Dynasties in Chinese history

Approximate territories controlled by the various dynasties and states throughout Chinese history, juxtaposed with the modern Chinese border.

From the inauguration of dynastic rule by Yu the Great in circa 2070 BC to the abdication of the Xuantong Emperor on 12 February 1912 in the wake of the Xinhai Revolution, China was ruled by a series of successive dynasties.[a] Dividing the history of China into periods ruled by dynasties is a common method of periodization utilized by scholars.[1]

TerminologyEdit

The following is a list of terms associated with the concept of dynasty in Chinese historiography:

  • cháo (): a dynasty
  • cháodài (朝代): an era corresponding to the rule of a dynasty
  • wángcháo (王朝): while technically referring to royal dynasties, this term is often inaccurately applied to dynasties whose rulers held non-royal titles such as emperor
  • huángcháo (皇朝): generally used for imperial dynasties

HistoryEdit

 
A depiction of Yu, the initiator of dynastic rule in China, by the Southern Song court painter Ma Lin.
 
A photograph of the Xuantong Emperor, widely considered to be the last legitimate monarch of China, taken in AD 1922.

Start of the Chinese dynastic systemEdit

As the founder of China's first dynasty, the Xia dynasty, Yu the Great is conventionally regarded as the inaugurator of dynastic rule in China.[2] In the Chinese dynastic system, the sovereign ruler theoretically possessed absolute power and private ownership of everything within his/her realm.[3] This concept, known as jiā tiānxià (家天下; "All under Heaven belongs to the ruling family"), was in contrast to the pre-Xia notion of gōng tiānxià (公天下; "All under Heaven belongs to the public") whereby leadership succession was non-hereditary.[3][4]

Dynastic transitionEdit

The rise and fall of dynasties is a prominent feature of Chinese history. Some scholars have attempted to explain this phenomenon by attributing the success and failure of dynasties to the morality of the rulers, while others have focused on the tangible aspects of monarchical rule.[5] This method of explanation has come to be known as the dynastic cycle.[5][6][7]

Dynastic transitions (改朝換代; gǎi cháo huàn dài) in the history of China occurred primarily through two ways: military conquest and usurpation.[8] The supersession of the Liao dynasty by the Jin dynasty was achieved following a series of successful military campaigns, as was the later unification of China under the Yuan dynasty; on the other hand, the transition from the Eastern Han to the Cao Wei, as well as from the Southern Qi to the Liang dynasty, were cases of usurpation. Oftentimes, usurpers would seek to portray his/her predecessor as having relinquished the throne willingly—in a process called shànràng (禪讓; "voluntary abdication")—as a means to legitimize his/her rule.[9]

One might incorrectly infer from viewing historical timelines that transitions between dynasties occurred abruptly and roughly. Rather, new dynasties were often established before the complete overthrow of an existing regime.[10] For example, AD 1644 is frequently cited as the year in which the Qing dynasty succeeded the Ming dynasty in possessing the Mandate of Heaven. However, the Qing dynasty was officially proclaimed in AD 1636 by the Emperor Taizong of Qing through renaming the Later Jin established by his father the Emperor Taizu of Qing in AD 1616, while the Ming imperial family would rule the Southern Ming until AD 1662.[11][12] The Ming loyalist Kingdom of Tungning based in Taiwan continued to oppose the Qing until AD 1683.[13] Meanwhile, other factions also fought for control over China during the Ming–Qing transition, most notably the Shun and Xi dynasties proclaimed by Li Zicheng and Zhang Xianzhong respectively.[14][15][16] This change of ruling houses was a convoluted and prolonged affair, and the Qing took almost two decades to extend their rule over the entirety of China proper.

Similarly, during the earlier Sui–Tang transition, numerous regimes established by rebel forces vied for control and legitimacy as the power of the ruling Sui dynasty weakened. Autonomous regimes that existed during this period of upheaval included, but not limited to, Wei (; by Li Mi), Qin (; by Xue Ju), Qi (; by Gao Tancheng), Xu (; by Yuwen Huaji), Liang (; by Shen Faxing), Liang (; by Liang Shidu), Xia (; by Dou Jiande), Zheng (; by Wang Shichong), Chu (; by Zhu Can), Chu (; by Lin Shihong), Yan (; by Gao Kaidao), and Song (; by Fu Gongshi). The Tang dynasty that superseded the Sui launched a decade-long military campaign to reunify China proper.[17]

According to Chinese historiographical tradition, each new dynasty would compose the history of the preceding dynasty, culminating in the Twenty-Four Histories.[18] This tradition was maintained even after the Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Qing dynasty in favor of a republic. However, the attempt by the Republicans to draft the history of the Qing was disrupted by the Chinese Civil War, which resulted in the political division of China into the People's Republic of China on mainland China and the Republic of China on Taiwan.[19][20]

End of the Chinese dynastic systemEdit

Dynastic rule in China collapsed in AD 1912 when the Republic of China superseded the Qing dynasty following the success of the Xinhai Revolution.[21][22] While there were attempts after the Xinhai Revolution to reinstate dynastic rule in China, such as the Empire of China (AD 1915–1916) and the Manchu Restoration (AD 1917), they were unsuccessful at consolidating their rule and gaining political legitimacy.[23][24] Similarly, the Manchukuo (AD 1932–1945; monarchy since AD 1934), a puppet state of the Empire of Japan during World War II with limited diplomatic recognition, is not regarded as a legitimate regime.[25] Ergo, historians usually consider the abdication of the Xuantong Emperor on 12 February 1912 as the end of the Chinese dynastic system. Dynastic rule in China lasted almost four millennia.[21]

Political legitimacyEdit

China was divided during multiple periods in its history, with different regions ruled by different dynasties. Political division existed during the Three Kingdoms, the Sixteen Kingdoms, the Northern and Southern dynasties, and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms periods, among others.

Relations between Chinese dynasties during periods of division often revolved around political legitimacy, which was derived from the doctrine of the Mandate of Heaven.[26] Dynasties ruled by ethnic Han would proclaim rival dynasties founded by other ethnicities as illegitimate, usually justified based on the concept of Hua–Yi distinction. On the other hand, many dynasties of non-Han origin saw themselves as the legitimate dynasty of China and often sought to portray themselves as the true inheritor of Chinese culture and history. Traditionally, only regimes deemed as "legitimate" or "orthodox" (正統; zhèngtǒng) are termed cháo (; "dynasty"); "illegitimate" or "unorthodox" regimes are referred to as guó (; usually translated as either "state" or "kingdom"[b]), even if these regimes were dynastic in nature.[27] The political legitimacy status of some of these dynasties remain contentious among modern scholars.

Such legitimacy dispute existed during the following periods:

  • Three Kingdoms[28]
  • Eastern Jin and Sixteen Kingdoms[30]
    • The Eastern Jin proclaimed itself as legitimate
    • Several of the Sixteen Kingdoms such as the Han Zhao, the Later Zhao, and the Former Qin also claimed legitimacy
  • Northern and Southern dynasties[31]
    • All dynasties during this period saw themselves as the legitimate representative of China; the Northern dynasties referred to their southern counterparts as "dǎoyí" (島夷; "island dwelling barbarians"), while the Southern dynasties called their northern neighbors "suǒlǔ" (索虜; "barbarians with braids")[32][33]
  • Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms[34]
    • Having directly succeeded the Tang dynasty, the Later Liang considered itself to be a legitimate dynasty[34]
    • The Later Tang regarded itself as the restorer of the earlier Tang dynasty and rejected the legitimacy of its predecessor, the Later Liang[34]
    • The Later Jin accepted the Later Tang as a legitimate regime[34]
    • The Southern Tang was, for a period of time, considered the legitimate dynasty during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period[34]
    • Modern historiography generally considers the Five Dynasties, as opposed to the contemporary Ten Kingdoms, as legitimate[34][35]
  • Liao, Song, and Jin dynasties[36]
    • Following the conquest of the Later Jin, the Liao dynasty claimed legitimacy and succession from it[37]
    • Both the Northern Song and Southern Song considered themselves to be the legitimate Chinese dynasty
    • The Jin dynasty challenged the Song's claim of legitimacy
    • The succeeding Yuan dynasty recognized all three in addition to the Western Liao as legitimate Chinese dynasties, culminating in the composition of the History of Liao, the History of Song, and the History of Jin[38][39][40]
  • Ming and Northern Yuan dynasties[41]
    • The Ming dynasty recognized the preceding Yuan dynasty as a legitimate Chinese dynasty, but asserted that it had succeeded the Mandate of Heaven from the Yuan, thus considering the Northern Yuan as illegitimate
    • Northern Yuan rulers continued to claim the "Great Yuan" dynastic title and used Chinese imperial titles continuously until AD 1388; Chinese titles were restored on several occasions thereafter for brief periods
    • The Mongol historian Rashipunsug argued that the Northern Yuan had succeeded the legitimacy from the Yuan dynasty; the Qing dynasty, which later defeated and annexed the Northern Yuan, inherited this legitimacy, thus rendering the Ming as illegitimate[42]
  • Qing and Southern Ming dynasties[43]
    • The Qing dynasty recognized the preceding Ming dynasty as legitimate, but asserted that it had succeeded the Mandate of Heaven from the Ming, thus refuting the claimed legitimacy of the Southern Ming
    • The Southern Ming continued to claim legitimacy until its eventual defeat by the Qing
    • The Ming loyalist Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan denounced the Qing dynasty as illegitimate
    • The Joseon dynasty of Korea and the Later Lê dynasty of Vietnam had at various times considered the Southern Ming, instead of the Qing, as legitimate[44][45]

While periods of disunity often resulted in heated debates among officials and historians over which dynasty could and should be considered orthodox, the Northern Song statesman Ouyang Xiu propounded that such orthodoxy existed in a state of limbo during fragmented periods and was restored after political unification was achieved.[46] From this perspective, the Song dynasty possessed legitimacy by virtue of its ability to end the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period despite not having succeeded the orthodoxy from the Later Zhou. Similarly, Ouyang considered the concept of orthodoxy to be in oblivion during the Three Kingdoms, the Sixteen Kingdoms, and the Northern and Southern dynasties periods.[46]

As most Chinese historiographical sources uphold the idea of unilineal dynastic succession, only one dynasty could be considered orthodox at any given time.[35] Most modern sources consider the legitimate line of succession to be as follows:[35]

Xia dynastyShang dynastyWestern ZhouEastern ZhouQin dynastyWestern Han → Eastern Han → Cao Wei → Western Jin → Eastern Jin → Liu SongSouthern QiLiang dynastyChen dynastySui dynasty → Tang dynasty → Later Liang → Later Tang → Later Jin → Later Han → Later Zhou → Northern Song → Southern Song → Yuan dynasty → Ming dynasty → Qing dynasty

These historical legitimacy disputes are similar to the modern competing claims of legitimacy by the People's Republic of China based in Beijing and the Republic of China based in Taipei. Both regimes formally adhere to the One-China policy and claim to be the sole legitimate representative of the whole of China.[47]

Classification of dynastiesEdit

 
A German map of the Chinese Empire during the height of the Qing dynasty. The Qing dynasty is considered to be a "Central Plain dynasty", a "unified dynasty", and a "conquest dynasty".

Central Plain dynastiesEdit

The Central Plain is a vast area on the lower reaches of the Yellow River which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization. "Central Plain dynasties" (中原王朝; Zhōngyuán wángcháo) refer to dynasties of China that had their capital cities situated within the Central Plain.[48] This term could refer to dynasties of both Han and non-Han ethnic origins.[48]

Unified dynastiesEdit

"Unified dynasties" (大一統王朝; dàyītǒng wángcháo) refer to dynasties of China, regardless of their ethnic origin, that achieved the unification of China proper. "China proper" is a region generally regarded as the traditional heartland of the Han Chinese, and is not equivalent to the term "China". Imperial dynasties that had unified China proper may be known as the "Chinese Empire" or the "Empire of China" (中華帝國; Zhōnghuá Dìguó).[49][50]

The concept of "great unity" or "grand unification" (大一統; dàyītǒng) was first mentioned in the Chinese classical text Gongyang Commentary on the Spring and Autumn Annals that was supposedly authored by the Qi scholar Gongyang Gao.[51][52][53] Other prominent figures like Confucius and Mencius also touched upon this concept in their respective works.[54][55]

Historians typically consider the following dynasties to have unified China proper: the Qin dynasty, the Western Han, the Xin dynasty, the Eastern Han, the Western Jin, the Sui dynasty, the Tang dynasty, the Wu Zhou, the Northern Song, the Yuan dynasty, the Ming dynasty, and the Qing dynasty.[56][57] The status of the Northern Song as a unified dynasty is disputed among historians, as the Sixteen Prefectures of Yan and Yun were partially administered by the contemporaneous Liao dynasty, while the Western Xia exercised partial control over Hetao; the Northern Song, in this sense, did not truly achieve the unification of China proper.[56][58]

Conquest dynastiesEdit

"Conquest dynasties" (征服王朝; zhēngfú wángcháo) refer to dynasties of China founded by non-Han peoples that ruled parts or all of China proper (e.g., Northern Wei, Qing dynasty).[59] This term was first coined by the historian and sinologist Karl August Wittfogel and remains a source of controversy among scholars who believe that Chinese history should be analyzed and understood from a multiethnic and multicultural perspective.[60]

Naming conventionEdit

Official dynastic nameEdit

It was customary for Chinese monarchs to adopt an official name for the realm, known as the guóhào (國號; "name of the state"), upon the establishment of a dynasty.[61][62] During the rule of a dynasty, its guóhào functioned as the formal name of the state, both internally and for diplomatic purposes.

There were instances whereby the official name was changed during the reign of a dynasty. For example, the dynasty known retroactively as Southern Han (南漢) initially used the name "Yue" (), only to be renamed to "Han" () subsequently.[63]

The formal name of Chinese dynasties was usually derived from one the following sources:

  • the name of the ruling tribe or tribal confederation[64][65]
    • e.g., the Xia dynasty took its name from its ruling class, the Xia tribal confederation[64]
  • the noble title held by the dynastic founder prior to the founding of the dynasty[64][65]
  • the name of a historical state that occupied the same geographical location as the new dynasty[65][67]
  • the name of a previous dynasty from which the new dynasty claimed descent or succession from, even if such familial links were questionable[65]
  • a term with auspicious or other significant connotations[64][65]
    • e.g., the Yuan dynasty was officially the "Great Yuan", a name derived from a clause in the Classic of Changes, "dà zāi Qián Yuán" (大哉乾元; "Great is the Heavenly and Primal")[69]

The official title of several dynasties bore the character "" (; "great"). In Yongzhuang Xiaopin by the Ming historian Zhu Guozhen, it was claimed that the first dynasty to do so was the Yuan dynasty.[70][71] However, several sources like the History of Liao and the History of Jin compiled by the Yuan historian Toqto'a revealed that the official dynastic name of some earlier dynasties such as the Liao and the Jin also contained the character "".[72][73] It was also common for officials, subjects, or vassal states of a particular dynasty to include the term "" (or an equivalent term in other languages) when referring to this dynasty as a form of respect, even if the official dynastic name did not include it.[71] For instance, the Japanese historical text Nihon Shoki referred to the Tang dynasty as "Ōkara" (大唐; "Great Tang") despite its dynastic name being simply "Tang".

The adoption of guóhào, as well as the importance assigned to it, had promulgated within the Sinosphere. Notably, rulers of Vietnam and Korea also declared guóhào for their respective realm.

Retroactive dynastic nameEdit

In Chinese historiography, historians generally do not refer to dynasties by their official name. Instead, historiographical names, which were most commonly derived from their guóhào, are used. For instance, the Sui dynasty (隋朝) is known as such because its formal name was "Sui" (). Likewise, the Jin dynasty (金朝) was officially the "Great Jin" (大金).

When more than one dynasty shared the same Chinese character(s) as their formal name, as was common in Chinese history, prefixes are retroactively applied to dynastic names by historians in order to distinguish between these similarly-named regimes.[74][75] Frequently used prefixes include:

A dynasty could be referred to by more than one retroactive name in Chinese historiography, albeit some are more widely used than others. For instance, the Liu Song (劉宋) is also known as the "Former Song" (前宋), and the Yang Wu (楊吳) is also called the "Southern Wu" (南吳).

Scholars usually make a historiographical distinction for dynasties whose rule were interrupted. For example, the Song dynasty is divided into the Northern Song and the Southern Song, with the Jingkang Incident as the dividing line; the original "Song" founded by the Emperor Taizu of Song was therefore differentiated from the "Song" restored under the Emperor Gaozong of Song. In such cases, the regime had collapsed, only to be re-established; a distinction between the original regime and the new regime is thus necessary for historiographical purpose. Major exceptions to this historiographical practice include the Western Qin and the Tang dynasty, which were interrupted by the Later Qin and the Wu Zhou respectively.

In Chinese sources, the term "dynasty" (; cháo) is usually omitted when referencing dynasties that have prefixes in their historiographical names. Such a practice is sometimes adopted in English usage, even though the inclusion of the word "dynasty" is also widely seen in English scholarly writings. For example, the Northern Zhou is also sometimes referred to as the "Northern Zhou dynasty".[76]

List of major Chinese dynastiesEdit

This list includes only major dynasties of China that are typically found in simplified forms of Chinese historical timelines.

Dynasty Ruling house Period of rule Rulers
Name[c]
(English / Chinese[d] / Pinyin[e] / Bopomofo)
Origin of name Surname
(English / Chinese[d])
Ethnicity[f] Status[g] Year Term Founder[h] Last monarch List
Semi-legendary
Xia dynasty
夏朝
Xià Cháo
ㄒㄧㄚˋ ㄔㄠˊ
Tribal name Si
Huaxia Royal 2070–1600 BC[i][j][k][83] 430 years[j][k] Yu of Xia Jie of Xia (list)
Ancient China
Shang dynasty
商朝
Shāng Cháo
ㄕㄤ ㄔㄠˊ
Toponym Zi
Huaxia Royal 1600–1046 BC[i][l][85] 554 years[l] Tang of Shang Zhou of Shang (list)
Western Zhou[m]
西周
Xī Zhōu
ㄒㄧ ㄓㄡ
Toponym Ji
Huaxia Royal 1046[i]–771 BC[n][87] 275 years[n] Wu of Zhou You of Zhou (list)
Eastern Zhou[m]
東周
Dōng Zhōu
ㄉㄨㄥ ㄓㄡ
From Zhou dynasty Ji
Huaxia Royal 770–256 BC[87] 514 years Ping of Zhou Nan of Zhou (list)
Early Imperial China[o]
Qin dynasty
秦朝
Qín Cháo
ㄑㄧㄣˊ ㄔㄠˊ
Toponym Ying
Huaxia Imperial
(221–207 BC)
Royal
(207 BC)
221–207 BC[88] 14 years Qin Shi Huang Qin San Shi (list)
Western Han[p]
西漢
Xī Hàn
ㄒㄧ ㄏㄢˋ
Toponym & Noble title Liu
Han Imperial 202 BCAD 9[90] 210 years Gao of Han Liu Ying (list)
Xin dynasty
新朝
Xīn Cháo
ㄒㄧㄣ ㄔㄠˊ
"New" Wang
Han Imperial AD 9–23[91] 14 years Wang Mang Wang Mang (list)
Eastern Han[p]
東漢
Dōng Hàn
ㄉㄨㄥ ㄏㄢˋ
From Han dynasty Liu
Han Imperial AD 25–220[92] 195 years Guangwu of Han Xian of Han (list)
Three Kingdoms
三國
Sān Guó
ㄙㄢ ㄍㄨㄛˊ
AD 220–280[93] 60 years (list)
Cao Wei
曹魏
Cáo Wèi
ㄘㄠˊ ㄨㄟˋ
Noble title Cao
Han Imperial AD 220–266[94] 46 years Wen of Cao Wei Yuan of Cao Wei (list)
Shu Han
蜀漢
Shǔ Hàn
ㄕㄨˇ ㄏㄢˋ
From Han dynasty Liu
Han Imperial AD 221–263[95] 42 years Zhaolie of Shu Han Xiaohuai of Shu Han (list)
Eastern Wu
東吳
Dōng Wú
ㄉㄨㄥ ㄨˊ
Noble title Sun
Han Royal
(AD 222–229)
Imperial
(AD 229–280)
AD 222–280[96] 58 years Da of Eastern Wu Sun Hao (list)
Western Jin[q][r]
西晉
Xī Jìn
ㄒㄧ ㄐㄧㄣˋ
Noble title Sima
司馬
Han Imperial AD 266–316[98] 50 years Wu of Jin Min of Jin (list)
Eastern Jin[q][r]
東晉
Dōng Jìn
ㄉㄨㄥ ㄐㄧㄣˋ
From Jin dynasty (AD 266–420) Sima
司馬
Han Imperial AD 317–420[99] 103 years Yuan of Jin Gong of Jin (list)
Sixteen Kingdoms
十六國
Shíliù Guó
ㄕˊ ㄌㄧㄡˋ ㄍㄨㄛˊ
AD 304–439[100] 135 years (list)
Han Zhao
漢趙
Hàn Zhào
ㄏㄢˋ ㄓㄠˋ
Toponym & From Han dynasty Liu[s]
Xiongnu Royal
(AD 304–308)
Imperial
(AD 308–329)
AD 304–329[103] 25 years Guangwen of Han Zhao Liu Yao (list)
Cheng Han
成漢
Chéng Hàn
ㄔㄥˊ ㄏㄢˋ
Toponym & From Han dynasty Li
Di Princely
(AD 304–306)
Imperial
(AD 306–347)
AD 304–347[104] 43 years Wu of Cheng Han Li Shi (list)
Later Zhao
後趙
Hòu Zhào
ㄏㄡˋ ㄓㄠˋ
Noble title Shi
Jie Royal
(AD 319–330)
Imperial
(AD 330–351)
Princely
(AD 351)
AD 319–351[105] 32 years Ming of Later Zhao Shi Zhi (list)
Former Liang
前涼
Qián Liáng
ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄌㄧㄤˊ
Toponym Zhang
Han Princely
(AD 320–354; AD 355–363)
Imperial
(AD 354–355)
Ducal
(AD 363–376)
AD 320–376[106] 56 years Cheng of Former Liang Dao of Former Liang (list)
Former Yan
前燕
Qián Yān
ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄧㄢ
Toponym Murong
慕容
Xianbei Princely
(AD 337–353)
Imperial
(AD 353–370)
AD 337–370[107] 33 years Wenming of Former Yan You of Former Yan (list)
Former Qin
前秦
Qián Qín
ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄑㄧㄣˊ
Toponym Fu[t]
Di Imperial AD 351–394[107] 43 years Jingming of Former Qin Fu Chong (list)
Later Yan
後燕
Hòu Yān
ㄏㄡˋ ㄧㄢ
From Former Yan Murong[u][v]
慕容
Xianbei[v] Princely
(AD 384–386)
Imperial
(AD 386–409)
AD 384–409[w][111] 25 years[w] Chengwu of Later Yan Zhaowen of Later Yan
or
Huiyi of Yan[x]
(list)
Later Qin
後秦
Hòu Qín
ㄏㄡˋ ㄑㄧㄣˊ
Toponym Yao
Qiang Royal
(AD 384–386)
Imperial
(AD 386–417)
AD 384–417[112] 33 years Wuzhao of Later Qin Yao Hong (list)
Western Qin
西秦
Xī Qín
ㄒㄧ ㄑㄧㄣˊ
Toponym Qifu
乞伏
Xianbei Princely AD 385–400; AD 409–431[113] 37 years[y] Xuanlie of Western Qin Qifu Mumo (list)
Later Liang[z]
後涼
Hòu Liáng
ㄏㄡˋ ㄌㄧㄤˊ
Toponym
Di Ducal
(AD 386–389)
Princely
(AD 389–396)
Imperial
(AD 396–403)
AD 386–403[114] 17 years Yiwu of Later Liang Lü Long (list)
Southern Liang
南涼
Nán Liáng
ㄋㄢˊ ㄌㄧㄤˊ
Toponym Tufa
禿髮
Xianbei Princely AD 397–414[115] 17 years Wu of Southern Liang Jing of Southern Liang (list)
Northern Liang
北涼
Běi Liáng
ㄅㄟˇ ㄌㄧㄤˊ
Toponym Juqu[aa]
沮渠
Xiongnu[aa] Ducal
(AD 397–399; AD 401–412)
Princely
(AD 399–401; AD 412–439)
AD 397–439[117] 42 years Duan Ye Ai of Northern Liang (list)
Southern Yan
南燕
Nán Yān
ㄋㄢˊ ㄧㄢ
From Former Yan Murong
慕容
Xianbei Princely
(AD 398–400)
Imperial
(AD 400–410)
AD 398–410[118] 12 years Xianwu of Southern Yan Murong Chao (list)
Western Liang
西涼
Xī Liáng
ㄒㄧ ㄌㄧㄤˊ
Toponym Li
Han Ducal AD 400–421[119] 21 years Wuzhao of Western Liang Li Xun (list)
Hu Xia
胡夏
Hú Xià
ㄏㄨˊ ㄒㄧㄚˋ
From Xia dynasty Helian[ab]
赫連
Xiongnu Imperial AD 407–431[121] 24 years Wulie of Hu Xia Helian Ding (list)
Northern Yan
北燕
Běi Yān
ㄅㄟˇ ㄧㄢ
From Former Yan Feng[ac]
Han[ac] Imperial AD 407[ad]–436[122] 29 years[ad] Huiyi of Yan[x]
or
Wencheng of Northern Yan
Zhaocheng of Northern Yan (list)
Northern dynasties
北朝
Běi Cháo
ㄅㄟˇ ㄔㄠˊ
AD 386–581[123] 195 years (list)
Northern Wei
北魏
Běi Wèi
ㄅㄟˇ ㄨㄟˋ
Toponym Tuoba[ae]
拓跋
Xianbei Princely
(AD 386–399)
Imperial
(AD 399–535)
AD 386–535[125] 149 years Daowu of Northern Wei Xiaowu of Northern Wei (list)
Eastern Wei
東魏
Dōng Wèi
ㄉㄨㄥ ㄨㄟˋ
From Northern Wei Yuan
Xianbei Imperial AD 534–550[126] 16 years Xiaojing of Eastern Wei Xiaojing of Eastern Wei (list)
Western Wei
西魏
Xī Wèi
ㄒㄧ ㄨㄟˋ
From Northern Wei Yuan[af]
Xianbei Imperial AD 535–557[126] 22 years Wen of Western Wei Gong of Western Wei (list)
Northern Qi
北齊
Běi Qí
ㄅㄟˇ ㄑㄧˊ
Noble title Gao
Han Imperial AD 550–577[126] 27 years Wenxuan of Northern Qi Gao Heng (list)
Northern Zhou
北周
Běi Zhōu
ㄅㄟˇ ㄓㄡ
Noble title Yuwen
宇文
Xianbei Imperial AD 557–581[126] 24 years Xiaomin of Northern Zhou Jing of Northern Zhou (list)
Southern dynasties
南朝
Nán Cháo
ㄋㄢˊ ㄔㄠˊ
AD 420–589[128] 169 years (list)
Liu Song
劉宋
Liú Sòng
ㄌㄧㄡˊ ㄙㄨㄥˋ
Noble title Liu
Han Imperial AD 420–479[129] 59 years Wu of Liu Song Shun of Liu Song (list)
Southern Qi
南齊
Nán Qí
ㄋㄢˊ ㄑㄧˊ
A prophecy on defeating the Liu clan Xiao
Han Imperial AD 479–502[130] 23 years Gao of Southern Qi He of Southern Qi (list)
Liang dynasty
梁朝
Liáng Cháo
ㄌㄧㄤˊ ㄔㄠˊ
Toponym Xiao
Han Imperial AD 502–557[131] 55 years Wu of Liang Jing of Liang (list)
Chen dynasty
陳朝
Chén Cháo
ㄔㄣˊ ㄔㄠˊ
Noble title Chen
Han Imperial AD 557–589[132] 32 years Wu of Chen Chen Shubao (list)
Middle Imperial China[o]
Sui dynasty
隋朝
Suí Cháo
ㄙㄨㄟˊ ㄔㄠˊ
Noble title ("" homophone) Yang[ag]
Han Imperial AD 581–619[134] 38 years Wen of Sui Gong of Sui (list)
Tang dynasty
唐朝
Táng Cháo
ㄊㄤˊ ㄔㄠˊ
Noble title Li
Han Imperial AD 618–690; AD 705–907[135] 274 years[ah] Gaozu of Tang Ai of Tang (list)
Wu Zhou
武周
Wǔ Zhōu
ㄨˇ ㄓㄡ
From Zhou dynasty Wu
Han Imperial AD 690–705[136] 15 years Wu Zhao Wu Zhao (list)
Five Dynasties
五代
Wǔ Dài
ㄨˇ ㄉㄞˋ
AD 907–960[137] 53 years (list)
Later Liang[z]
後梁
Hòu Liáng
ㄏㄡˋ ㄌㄧㄤˊ
Noble title Zhu
Han Imperial AD 907–923[138] 16 years Taizu of Later Liang Zhu Youzhen (list)
Later Tang
後唐
Hòu Táng
ㄏㄡˋ ㄊㄤˊ
From Tang dynasty Li[ai][aj][ak]
Shatuo[ak] Imperial AD 923–937[142] 14 years Zhuangzong of Later Tang Li Congke (list)
Later Jin[al]
後晉
Hòu Jìn
ㄏㄡˋ ㄐㄧㄣˋ
Toponym Shi
Shatuo Imperial AD 936–947[143] 11 years Gaozu of Later Jin Chu of Later Jin (list)
Later Han
後漢
Hòu Hàn
ㄏㄡˋ ㄏㄢˋ
From Han dynasty Liu
Shatuo Imperial AD 947–951[143] 4 years Gaozu of Later Han Yin of Later Han (list)
Later Zhou
後周
Hòu Zhōu
ㄏㄡˋ ㄓㄡ
From Zhou dynasty Guo[am]
Han Imperial AD 951–960[143] 9 years Taizu of Later Zhou Gong of Later Zhou (list)
Ten Kingdoms
十國
Shí Guó
ㄕˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ
AD 907–979[145] 62 years (list)
Former Shu
前蜀
Qián Shǔ
ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄕㄨˇ
Toponym / Noble title Wang
Han Imperial AD 907–925[146] 18 years Gaozu of Former Shu Wang Yan (list)
Yang Wu
楊吳
Yáng Wú
ㄧㄤˊ ㄨˊ
Toponym Yang
Han Princely
(AD 907–919)
Royal
(AD 919–927)
Imperial
(AD 927–937)
AD 907–937[147] 30 years Liezu of Yang Wu Rui of Yang Wu (list)
Ma Chu
馬楚
Mǎ Chǔ
ㄇㄚˇ ㄔㄨˇ
Toponym Ma
Han Royal
(AD 907–930)
Princely
(AD 930–951)
AD 907–951[148] 44 years Wumu of Ma Chu Ma Xichong (list)
Wuyue
吳越
Wúyuè
ㄨˊ ㄩㄝˋ
Toponym Qian
Han Royal
(AD 907–932; AD 937–978)
Princely
(AD 934–937)
AD 907–978[148] 71 years Taizu of Wuyue Zhongyi of Qin (list)
Min

Mǐn
ㄇㄧㄣˇ
Toponym Wang[an]
Han Princely
(AD 909–933; AD 944–945)
Imperial
(AD 933–944; AD 945)
AD 909–945[148] 36 years Taizu of Min Tiande of Min (list)
Southern Han
南漢
Nán Hàn
ㄋㄢˊ ㄏㄢˋ
From Han dynasty Liu
Han Imperial AD 917–971[148] 54 years Gaozu of Southern Han Liu Chang (list)
Jingnan
荊南
Jīngnán
ㄐㄧㄥ ㄋㄢˊ
Toponym Gao
Han Princely AD 924–963[148] 39 years Wuxin of Chu Gao Jichong (list)
Later Shu
後蜀
Hòu Shǔ
ㄏㄡˋ ㄕㄨˇ
Toponym Meng
Han Imperial AD 934–965[148] 31 years Gaozu of Later Shu Gongxiao of Chu (list)
Southern Tang
南唐
Nán Táng
ㄋㄢˊ ㄊㄤˊ
From Tang dynasty Li[ao]
Han Imperial
(AD 937–958)
Royal
(AD 958–976)
AD 937–976[151] 37 years Liezu of Southern Tang Li Yu (list)
Northern Han
北漢
Běi Hàn
ㄅㄟˇ ㄏㄢˋ
From Later Han Liu[ap]
Shatuo[ap] Imperial AD 951–979[153] 28 years Shizu of Northern Han Yingwu of Northern Han (list)
Liao dynasty
遼朝
Liáo Cháo
ㄌㄧㄠˊ ㄔㄠˊ
"Iron" (Khitan homophone) / Toponym Yelü
耶律
 
Khitan Imperial AD 916–1125[154] 209 years Taizu of Liao Tianzuo of Liao (list)
Western Liao
西遼
Xī Liáo
ㄒㄧ ㄌㄧㄠˊ
From Liao dynasty Yelü[aq]
耶律
 
Khitan[aq] Royal
(AD 1124–1132)
Imperial
(AD 1132–1218)
AD 1124–1218[157] 94 years Dezong of Western Liao Kuchlug (list)
Northern Song[ar]
北宋
Běi Sòng
ㄅㄟˇ ㄙㄨㄥˋ
Toponym Zhao
Han Imperial AD 960–1127[159] 167 years Taizu of Song Qinzong of Song (list)
Southern Song[ar]
南宋
Nán Sòng
ㄋㄢˊ ㄙㄨㄥˋ
From Song dynasty Zhao
Han Imperial AD 1127–1279[160] 152 years Gaozong of Song Zhao Bing (list)
Western Xia
西夏
Xī Xià
ㄒㄧ ㄒㄧㄚˋ
Toponym Weiming[as]
嵬名
𗼨𗆟
Tangut Imperial AD 1038–1227[162] 189 years Jingzong of Western Xia Li Xian (list)
Jin dynasty[r]
金朝
Jīn Cháo
ㄐㄧㄣ ㄔㄠˊ
"Gold" Wanyan
完顏
 
Jurchen Imperial AD 1115–1234[163] 119 years Taizu of Jin Wanyan Chenglin (list)
Late Imperial China[o]
Yuan dynasty
元朝
Yuán Cháo
ㄩㄢˊ ㄔㄠˊ
"Great" / "Primacy" Borjigin
孛兒只斤
ᠪᠣᠷᠵᠢᠭᠢᠨ
Mongol Imperial AD 1271–1368[164] 97 years Shizu of Yuan Huizong of Yuan (list)
Northern Yuan
北元
Běi Yuán
ㄅㄟˇ ㄩㄢˊ
From Yuan dynasty Borjigin[at]
孛兒只斤
ᠪᠣᠷᠵᠢᠭᠢᠨ
Mongol[at] Imperial AD 1368–1635[au][170] 267 years[au] Huizong of Yuan Tianyuan of Northern Yuan
or
Borjigin Ejei Khongghor
(list)
Ming dynasty
明朝
Míng Cháo
ㄇㄧㄥˊ ㄔㄠˊ
"Bright" Zhu
Han Imperial AD 1368–1644[171] 276 years Hongwu Chongzhen (list)
Southern Ming
南明
Nán Míng
ㄋㄢˊ ㄇㄧㄥˊ
From Ming dynasty Zhu
Han Imperial AD 1644–1662[172] 18 years Hongguang Yongli
or
Dingwu[av]
(list)
Later Jin[al]
後金
Hòu Jīn
ㄏㄡˋ ㄐㄧㄣ
From Jin dynasty (AD 1115–1234) Aisin Gioro
愛新覺羅
ᠠᡳᠰᡳᠨ ᡤᡳᠣᡵᠣ
Jurchen[aw] Royal AD 1616–1636[175] 20 years Tianming Taizong of Qing (list)
 
Qing dynasty
清朝
Qīng Cháo
ㄑㄧㄥ ㄔㄠˊ
"Pure" Aisin Gioro
愛新覺羅
ᠠᡳᠰᡳᠨ ᡤᡳᠣᡵᠣ
Manchu Imperial AD 1636–1912[ax][176] 276 years Taizong of Qing Xuantong (list)
Criteria for inclusion
This list includes only major dynasties of China that are typically found in simplified forms of Chinese historical timelines. There were many other dynastic regimes that existed within or overlapped with the boundaries defined in the scope of Chinese historical geography.[ay] These were:[178] Dynasties outside of "China" with full or partial Chinese ancestry, like the Early Lý dynasty of Vietnam and the Thonburi dynasty of Siam, are not included.[179][180][181][182]
Legend
  Major dynasties
  Major time periods
  Dynasties counted among the "Three Kingdoms"
  Dynasties counted among the "Sixteen Kingdoms"
  Dynasties counted among the "Northern dynasties" within the broader "Northern and Southern dynasties"
  Dynasties counted among the "Southern dynasties" within the broader "Northern and Southern dynasties"
  Dynasties counted among the "Five Dynasties" within the broader "Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms"
  Dynasties counted among the "Ten Kingdoms" within the broader "Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period

TimelinesEdit

Timeline of major historical periodsEdit

Xia–Shang–W. Zhou
Qin–Han
Sui–Tang
Liao–Song–W. Xia–Jin–Yuan
Ming–Qing




Timeline of major dynasties and regimesEdit

ChinaTaiwanRepublic of China (1912–1949)Southern MingQing dynastyLater Jin (1616–1636)Ming dynastyNorthern Yuan dynastyYuan dynastySong dynasty#Southern Song, 1127–1279Qara KhitaiJin dynasty (1115–1234)Western XiaNorthern Song DynastyNorthern HanLater ZhouLater Han (Five Dynasties)Southern TangLater Jin (Five Dynasties)Later ShuJingnanLater TangSouthern HanLiao dynastyMin KingdomWuyueMa ChuYang WuFormer ShuLater Liang (Five Dynasties)Tang dynastyZhou dynasty (690–705)Tang dynastySui dynastyChen dynastyNorthern ZhouNorthern QiWestern WeiEastern WeiLiang dynastySouthern QiLiu Song dynastyWestern QinNorthern YanXia (Sixteen Kingdoms)Western Liang (Sixteen Kingdoms)Southern YanNorthern LiangSouthern Liang (Sixteen Kingdoms)Northern WeiLater Liang (Sixteen Kingdoms)Western QinLater QinLater YanFormer QinFormer YanFormer LiangLater ZhaoJin dynasty (266–420)#Eastern JinCheng HanFormer ZhaoJin dynasty (266–420)Eastern WuShu HanCao WeiHan dynasty#Eastern HanXin dynastyHan dynasty#Western HanQin dynastyEastern ZhouWestern ZhouShang dynastyXia dynastyThree Sovereigns and Five Emperors
Legend
  Protodynastic rulers
  Dynastic regimes
  Non-dynastic regimes

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ All attempts at restoring monarchical and dynastic rule in China after the success of the Xinhai Revolution ended in failure. Hence, the abdication of the Xuantong Emperor in AD 1912 is typically regarded as the formal end of the Chinese monarchy.
  2. ^ The term "kingdom" is potentially misleading as not all rulers held the title of king. For example, sovereigns of the Eastern Wu held the title huángdì (皇帝; "emperor") despite the realm being considered as one of the "Three Kingdoms". Similarly, monarchs of the Western Qin, one of the "Sixteen Kingdoms", bore the title wáng (; usually translated as "prince").
  3. ^ The English and Chinese names stated are historiographical nomenclature. These should not be confused with the guóhào officially proclaimed by each dynasty. A dynasty may be known by more than one historiographical name.
  4. ^ a b The Chinese characters shown are in Traditional Chinese. Some characters may have simplified versions that are currently used in Mainland China. For instance, the characters for the Eastern Han are written as "東漢" in Traditional Chinese and "东汉" in Simplified Chinese.
  5. ^ While Hanyu Pinyin is the most common form of romanization currently in adoption, some scholarly works utilize the Wade–Giles system, which may differ drastically in the spelling of certain words. For instance, the Qing dynasty is rendered as "Ch῾ing dynasty" in Wade–Giles.[77]
  6. ^ While Chinese historiography tends to treat dynasties as being of specific ethnic stocks, there were some monarchs who had mixed heritage.[78] For instance, the Jiaqing Emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty was of mixed Manchu and Han descent, having derived his Han ancestry from his mother, the Empress Xiaoyichun.[79]
  7. ^ The status of a dynasty was dependent upon the chief title bore by its monarch at any given time.
  8. ^ The monarchs listed were the de facto founders of dynasties. However, it was common for Chinese monarchs to posthumously honor earlier members of the family as monarchs. For instance, while the Later Jin was officially established by the Emperor Gaozu of Later Jin, four earlier members of the ruling house were posthumously accorded imperial titles, the most senior of which was Shi Jing who was conferred the temple name Jingzu (靖祖) and the posthumous name Emperor Xiao'an (孝安皇帝).
  9. ^ a b c The dates given for the Xia dynasty, the Shang dynasty, and the Western Zhou prior to the start of the Gonghe Regency in 841 BC are derived from the Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project.
  10. ^ a b The Xia dynasty was interrupted by the rule of Yi and Han Zhuo for approximately 40 years.[80] Sources disagree on the dates of the start and end of the interregnum. Chinese historiography does not make a distinction between the realm that existed prior to the interregnum and the restored realm. The King Xiang of Xia was the last ruler before the interregnum; the King Shao Kang of Xia was the first ruler after the interregnum.[80]
  11. ^ a b The rule of the Xia dynasty was traditionally dated 2205–1766 BC, lasting 399 years excluding the 40-year interregnum, as per the calculations made by the historian Liu Xin.[81][82]
  12. ^ a b The rule of the Shang dynasty was traditionally dated 1766–1122 BC, lasting 644 years, as per the calculations made by the historian Liu Xin.[81][84]
  13. ^ a b The Western Zhou (西周) and the Eastern Zhou (東周) are collectively known as the Zhou dynasty (周朝; Zhōu Cháo).[86]
  14. ^ a b The rule of the Western Zhou was traditionally dated 1122–771 BC, lasting 351 years, as per the calculations made by the historian Liu Xin.[81][84]
  15. ^ a b c The terms "Chinese Empire" and "Empire of China" refer to the Chinese state under the rule of various imperial dynasties, particularly those that had achieved the unification of China proper.[49][50]
  16. ^ a b The Western Han (西漢) and the Eastern Han (東漢) are collectively known as the Han dynasty (漢朝; Hàn Cháo).[89]
  17. ^ a b The Western Jin (西晉) and the Eastern Jin (東晉) are collectively known as the Jin dynasty (晉朝; Jìn Cháo).[97]
  18. ^ a b c The names of the Jin dynasty (晉朝) of the Sima clan and the Jin dynasty (金朝) of the Wanyan clan are rendered similarly using the Hanyu Pinyin system, even though they do not share the same Chinese character for "Jin".
  19. ^ The ruling house of the Han Zhao initially bore the surname Luandi (攣鞮).[101][102] Liu () was subsequently adopted as the surname prior to the establishment of the Han Zhao.
  20. ^ The ruling house of the Former Qin initially bore the surname Pu ().[108] Fu () was subsequently adopted as the surname by the Emperor Huiwu of Former Qin prior to the establishment of the Former Qin.[108]
  21. ^ As Lan Han, surnamed Lan (), was not a member of the Murong (慕容) clan by birth, his enthronement was not a typical dynastic succession.[109]
  22. ^ a b The Emperor Huiyi of Yan was of Goguryeo descent. Originally surnamed Gao (), he was an adopted member of the Murong (慕容) clan.[110] His enthronement was therefore not a typical dynastic succession.
  23. ^ a b The Later Yan ended in either AD 407 or AD 409, lasting either 23 years or 25 years, depending on the status of the Emperor Huiyi of Yan.
  24. ^ a b The Emperor Huiyi of Yan could either be the last Later Yan monarch or the founder of the Northern Yan depending on the historian's characterization.[110]
  25. ^ The Western Qin was interrupted by the Later Qin between AD 400 and AD 409. Chinese historiography does not make a distinction between the realm that existed up to AD 400 and the realm restored in AD 409. The Prince Wuyuan of Western Qin was both the last ruler before the interregnum and the first ruler after the interregnum.
  26. ^ a b The names of the Later Liang (後涼) of the Lü clan and the Later Liang (後梁) of the Zhu clan are rendered similarly using the Hanyu Pinyin system, even though they do not share the same Chinese character for "Liang".
  27. ^ a b Duan Ye, surnamed Duan (), was of Han Chinese descent. The enthronement of the Prince Wuxuan of Northern Liang was therefore not a typical dynastic succession.[116]
  28. ^ The ruling house of the Hu Xia initially bore the surname Liu ().[120] The Emperor Wulie of Hu Xia subsequently adopted Helian (赫連) as the surname.[120]
  29. ^ a b The Emperor Huiyi of Yan was of Goguryeo descent. Originally surnamed Gao (), he was an adopted member of the Murong (慕容) clan.[110] The enthronement of the Emperor Wencheng of Northern Yan was therefore not a typical dynastic succession.
  30. ^ a b The Northern Yan was established in either AD 407 or AD 409, lasting either 29 years or 27 years, depending on the status of the Emperor Huiyi of Yan.
  31. ^ The ruling house of the Northern Wei initially bore the surname Tuoba (拓跋).[124] The Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei subsequently adopted Yuan () as the surname.[124]
  32. ^ The ruling house of the Western Wei initially bore the surname Yuan (). The Emperor Gong of Western Wei subsequently adopted Tuoba (拓跋) as the surname.[127]
  33. ^ The ruling house of the Sui dynasty initially bore the surname Yang (). The Western Wei later bestowed the surname Puliuru (普六茹) upon the family.[133] The Emperor Wen of Sui subsequently restored Yang as the surname.
  34. ^ The Tang dynasty was interrupted by the Wu Zhou between AD 690 and AD 705. Chinese historiography does not make a distinction between the realm that existed up to AD 690 and the realm restored in AD 705. The Emperor Ruizong of Tang was the last ruler before the interregnum; the Emperor Zhongzong of Tang was the first ruler after the interregnum.
  35. ^ The ruling house of the Later Tang initially bore the surname Zhuye (朱邪).[139] Li () was subsequently adopted as the surname by the Emperor Xianzu of Later Tang prior to the establishment of the Later Tang.[139]
  36. ^ The Emperor Mingzong of Later Tang, originally without surname, was an adopted member of the Li () clan.[140] His enthronement was therefore not a typical dynastic succession.
  37. ^ a b Li Congke was of Han Chinese descent. Originally surnamed Wang (), he was an adopted member of the Li () clan.[141] His enthronement was therefore not a typical dynastic succession.
  38. ^ a b The names of the Later Jin (後晉) of the Shi clan and the Later Jin (後金) of the Aisin Gioro clan are rendered similarly using the Hanyu Pinyin system, even though they do not share the same Chinese character for "Jin".
  39. ^ The Emperor Shizong of Later Zhou, originally surnamed Chai (), was an adopted member of the Guo () clan.[144] His enthronement was therefore not a typical dynastic succession.
  40. ^ As Zhu Wenjin, surnamed Zhu (), was not a member of the Wang () clan by birth, his enthronement was not a typical dynastic succession.[149]
  41. ^ The ruling house of the Southern Tang initially bore the surname Xu ().[150] The Emperor Liezu of Southern Tang subsequently adopted Li () as the surname.[150]
  42. ^ a b The Emperor Yingwu of Northern Han was of Han Chinese descent. Originally surnamed He (), he was an adopted member of the Liu () clan.[152] His enthronement was therefore not a typical dynastic succession.
  43. ^ a b Kuchlug, originally without surname, was of Naiman descent. As he was not a member of the Yelü (耶律) clan by birth, his enthronement was not a typical dynastic succession.[155][156]
  44. ^ a b The Northern Song (北宋) and the Southern Song (南宋) are collectively known as the Song dynasty (宋朝; Sòng Cháo).[158]
  45. ^ The ruling house of the Western Xia initially bore the surname Tuoba (拓跋). The Tang dynasty and the Song dynasty later bestowed the surnames Li () and Zhao () upon the family respectively. The Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia subsequently adopted Weiming (嵬名) as the surname.[161]
  46. ^ a b Choros Esen, surnamed Choros (綽羅斯), was of Oirat descent. As he was not a member of the Borjigin (孛兒只斤) clan by birth, his enthronement was not a typical dynastic succession.[165][166]
  47. ^ a b Traditional Chinese historiography considers the Northern Yuan to have ended in either AD 1388 or AD 1402, lasting either 20 years or 34 years.[167][168] However, some historians regard the Mongol regime that existed from AD 1388 or AD 1402 up to AD 1635—referred to in the History of Ming as "Dada" (韃靼)—as a direct continuation of the Northern Yuan.[169]
  48. ^ The existence and identity of the Dingwu Emperor, supposedly reigned from 1646 CE to 1664 CE, are disputed. Hence, most historians regard the Yongli Emperor as the final monarch of the Southern Ming.
  49. ^ The Jurchen ethnic group was renamed "Manchu" in AD 1635 by the Emperor Taizong of Qing.[173][174]
  50. ^ The Qing dynasty was briefly restored between 1 July 1917 and 12 July 1917. The movement was led by Zhang Xun who reinstalled the Xuantong Emperor to the Chinese throne.[24] Due to the abortive nature of the event, it is usually excluded from the Qing history.
  51. ^ As proposed by scholars such as Tan Qixiang, the geographical extent covered in the study of Chinese historical geography largely corresponds with the territories ruled by the Qing dynasty during its territorial peak between the AD 1750s and the AD 1840s, prior to the outbreak of the First Opium War.[177]

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SourcesEdit

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External linksEdit