Longyan (simplified Chinese: 龙岩; traditional Chinese: 龍巖; pinyin: Lóngyán; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Lêng-nâ or Liong-nâ; literally: 'dragon rock'; Hakka: Liùng-ngàm) is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Fujian province, People's Republic of China, bordering Guangdong to the south and Jiangxi to the west.
Chuxi tulou cluster in Chuxicun, Xiyang, Yongding County.
Location in Longyan City in Fujian
|Coordinates (Longyan government): Coordinates:|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|• Total||19,069 km2 (7,363 sq mi)|
|• Density||130/km2 (350/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-FJ-08|
|- Total||CNY 74.845 billion (US$10.97 billion)|
|- per capita||CNY 26,971 (US$3,952)|
|Administrative division code||350800|
|Local dialect||Longyan Min and Hakka Chinese|
In 736 AD, (the Tang Dynasty), the prefecture of Tingzhou was established in western Fujian, or Minxi (闽西), administering Changting, Huanglian and Xinluo counties. Six years later Xinluo was named Longyan for the nearby cavern, a famous scenic site.
Due to the ancient conflicts in central China and aggression from northern tribes, many Han people moved from central China to Longyan.
in 1734, the Hokkien-speaking counties of Longyan city and Zhangping were ceded from Zhangzhou to form the Longyan Prefecture with the of the Hakka peasant Tingzhou prefecture, a typical Hakka peasant socitiey culturally distinct from the Minnanese by the imperial court. In 1913, it reverted to its former name Longyan County and in 1981, Longyan City was established.
Minxi was a strategic base during the Chinese Civil War.
It's said that tens of thousands of people were recruited from the Hakka peasantry from the western Longyan joined the PLA during the Chinese Civil War, and nearly every Hakka family had someone sacrificed lives on behalf of CCP side especially during Mao's early purges in Tingzhou and Ganzhou which killed roughly 700,0000 Hakka peole and some ethnic minorities. There are more than 26,000 locals that took part in the Long March which in total is carried out by 86,000. Moreover, during 1955 and 1968, 68 people from Longyan were awarded Brigadier General or above, which accounts for 82% of all generals from Fujian province at the time, therefore, Longyan is also named after "The Home of Generals".
Unlike many Chinese cities, the forest coverage of Longyan reaches an unusually high 77.9%, which is unparalleled in Fujian province. Meihuashan National Nature Reserve, a part of the China Biosphere Reserve Network, is located in Longyan.
Geography and climateEdit
Longyan is situated in the upper reaches of the Jiulong and Ting Rivers. It borders the prefecture-level cities of Sanming to the north, Quanzhou to the east, Zhangzhou to the southeast, Meizhou (Guangdong) to the southwest, and Ganzhou (Jiangxi) to the west and northwest.
Longyan has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), with short, mild winters, and long, hot and humid summers. Despite its inland location, the city's summers rank among the mildest in the province, averaging lower than even Xiamen and the islands of Pingtan County, both of which receive significant maritime moderation. Rainfall is greatest in spring and early summer and at its least in autumn and early winter.
|Climate data for Longyan (1981−2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||27.0
|Average high °C (°F)||17.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||12.3
|Average low °C (°F)||8.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−0.8
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||56.6
|Average precipitation days||9.5||14.7||17.5||18.1||21.1||17.8||15.2||15.7||13.9||7.4||5.9||6.1||162.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||73||76||79||78||78||79||74||77||75||69||67||70||75|
|Source #1: China Meteorological Data Service Center|
|Source #2: Weather China (precipitation days 1971-2000)|
The prefecture-level city of Longyan had a population of 2,559,545 inhabitants as of 2010, according to the 2010 National Census. The population of Longyan in 2010 was 4.65% inferior than in 2000 (when the inhabitants of the city stand at 2,684,310), giving an average annual rate of growth of -0.47%.
|Xinluo District||新罗区||Xīnluó Qū||Sîn-lò-khî||2,685||662,429||247|
|Yongding District||永定区||Yǒngdìng Qū||Yún-thin-khî||2,216||362,658||164|
|Zhangping City||漳平市||Zhāngpíng Shì||Chông-phìn-sṳ||2,975||240,194||81|
|Changting County||长汀县||Chángtīng Xiàn||Tshòng-tin-yen||3,099||393,390||127|
|Shanghang County||上杭县||Shàngháng Xiàn||Sông-hông-yen||2,879||374,047||130|
|Wuping County||武平县||Wǔpíng Xiàn||Vú-phìn-yen||2,630||278,182||106|
|Liancheng County||连城县||Liánchéng Xiàn||Lièn-sàng-yen||2,596||248,645||96|
Longyan is inhabited by Hoklo people and Hakka peasants. The Hoklo people live in the urban areas and cities of Xinluo and Zhangping districts in the eastern Longyan prefecture and speak Longyan Min while Hakka peasants live in rural village areas of the countryside of the western part of the prefecture, making western Longyan famous for being named as the "Home of Hakka People". The rural county of Changting is often referred to as the home of the Hakka, while the Ting River is known as the "mother river" of the Hakka people.
Longyan is a recent artificial construct of the Chinese government, having never been united together before the creation of Modern China. The two culturally distinct and separate Hoklo eastern city areas and Hakka western rural peasant areas have almost nothing in common in terms of language, culture and living habits, and were only forcibly merged into a single administrative region recently in history by the communist government.
Longyan serves as a strategic center for the distribution of goods to Xiamen, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. It also acts as a gateway for trade with Guangdong and Jiangxi province. It is the main connection between the inland and coastal area.
Longyan is rich in natural resources such as important mineral deposits and forest zones. The Septwolves tobacco business is an important contributor to the local economy, as is the Zijin Mining group. The largest construction equipment maker Lonking Holdings is based in the city.
Famous people from LongyanEdit
- Chen Hong (b. 1979), number 1 badminton player on the world-ranking list from 2002 to 2003.
- Deng Zihui (1896–1972) former Chinese vice premier (1951–1965), one of the top leaders of the Chinese Communist Party.
- Huang Kunming (b. 1956), member of the 19th Politburo of China Communist Party.
- Lin Dan (b. 1983), gold medalist at the 2012 and 2008 Summer Olympics, top-ranked badminton player on the world ranking list from 2004 to 2008.
- Ong Schan Tchow (1900–1945), leading artist whose exhibitions in China and South East Asia raised funds for the war relief effort and civilian victims of the Second Sino-Japanese War
- Shi Zhiyong (b. 1980), Weightlifter, gold medalist at the 2004 Summer Olympics.
- Yang Chengwu (1914–2004), general of the People's Liberation Army.
- Zeng Jinyan (b. 1983), blogger and human rights activist.
- Zhang Dingcheng (1898 – December 16, 1981), Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate from 1954 to 1975.
- Zhang Xiangxiang (b. 1983), Weightlifter, gold medalist at the 2008 Summer Olympics and bronze medalist at the 2000 Summer Olympics.
- 2008年行政区划 (in Chinese). Longyan Municipal Statistic Bureau. 2009-06-05. Retrieved 2009-12-08.
- 2009年龙岩市国民经济和社会发展统计公报 (in Chinese). Longyan Municipal Statistic Bureau. 2010-03-12. Retrieved 2010-05-03.
- 百度百科-龙岩 The introduction of Longyan on Baidu Encyclopedia
- 市情特点. The characteristics of Longyan (in Simplified Chinese)
- Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Rhinogobius longyanensis" in FishBase. August 2013 version.
- "†Claraia longyanensis Chen 1976 (clam)". Paleobiology Database. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
- 龙岩城市介绍. Weather China (in Chinese).
- (in Chinese) Longyan Statistic Bureau. Data from the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China