Look Through the Prism of "The Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects". Walter de Gruyter. pp. 49, 52, 71. ISBN 978-3-11-021914-2.
  61. ^ Norman, Jerry (1988). Chinese. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-521-29653-3.
  62. ^ "Kaiyuan Temple". Chinaculture.org. Retrieved 31 January 2012.
Economic data

External linksEdit