Open main menu

The Hoklo people are Han Chinese people whose traditional ancestral homes are in southern Fujian, China and speakers of Hokkien which is the prestige dialect of the Southern Min varieties. They are also known by various endonyms (Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hok-ló-lâng/Hō-ló-lâng/Ho̍h-ló-lâng/Hô-ló-lâng), or other related terms such as Banlam (Minnan) people (閩南儂; Bân-lâm-lâng) or Hokkien people (福建儂; Hok-kiàn-lâng). "Hokkien" is sometimes erroneously used to refer to all Fujianese people.

Hoklo people
Hokkien/Minnan/Banlam
閩南儂
A'Chu and other stories (1920) (14597338250).jpg
A Hokkien family in Southern Fujian, 1920.
Total population
~40,000,000[1]
Regions with significant populations
ChinaMainland ChinaFujian
Zhejiang
Guangdong
 TaiwanMajority of Han Taiwanese people (~16,321,075)
 Malaysiaone of the largest group of Malaysian Chinese
 PhilippinesLargest Group of Chinese Filipinos[2]
 SingaporeLargest group of Chinese Singaporeans
 IndonesiaLargest group of Indonesian Chinese[3]
 MyanmarOne of the 3 largest groups of Burmese Chinese
(figured combined with Cantonese)[4]
 United States>70,000[5]
 Hong KongA minority population
 MacaoA minority population
 MadagascarA significant group among ethnic Sinoa
Languages
Mothertongue : Quanzhang Minnan
(Hokkien-Taiwanese)
others: Standard Mandarin Chinese, English;
the national language(s) of respective countries they inhabit
Religion
Chinese folk religions (including Taoism, Confucianism, ancestral worship and others), Mahayana Buddhism and non-religious;
minority: Christianity.
Related ethnic groups
Hoklo Taiwanese, Hoklo Americans, Ancient Minyue people† and other Min speakers

"Hoklo people" of this page refers to people whose native language is the Quanzhang Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese) spoken in Southern Fujian (China's province), Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and by many overseas Chinese throughout Southeast Asia.

There have been many famous Hoklo people throughout history, notably Koxinga, Su Song, Chen Boda, Howqua, Wee Cho Yaw, Lee Kong Chian, Momofuku Ando, Yuan T. Lee, Sergio Osmeña, Chuan Leekpai, Corazon Aquino and Chen Jiongming.

Contents

EtymologyEdit

In Taiwan, there are three common ways to write Hoklo in Chinese characters (Hokkien pronunciations are given in Pe̍h-ōe-jī), although none have been established as etymologically correct:[6]

  • 福佬; Hok-ló; 'Fujian folk' – mistakenly used by outsiders to emphasize their native connection to Fujian province. It is not an accurate transliteration in terms from Hokkien itself although it may correspond to an actual usage in Hakka.
  • 河洛; Hô-lo̍k; 'Yellow River and Luo River' – emphasizes their purported long history originating from the area south of the Yellow River. This term does not exist in Hokkien. The transliteration is a phonologically inaccurate folk etymology, though the Mandarin pronunciation Héluò has gained currency through the propagation of the inaccurate transliteration.[6]
  • 鶴佬; Ho̍h-ló; 'crane folk' – emphasizes the modern pronunciation of the characters (without regard to the meaning of the Chinese characters); phonologically accurate.

Meanwhile, Hoklo people self-identify as 河老; Hô-ló; 'river aged'.[7]

In Hakka, Teochew, and Cantonese, Hoklo may be written as Hoglo (學老; 'learned aged') and 學佬 ('learned folk').

Despite the many ways to write Hoklo in Chinese, the term Holo[8][9] (Hō-ló/Hô-ló)[10] is used in Taiwan to refer to the ethnicity and language (Taiwanese Hokkien).

CultureEdit

ArchitectureEdit

 
Hoklo architecture styled Lukang Longshan Temple.

Hoklo architecture is for the most part similar to any other traditional Chinese architectural styles, Hoklo shrines and temples have tilted sharp eaves just like the architecture of Han Chinese in all parts of China due to superstitious beliefs, however Hoklo shrines and temples do have special differences from the styles in other regions of China: the top roofs are high and slanted with exaggerated finely-detailed decorative inlays of wood and porcelain.

The main halls of Hoklo temple are also a little different, they are usually decorated with two dragons on the rooftop at the furthest left and right corners, and a miniature figure of a pagoda at the centre rooftop. One such example of this is the Kaiyuan Temple in Fujian, China. Other than all these minor differences, Hoklo architecture is the basically same as any other traditional Chinese architecture of any other regions by Han Chinese.

LanguageEdit

The Hoklo people speak the mainstream Minnan (Hokkien) dialect which is not mutually intelligible with other Chinese dialects except for Teochew dialect to a small degree. Minnan can be traced back to the Tang Dynasty, and it also has roots from earlier periods such as the Northern and Southern Dynasties and also a little influence from other dialects as well.

Hokkien has one of the most diverse phoneme inventories among Chinese varieties, with more consonants than Standard Mandarin or Cantonese. Vowels are more-or-less similar to that of Standard Mandarin. Hokkien varieties retain many pronunciations that are no longer found in other Chinese varieties. These include the retention of the /t/ initial, which is now /tʂ/ (Pinyin 'zh') in Mandarin (e.g. 'bamboo' 竹 is tik, but zhú in Mandarin), having disappeared before the 6th century in other Chinese varieties.[11] Hokkien has 5 to 7 tones or 7 to 9 tones according to traditional sense, depending on variety of hokkien spoken such as the Amoy dialect for example has 7-8 tones.

DiasporaEdit

 
Hokkien women performing the Dragon Boat dance in traditional attire in Hong Kong.

In TaiwanEdit

 
Minnan-speaking areas in South China and Taiwan. Only the speakers of Quanzhou-Zhangzhou dialects (also known as Hokkien) are seen as Hoklos.

About 70% of the Taiwanese people descend from Hoklo immigrants who arrived to the island prior to the start of Japanese rule in 1895. They could be categorized as originating from Xiamen, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou based on their dialects and districts of origin.[12] People from the former two areas (Quanzhou-speaking) were dominant in the north of the island and along the west coast, whereas people from the latter two areas (Zhangzhou-speaking) were dominant in the south and perhaps the central plains as well.

Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and Philippines Hoklo or Hokkien-lang (Hokkien People)Edit

The Hoklo or Hokkien-lang (as they are known in these countries) are the largest dialect group among the Malaysian Chinese, Singapore and southern part of Thailand. They constitute the highest concentrations of Hoklo or Hokkien-lang in the region. The various Hokkien dialects/Minnan are still widely spoken in these countries but the daily use are slowly decreasing in favor of Mandarin Chinese, English or local language.

The Hoklo or Hokkien-lang are also the largest group among the Chinese Indonesians . Most speak only Indonesian.

In the Philippines, the Hoklo or Hokkien-lang form the majority of the Chinese people in the country. The Hokkien dialect/Minnan is still spoken there.

Hailufeng HokkiensEdit

The Minnan speaking people in Haifeng and Lufeng are known as Hailufeng Hokkiens or Hailufeng Minnan, in a narrow scope, but are often mistaken by outsiders as Chaozhou/Teochew people in Hong Kong and Southeast Asia.

Chen Jiongming is a famous Hailufeng Hokkien who served as the governor of the Guangdong and Guangxi provinces during the Republic of China.

AmericaEdit

After the 1960s, many Hokkiens from Taiwan began immigrating to the United States and Canada.

Notable Hoklo peopleEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Ng, Maria; Philip Holden (1 September 2006). Reading Chinese transnationalisms: society, literature, film. Hong Kong University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-962-209-796-4.
  3. ^ Lewis, M. Paul, ed. (2005), "Indonesia", Ethnologue: Languages of the World (15th ed.), Dallas, T.X.: SIL International, ISBN 978-1-55671-159-6, retrieved 26 January 2010.
  4. ^ Mya Than (1997). Leo Suryadinata (ed.). Ethnic Chinese As Southeast Asians. ISBN 0-312-17576-0.
  5. ^ 2005-2009 American Community Survey
  6. ^ a b "Language Log » Hoklo". languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu.
  7. ^ Gu Yanwu (1985). 《天下郡國利病書》:郭造卿《防閩山寇議》. 上海書店. OCLC 19398998. 猺人循接壤處....常稱城邑人為河老,謂自河南遷來畏之,繇陳元光將卒始也
  8. ^ Exec. Yuan (2014), pp. 36,48.
  9. ^ Exec. Yuan (2015), p. 10.
  10. ^ Governor-General of Taiwan (1931–1932). "hô-ló (福佬)". In Ogawa Naoyoshi (ed.). 臺日大辭典 [Taiwanese-Japanese Dictionary] (in Japanese and Hokkien). 2. Taihoku: 同府 [Dōfu]. p. 829. OCLC 25747241.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link).
  11. ^ Kane, Daniel (2006). The Chinese language: its history and current usage. Tuttle Publishing. pp. 100–102. ISBN 978-0-8048-3853-5.
  12. ^ Davidson (1903), p. 591.

BibliographyEdit