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The Southern Qi (simplified Chinese: 南齐; traditional Chinese: 南齊; pinyin: Nán Qí) (479-502) was the second of the Southern dynasties in China, followed by the Liang Dynasty.

Qi

479–502
Southern Qi and neighbors
Southern Qi and neighbors
CapitalJiankang
GovernmentMonarchy
Emperor 
• 479–482
Emperor Gao
• 482–493
Emperor Wu
• 501–502
Emperor He
History 
• Established
3 June[1] 479
• Disestablished
24 April[2] 502
CurrencyChinese coin,
Chinese cash
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Liu Song
Liang Dynasty
Today part ofChina
Vietnam

Contents

HistoryEdit

The dynasty began in 479, when Xiao Daocheng forced the Emperor Shun of Liu Song into yielding the throne to him, ending Liu Song and starting Southern Qi, as its Emperor Gao.

During its 23-year history, the dynasty was largely filled with instability, as after the death of the capable Emperor Gao and Emperor Wu, Emperor Wu's grandson Xiao Zhaoye was assassinated by Emperor Wu's intelligent but cruel and suspicious cousin Xiao Luan, who took over as Emperor Ming, and proceeded to carry out massive executions of Emperor Gao's and Emperor Wu's sons and grandsons, as well as officials whom he suspected of plotting against him.[3][4]

The arbitrariness of these executions was exacerbated after Emperor Ming was succeeded by his son Xiao Baojuan, whose actions drew multiple rebellions, the last of which, by the general Xiao Yan led to Southern Qi's fall and succession by Xiao Yan's Liang Dynasty.[5]

More than fifty percent of Tuoba Xianbei princesses of the Northern Wei were married to southern Han Chinese men from the imperial families and aristocrats from southern China of the Southern dynasties who defected and moved north to join the Northern Wei.[6] Tuoba Xianbei Princess Nanyang (南阳长公主) was married to Xiao Baoyin (萧宝夤), a Han Chinese member of Southern Qi royalty.[7] Xianbei Tuoba Emperor Xiaozhuang of Northern Wei's sister the Shouyang Princess was wedded to the Han Chinese Liang dynasty ruler Emperor Wu of Liang's son Xiao Zong 蕭綜.[8]

War with Northern WeiEdit

In 479, after Xiao Daocheng usurped the throne of Liu Song, the Northern Wei emperor prepared to invade under the pretext of installing Liu Chang, son of Emperor Wen of Liu Song who had been in exile in Wei since 465AD. Wei troops began to attack Shouyang but could not take the city. The Southern Qi began to fortify their capital, Jiankang, in order to prevent further Wei raids. Multiple sieges and skirmishes were fought until 481 but the war did not witnessed any major campaign. A peace treaty was signed in 490 with the Emperor Wu.

Sovereigns of Southern Qi Dynasty (479-502) Edit

Posthumous Name Family name and given names Period of Reigns Era names and their according range of years
Convention: Qi + posthumous name
Emperor Gao of Southern Qi
(Gao Di 高帝 gāo dì)
Xiao Daocheng (蕭道成 xiāo dào chēng 479-482 Jianyuan (建元 jiàn yuán) 479-482
Emperor Wu of Southern Qi
(Wu Di 武帝 wǔ dì)
Xiao Ze (蕭賾 xiāo zé) 482-493 Yongming (永明 yǒng míng) 483-493
Prince of Yulin
(Yu Lin Wang 鬱林王 yù lín wáng)
Xiao Zhaoye (蕭昭業 xiāo zhāo yè) 493-494 Longchang (隆昌 lóng chāng) 494
Prince of Hailing
(Hai Ling Wang (海陵王 hài líng wáng)
Xiao Zhaowen (蕭昭文 xiāo zhāo wén) 494 Yanxing (延興 yán xīng) 494
Emperor Ming of Southern Qi - Ming Di
(明帝 míng dì)
Xiao Luan (蕭鸞 xiāo luán) 494-498 Jianwu (建武 jiàn wǔ) 494-498
Yongtai (永泰 yǒng tài) 498
Marquess of Donghun - Dong Hun Hou
(東昏侯 dōng hūn hóu)
Xiao Baojuan (蕭寶卷 xiāo bǎo juǎn) 499-501 Yongyuan (永元 yǒng yuán) 499-501
Emperor He of Southern Qi - He Di
(和帝 hé dì)
Xiao Baorong (蕭寶融 xiāo bào róng) 501-502[note 1] Zhongxing (中興 zhōng xīng) 501-502

Sovereigns family treeEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Emperor Ming's son Xiao Baoyin, who was then a Northern Wei general, rebelled against Northern Wei and claimed imperial title in 527-528, but is not listed because his claim of imperial title was temporary, long after Emperor He's reign, and also did not include any territory that was previously Southern Qi territory.

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Book of Southern Qi, vol. 1.
  2. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 145.
  3. ^ 川本『中国の歴史、中華の崩壊と拡大、魏晋南北朝』、P150
  4. ^ 川本『中国の歴史、中華の崩壊と拡大、魏晋南北朝』、P152
  5. ^ 川本『中国の歴史、中華の崩壊と拡大、魏晋南北朝』、P153
  6. ^ Tang, Qiaomei (May 2016). Divorce and the Divorced Woman in Early Medieval China (First through Sixth Century) (PDF) (A dissertation presented by Qiaomei Tang to The Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the subject of East Asian Languages and Civilizations). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University. pp. 151, 152, 153.
  7. ^ China: Dawn of a Golden Age, 200-750 AD. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2004. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-1-58839-126-1.
  8. ^ Ancient and Early Medieval Chinese Literature (vol.3 & 4): A Reference Guide, Part Three & Four. BRILL. 22 September 2014. pp. 1566–. ISBN 978-90-04-27185-2.

SourcesEdit

See alsoEdit