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Temple names are posthumous titles that were given to East Asian monarchs. The practice of honoring monarchs with temple names began during the Shang dynasty in China and had since been adopted by other dynastic regimes in the Sinosphere, with the notable exception of Japan. Temple names should not be confused with era names and posthumous names.

Temple name
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese廟號
Simplified Chinese庙号
Vietnamese name
VietnameseMiếu hiệu
Korean name
Hangul묘호
Hanja廟號

Among modern historians, referencing Chinese monarchs from the Tang to the Yuan dynasties, Korean rulers of the Goryeo (until AD 1274) and Joseon dynasties, and Vietnamese sovereigns from the to Later Lê dynasties (excluding the Hồ and Later Trần dynasties) by their temple names is a common practice.

Numerous individuals who did not rule as monarch during their lifetime were posthumously promoted to emperor or king by their descendants and honored with temple names; for example, Cao Cao was posthumously honored as an emperor and given the temple name "Taizu" by Cao Pi of the Cao Wei dynasty. Meanwhile, several individuals who were initially assigned temple names had their titles revoked, as was the case for Liu Zhi whose temple name "Weizong" was removed by Liu Xie of the Eastern Han dynasty. In other cases, numerous individuals were honored with more than one temple name, either due to intentional changes or they were given different titles by different monarchs; for instance, Zhu Di of the Ming dynasty was originally honored as "Taizong" by Zhu Gaochi, but his temple name was later changed to "Chengzu" by Zhu Houcong.

Contents

EtymologyEdit

The "temple" in "temple name" (廟號) refers to the grand temples (太廟) built by each dynasty for the purpose of ancestor worship. The temple name of each monarch was recorded on their respective ancestral tablet placed within the grand temple.

HistoryEdit

Temple names trace their origins to the Shang dynasty of China. In earlier times, temple names were exclusively assigned to competent rulers after their passing.

The temple name system established during the Shang period utilized only four adjectives:

  • 太 (tài; lit. "grand"): honored to dynastic founders;
  • 高 (gāo; lit. "high"): honored to monarchs with great achievements;
  • 世 (shì; lit. "eternal"): honored to rulers deemed worthy of eternal remembrance; and
  • 中 (zhōng; lit. "resurgent"): honored to sovereigns who revitalized their realm following a period of decline.

Chinese monarchs of the Zhou dynasty were given posthumous names but not temple names. During the Qin dynasty, the practice of assigning both temple names and posthumous names was abandoned. The Han dynasty reintroduced both titles, although temple names were assigned sporadically and remained more exclusive than posthumous names. It was also during the Han era that other adjectives aside from the four listed above began appearing in temple names. Numerous Han emperors had their temple names removed by Liu Xie in AD 190.

Initially, in deciding whether a monarch should be honored as "祖" (; lit. "forefather") or "宗" (zōng; lit. "ancestor"), a principle was strictly adhered to: "祖" was to be given to accomplished rulers while "宗" was to be assigned to virtuous rulers. However, this principle was effectively abandoned during the Sixteen Kingdoms era with the ubiquitous usage of "祖" by various non-Han Chinese regimes.

Temple names became widespread from the Tang dynasty onwards. Apart from the final ruler of a dynasty or monarchs who died prematurely, most Chinese monarchs were given temple names by their descendants.

The practice of honoring rulers with temple names had since been adopted by other dynastic regimes within the Sinosphere, including those based on the Korean Peninsula and in Vietnam. Japan, while having adopted both posthumous names and era names from China, did not assign temple names to its monarchs.

StructureEdit

Most temple names consist of two Chinese characters, unlike the more elaborate posthumous names. In extremely rare cases, temple names could consist of three Chinese characters.

The first character is an adjective, chosen to reflect the circumstances of the monarch's reign. The vocabulary may overlap with that of the posthumous names' adjectives, but for one sovereign, the temple name's adjective character usually does not repeat as one of the many adjective characters in his posthumous name.

The last character is either "祖" or "宗":

  • 祖 (; lit. "forefather"): implies a progenitor, either a founder of a dynasty or a new line within an existing one. This character was also used for monarchs with great accomplishments. The equivalent in Korean is jo (조), and tổ in Vietnamese.
  • 宗 (zōng; lit. "ancestor"): used for all other monarchs. It is rendered as jong (종) in Korean, and tông in Vietnamese.

List of temple names with the suffix Edit

Individuals who are known by more than one temple name have their personal name in English italicized.

Tàizǔ (太祖)Edit

The temple name Tàizǔ (太祖/태조/Thái Tổ) can be translated to mean "Grand Forefather". It was often given to the founder of a dynasty.

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Taizu of Shang
商太祖
Zi Lü
子履
1675–1646 BC Shang
Taizu of Han
漢太祖
Liu Bang
劉邦
202–195 BC Western Han Liu Bang was referred to as "Gaozu" (高祖) in the Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian; "Gaozu" is more commonly used when referencing this sovereign than his official temple name "Taizu".
Taizu of Cao Wei
曹魏太祖
Cao Cao
曹操
Did not rule as monarch Cao Wei Posthumously honored by the Cao Wei emperor Cao Pi.
Taizu of Eastern Wu
東吳太祖
Sun Quan
孫權
AD 229–252 Eastern Wu
Taizu of Jin
晉太祖
Sima Zhao
司馬昭
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Western Jin emperor Sima Yan.
Taizu of Han Zhao
漢趙太祖
Liu Yuan
劉淵
AD 304–310 Han Zhao Also honored as "Gaozu" (高祖).
Taizu of Huan Chu
桓楚太祖
Huan Wen
桓溫
Did not rule as monarch Huan Chu Posthumously honored by the Huan Chu emperor Huan Xuan.
Taizu of Later Zhao
後趙太祖
Shi Hu
石虎
AD 334–349 Later Zhao
Taizu of Former Yan
前燕太祖
Murong Huang
慕容皝
AD 337–348 Former Yan
Taizu of Former Liang
前涼太祖
Zhang Gui
張軌
Did not rule as monarch Former Liang Posthumously honored by the Former Liang emperor Zhang Zuo.
Taizu of Former Qin
前秦太祖
Fu Hong
苻洪
Did not rule as monarch Former Qin Posthumously honored by the Former Qin emperor Fu Jian.
Taizu of Later Qin
後秦太祖
Yao Chang
姚萇
AD 384–393 Later Qin
Taizu of Later Liang
後涼太祖
Lü Guang
呂光
AD 386–400 Later Liang
Taizu of Northern Wei
北魏太祖
Tuoba Gui
拓跋珪
AD 386–409 Northern Wei Also honored as "Liezu" (烈祖).
Taizu of Northern Liang
北涼太祖
Juqu Mengxun
沮渠蒙遜
AD 401–433 Northern Liang
Taizu of Northern Yan
北燕太祖
Feng Ba
馮跋
AD 409–430 Northern Yan
Taizu of Western Qin
西秦太祖
Qifu Chipan
乞伏熾磐
AD 412–428 Western Qin
Taizu of Hu Xia
胡夏太祖
Liu Weichen
劉衛辰
Did not rule as monarch Hu Xia Posthumously honored by the Hu Xia emperor Helian Bobo.
Taizu of Northern Wei
北魏太祖
Tuoba Yulü
拓跋鬱律
Did not rule as monarch Northern Wei Posthumously honored by the Northern Wei emperor Tuoba Gui.
Taizu of Liu Song
劉宋太祖
Liu Yilong
劉義隆
AD 424–453 Liu Song Also honored as "Zhongzong" (中宗).
Taizu of Southern Qi
南齊太祖
Xiao Daocheng
蕭道成
AD 479–482 Southern Qi
Taizu of Liang
梁太祖
Xiao Shunzhi
蕭順之
Did not rule as monarch Liang Posthumously honored by the Liang emperor Xiao Yan.
Taizu of Chen
陳太祖
Chen Wenzan
陳文贊
Did not rule as monarch Chen Posthumously honored by the Chen emperor Chen Baxian.
Taizu of Northern Qi
北齊太祖
Gao Huan
高歡
Did not rule as monarch Northern Qi Posthumously honored by the Northern Qi emperor Gao Yang. Also honored as "Gaozu" (高祖).
Taizu of Northern Zhou
北周太祖
Yuwen Tai
宇文泰
Did not rule as monarch Northern Zhou Posthumously honored by the Northern Zhou emperor Yuwen Yu.
Taizu of Sui
隋太祖
Yang Zhong
楊忠
Did not rule as monarch Sui Posthumously honored by the Sui emperor Yang Jian.
Taizu of Tang
唐太祖
Li Hu
李虎
Did not rule as monarch Tang Posthumously honored by the Tang emperor Li Yuan.
Taizu of Wu Zhou
武周太祖
Wu Shiyue
武士彠
Did not rule as monarch Wu Zhou Posthumously honored by the Wu Zhou empress Wu Zhao.
Taizu of Later Liang
後梁太祖
Zhu Wen
朱溫
AD 907–912 Later Liang
Taizu of Wuyue
吳越太祖
Qian Liu
錢鏐
AD 907–932 Wuyue
Taizu of Min
閩太祖
Wang Shenzhi
王審知
AD 909–925 Min
Taizu of Later Tang
後唐太祖
Li Keyong
李克用
Did not rule as monarch Later Tang Posthumously honored by the Later Tang emperor Li Cunxu.
Taizu of Later Zhou
後周太祖
Guo Wei
郭威
AD 951–954 Later Zhou
Taizu of Yang Wu
楊吳太祖
Yang Xingmi
楊行密
Did not rule as monarch Yang Wu Posthumously honored by the Yang Wu emperor Yang Pu.
Taizu of Southern Han
南漢太祖
Liu Anren
劉安仁
Did not rule as monarch Southern Han Posthumously honored by the Southern Han emperor Liu Yan.
Taizu of Later Shu
後蜀太祖
Meng Yi
孟佚
Did not rule as monarch Later Shu Posthumously honored by the Later Shu emperor Meng Zhixiang.
Taizu of Liao
遼太祖
Yelü Abaoji
耶律阿保機
AD 916–926 Liao
Taizu of Dali
大理太祖
Duan Siping
段思平
AD 937–944 Former Dali
Taizu of Song
宋太祖
Zhao Kuangyin
趙匡胤
AD 960–976 Northern Song
Taizu of Western Xia
西夏太祖
Li Jiqian
李繼遷
Did not rule as monarch Western Xia, Shun Posthumously honored by the Western Xia emperor Li Yuanhao. Also honored as "Wuzong" (武宗).
Taizu of Jin
金太祖
Wanyan Aguda
完顏阿骨打
AD 1115–1123 Jin
Taizu of Yuan
元太祖
Borjigin Temüjin
孛兒只斤·鐵木真
AD 1206–1227 (as Khagan of the Mongol Empire) Mongol Empire (de facto), Yuan (honorary) Borjigin Temüjin ruled as Khagan of the Mongol Empire, but was subsequently honored as "Taizu" by the Yuan emperor Borjigin Kublai.
Taizu of Ming Xia
明夏太祖
Ming Yuzhen
明玉珍
AD 1362–1366 Ming Xia
Taizu of Ming
明太祖
Zhu Yuanzhang
朱元璋
AD 1368–1398 Ming
Taizu of Shun
順太祖
Li Jiqian
李繼遷
Did not rule as monarch Western Xia, Shun Posthumously honored by the Shun emperor Li Zicheng. Also honored as "Wuzong" (武宗).
Taizu of Qing
清太祖
Aisin Gioro Nurhaci
愛新覺羅·努爾哈赤
AD 1616–1626 (as Khan of Later Jin) Later Jin (de facto), Qing (honorary) Aisin Gioro Nurhaci ruled as Khan of Later Jin, but was subsequently honored as "Taizu" by the Qing emperor Aisin Gioro Hong Taiji.
Taizu of Wu Zhou
吳周太祖
Wu Sangui
吳三桂
AD 1678 Wu Zhou
Taejo of Goryeo
고려 태조
高麗太祖
Wang Geon
왕건
王建
AD 918–943 Goryeo
Taejo of Joseon
조선 태조
朝鮮太祖
Yi Dan
이단
李旦
AD 1392–1398 Joseon
Lý Thái Tổ
李太祖
Lý Công Uẩn
李公蘊
AD 1009–1028
Trần Thái Tổ
陳太祖
Trần Thừa
陳承
Did not rule as monarch Trần Posthumously honored by the Trần emperor Trần Cảnh. Also honored as "Huy Tông" (徽宗).
Lê Thái Tổ
黎太祖
Lê Lợi
黎利
AD 1428–1433 Primitive Lê
Mạc Thái Tổ
莫太祖
Mạc Đăng Dung
莫登庸
AD 1527–1529 Mạc
Nguyễn Thái Tổ
阮太祖
Nguyễn Hoàng
阮潢
AD 1558–1613 Nguyễn lords Also honored as "Liệt Tổ" (烈祖).
Tây Sơn Thái Tổ
西山太祖
Nguyễn Huệ
阮惠
AD 1788–1792 Tây Sơn

Gāozǔ (高祖)Edit

The temple name Gāozǔ (高祖/고조/Cao Tổ) can be translated to mean "High Forefather". It was often given to the founder of a dynasty.

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Gaozu of Shang
商高祖
Zi Hai
子亥
Did not rule as monarch Shang Posthumously honored by the Shang king Zi Lü.
Gaozu of Han
漢高祖
Liu Bang
劉邦
202–195 BC Western Han Liu Bang was referred to as "Gaozu" in the Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian; "Gaozu" is more commonly used when referencing this sovereign than his official temple name "Taizu" (太祖).
Gaozu of Cao Wei
曹魏高祖
Cao Pi
曹丕
AD 220–226 Cao Wei Also honored as "Shizu" (世祖).
Gaozu of Jin
晉高祖
Sima Yi
司馬懿
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Sima Yan.
Gaozu of Han Zhao
漢趙高祖
Liu Yuan
劉淵
AD 304–310 Han Zhao Also honored as "Taizu" (太祖).
Gaozu of Former Yan
前燕高祖
Murong Hui
慕容廆
Did not rule as monarch Former Yan Posthumously honored by the Former Yan emperor Murong Jun.
Gaozu of Later Zhao
後趙高祖
Shi Le
石勒
AD 319–333 Later Zhao
Gaozu of Former Liang
前涼高祖
Zhang Shi
張寔
Did not rule as monarch Former Liang Posthumously honored by the Former Liang emperor Zhang Zuo.
Gaozu of Northern Wei
北魏高祖
Tuoba Shiyijian
拓跋什翼犍
AD 338–376 (as Prince of Dai) Dai (de facto), Northern Wei (honorary) Tuoba Shiyijian ruled as Prince of Dai, but was subsequently honored as "Gaozu" by the Northern Wei emperor Tuoba Gui.
Gaozu of Former Qin
前秦高祖
Fu Jian
苻健
AD 351–355 Former Qin Also honored as "Shizu" (世祖) and "Shizong" (世宗).
Gaozu of Western Qin
西秦高祖
Qifu Gangui
乞伏乾歸
AD 388–400, AD 409–412 Western Qin
Gaozu of Later Qin
後秦高祖
Yao Xing
姚興
AD 394–416 Later Qin
Gaozu of Liu Song
劉宋高祖
Liu Yu
劉裕
AD 420–422 Liu Song
Gaozu of Northern Wei
北魏高祖
Yuan Hong
元宏
AD 471–499 Northern Wei
Gaozu of Liang
梁高祖
Xiao Yan
蕭衍
AD 502–549 Liang
Gaozu of Northern Qi
北齊高祖
Gao Huan
高歡
Did not rule as monarch Northern Qi Posthumously honored by the Northern Qi emperor Gao Wei. Also honored as "Taizu" (太祖).
Gaozu of Chen
陳高祖
Chen Baxian
陳霸先
AD 557–559 Chen
Gaozu of Northern Zhou
北周高祖
Yuwen Yong
宇文邕
AD 561–578 Northern Zhou
Gaozu of Sui
隋高祖
Yang Jian
楊堅
AD 581–604 Sui
Gaozu of Tang
唐高祖
Li Yuan
李淵
AD 618–626 Tang
Gaozu of Nanzhao
南詔高祖
Meng Xinuluo
蒙細奴邏
AD 649–674 Nanzhao
Gaozu of Former Shu
前蜀高祖
Wang Jian
王建
AD 907–918 Former Shu
Gaozu of Southern Han
南漢高祖
Liu Yan
劉龑
AD 917–942 Southern Han
Gaozu of Yang Wu
楊吳高祖
Yang Longyan
楊隆演
Did not rule as monarch Yang Wu Posthumously honored by the Yang Wu emperor Yang Pu.
Gaozu of Later Shu
後蜀高祖
Meng Zhixiang
孟知祥
AD 934 Later Shu
Gaozu of Later Jin
後晉高祖
Shi Jingtang
石敬瑭
AD 936–942 Later Jin
Gaozu of Later Han
後漢高祖
Liu Zhiyuan
劉知遠
AD 947–948 Later Han

Chéngzǔ (成祖)Edit

The temple name Chéngzǔ (成祖/성조/Thành Tổ) can be translated to mean "Accomplished Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Chengzu of Ming
明成祖
Zhu Di
朱棣
AD 1402–1424 Ming Also honored as "Taizong" (太宗).
Trịnh Thành Tổ
鄭成祖
Trịnh Tùng
鄭松
AD 1572–1623 Trịnh lords
Nguyễn Thành Tổ
阮成祖
Nguyễn Phúc Thì
阮福時
AD 1847–1883 Nguyễn Also honored as "Dực Tông" (翼宗).

Chúnzǔ (纯祖/純祖)Edit

The temple name Chúnzǔ (纯祖/純祖/순조/Thuần Tổ) can be translated to mean "Refined Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Sunjo of Joseon
조선 순조
朝鮮純祖
Yi Gong
이공
李玜
AD 1800–1834 Joseon Also honored as "Sunjong" (순종/純宗).

Chúnzǔ (淳祖)Edit

The temple name Chúnzǔ (淳祖/Thuần Tổ) can be translated to mean "Honorable Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Trịnh Thuần Tổ
鄭淳祖
Trịnh Vĩnh
鄭栐
Did not rule as monarch Trịnh lords Posthumously honored by the Trịnh lord Trịnh Sâm.

Dàizǔ (代祖)Edit

The temple name Dàizǔ (代祖/대조/Đại Tổ) can be translated to mean "Generational Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Daizu of Southern Han
南漢代祖
Liu Qian
劉謙
Did not rule as monarch Southern Han Posthumously honored by the Southern Han emperor Liu Yan.

Dàshèngzǔ (大圣祖/大聖祖)Edit

The temple name Dàshèngzǔ (大圣祖/大聖祖/대성조/Đại Thánh Tổ) can be translated to mean "Great Sacred Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Dashengzu of Tang
唐大聖祖
Li Er
李耳
Did not rule as monarch Tang Posthumously honored by the Tang emperor Li Longji.

Dézǔ (德祖)Edit

The temple name Dézǔ (德祖/덕조/Đức Tổ) can be translated to mean "Virtuous Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Dezu of Later Tang
後唐德祖
Li Ni
李霓
Did not rule as monarch Later Tang Posthumously honored by the Later Tang emperor Li Siyuan.
Dezu of Later Han
後漢德祖
Liu Ang
劉昂
Did not rule as monarch Later Han Posthumously honored by the Later Han emperor Liu Zhiyuan.
Dezu of Liao
遼德祖
Yelü Saladi
耶律撒剌的
Did not rule as monarch Liao Posthumously honored by the Liao emperor Yelü Zongzhen.
Dezu of Ming
明德祖
Zhu Bailiu
朱百六
Did not rule as monarch Ming Posthumously honored by the Ming emperor Zhu Yuanzhang.

Dùzǔ (度祖)Edit

The temple name Dùzǔ (度祖/도조/Đoan Tổ) can be translated to mean "Magnanimous Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Dojo of Joseon
조선 도조
朝鮮度祖
Yi Chun
이춘
李椿
Did not rule as monarch Joseon Posthumously honored by the Joseon king Yi Bang-won.

Gāoshàngzǔ (高上祖)Edit

The temple name Gāoshàngzǔ (高上祖/고상조/Cao Thượng Tổ) can be translated to mean "Venerable Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Lê Cao Thượng Tổ
黎高上祖
Lê Hối
黎誨
Did not rule as monarch Later Lê Posthumously honored by the Primitive Lê emperor Lê Lợi.

Guāngzǔ (光祖)Edit

The temple name Guāngzǔ (光祖/광조/Quang Tổ) can be translated to mean "Radiant Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Mạc Quang Tổ
莫光祖
Mạc Kính Khoan
莫敬寬
AD 1623–1638 Mạc

Guózǔ (国祖/國祖)Edit

The temple name Guózǔ (国祖/國祖/국조/Quốc Tổ) can be translated to mean "National Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Gukjo of Goryeo
고려 국조
高麗國祖
Gang Bo Yuk
강보육
康寶育
Did not rule as monarch Goryeo Posthumously honored by the Goryeo king Wang Geon.

Hóngzǔ (弘祖)Edit

The temple name Hóngzǔ (弘祖/홍조/Hoằng Tổ) can be translated to mean "Majestic Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Trịnh Hoằng Tổ
鄭弘祖
Trịnh Tạc
鄭柞
AD 1657–1682 Trịnh lords
Mạc Hoằng Tổ
莫弘祖
Mạc Bình
莫萍
Did not rule as monarch Mạc Posthumously honored by the Mạc emperor Mạc Đăng Dung.

Húanzǔ (桓祖)Edit

The temple name Húanzǔ (桓祖/환조/Hoàn Tổ) can be translated to mean "Exploratory Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Hwanjo of Joseon
조선 환조
朝鮮桓祖
Yi Ja-chun
이자춘
李子春
Did not rule as monarch Joseon Posthumously honored by the Joseon king Yi Bang-won.

Huìzǔ (惠祖)Edit

The temple name Huìzǔ (惠祖/혜조/Huệ Tổ) can be translated to mean "Compassionate Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Huizu of Later Tang
後唐惠祖
Li Yu
李聿
Did not rule as monarch Later Tang Posthumously honored by the Later Tang emperor Li Siyuan.

Jǐngzǔ (景祖)Edit

The temple name Jǐngzǔ (景祖/경조/Cảnh Tổ) can be translated to mean "Admirable Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Jingzu of Jin
金景祖
Wanyan Wugunai
完顏烏古廼
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Dan.
Jingzu of Qing
清景祖
Aisin Gioro Giocangga
愛新覺羅·覺昌安
Did not rule as monarch Qing Posthumously honored by the Qing emperor Aisin Gioro Fulin.

Jìngzǔ (敬祖)Edit

The temple name Jìngzǔ (敬祖/경조/Cảnh Tổ) can be translated to mean "Revered Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Jingzu of Later Liang
後梁敬祖
Zhu Maolin
朱茂琳
Did not rule as monarch Later Liang Posthumously honored by the Later Liang emperor Zhu Wen.

Jìngzǔ (靖祖)Edit

The temple name Jìngzǔ (靖祖/정조/Tĩnh Tổ) can be translated to mean "Conciliatory Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Jingzu of Later Jin
後晉靖祖
Shi Jing
石璟
Did not rule as monarch Later Jin Posthumously honored by the Later Jin emperor Shi Jingtang.

Lièzǔ (烈祖)Edit

The temple name Lièzǔ (烈祖/열조/Liệt Tổ) can be translated to mean "Ardent Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Liezu of Shu Han
蜀漢烈祖
Liu Bei
劉備
AD 221–223 Shu Han
Liezu of Cao Wei
曹魏烈祖
Cao Rui
曹叡
AD 226–239 Cao Wei
Liezu of Former Yan
前燕烈祖
Murong Jun
慕容儁
AD 348–360 Former Yan
Liezu of Ran Wei
冉魏烈祖
Ran Zhan
冉瞻
Did not rule as monarch Ran Wei Posthumously honored by the Ran Wei emperor Ran Min.
Liezu of Western Qin
西秦烈祖
Qifu Guoren
乞伏國仁
AD 385–388 Western Qin
Liezu of Northern Wei
北魏烈祖
Tuoba Gui
拓跋珪
AD 386–409 Northern Wei Also honored as "Taizu" (太祖).
Liezu of Later Yan
後燕烈祖
Murong Bao
慕容寶
AD 396–398 Later Yan Also honored as "Liezong" (烈宗).
Liezu of Southern Liang
南涼烈祖
Tufa Wugu
禿髮烏孤
AD 397–399 Southern Liang
Liezu of Wu Zhou
武周烈祖
Wu Jian
武儉
Did not rule as monarch Wu Zhou Posthumously honored by the Wu Zhou empress Wu Zhao.
Liezu of Yang Wu
楊吳烈祖
Yang Wo
楊渥
AD 905–908 Yang Wu Also honored as "Liezong" (烈宗).
Liezu of Southern Tang
南唐烈祖
Li Bian
李昪
AD 937–943 Southern Tang
Liezu of Later Liang
後梁烈祖
Zhu Cheng
朱誠
Did not rule as monarch Later Liang Posthumously honored by the Later Liang emperor Zhu Wen.
Liezu of Later Tang
後唐烈祖
Li Yan
李琰
Did not rule as monarch Later Tang Posthumously honored by the Later Tang emperor Li Siyuan.
Liezu of Yuan
元烈祖
Borjigin Yesugei
孛兒只斤·也速該
Did not rule as monarch Yuan Posthumously honored by the Yuan emperor Borjigin Kublai.
Nguyễn Liệt Tổ
阮烈祖
Nguyễn Hoàng
阮潢
AD 1558–1613 Nguyễn lords Also honored as "Thái Tổ" (太祖).
Yeoljo of Joseon
조선 열조
朝鮮烈祖
Yi Jong
이종
李倧
AD 1623–1649 Joseon Also honored as "Injo" (인조/仁祖).

Mùzǔ (穆祖)Edit

The temple name Mùzǔ (穆祖/목조/Mục Tổ) can be translated to mean "Sombre Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Mokjo of Joseon
조선 목조
朝鮮穆祖
Yi An-sa
이안사
李安社
Did not rule as monarch Joseon Posthumously honored by the Joseon king Yi Dan.
Trần Mục Tổ
陳穆祖
Trần Kinh
陳京
Did not rule as monarch Trần Posthumously honored by the Trần emperor Trần Thuyên.
Trịnh Mục Tổ
鄭穆祖
Trịnh Liễu
鄭柳
Did not rule as monarch Trịnh lords Posthumously honored by the Trịnh lord Trịnh Sâm.

Níngzǔ (宁祖/寧祖)Edit

The temple name Níngzǔ (宁祖/寧祖/영조/Ninh Tổ) can be translated to mean "Amicable Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Trần Ninh Tổ
陳寧祖
Trần Tây
陳翕
Did not rule as monarch Trần Posthumously honored by the Trần emperor Trần Thuyên.

Qìngzǔ (庆祖/慶祖)Edit

The temple name Qìngzǔ (庆祖/慶祖/경조/Khánh Tổ) can be translated to mean "Celebrated Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Qingzu of Later Zhou
後周慶祖
Guo Jian
郭簡
Did not rule as monarch Later Zhou Posthumously honored by the Later Zhou emperor Guo Wei.

Rénzǔ (仁祖)Edit

The temple name Rénzǔ (仁祖/인조/Nhân Tổ) can be translated to mean "Benevolent Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Renzu of Ming
明仁祖
Zhu Shizhen
朱世珍
Did not rule as monarch Ming Posthumously honored by the Ming emperor Zhu Yuanzhang.
Injo of Joseon
조선 인조
朝鮮仁祖
Yi Jong
이종
李倧
AD 1623–1649 Joseon Also honored as "Yeoljo" (열조/烈祖).

Ruìzǔ (睿祖)Edit

The temple name Ruìzǔ (睿祖/예조/Duệ Tổ) can be translated to mean "Astute Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Ruizu of Wu Zhou
武周睿祖
Personal name unknown Did not rule as monarch Wu Zhou Posthumously honored by the Wu Zhou empress Wu Zhao.
Ruizu of Later Jin
後晉睿祖
Shi Yu
石昱
Did not rule as monarch Later Jin Posthumously honored by the Later Jin emperor Shi Jingtang.
Trịnh Duệ Tổ
鄭睿祖
Trịnh Bính
鄭柄
Did not rule as monarch Trịnh lords Posthumously honored by the Trịnh lord Trịnh Sâm.

Shèngzǔ (圣祖/聖祖)Edit

The temple name Shèngzǔ (圣祖/聖祖/성조/Thánh Tổ) can be translated to mean "Sagacious Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Shengzu of Dachanghe
大長和聖祖
Zheng Maisi
鄭買嗣
AD 903–909 Dachanghe
Shengzu of Former Shu
前蜀聖祖
Ji Jin
姬晉
Did not rule as monarch Former Shu Posthumously honored by the Former Shu emperor Wang Yan.
Shengzu of Song
宋聖祖
Zhao Xuanlang
趙玄朗
Did not rule as monarch Song Posthumously honored by the Northern Song emperor Zhao Heng.
Shengzu of Qing
清聖祖
Aisin Gioro Xuanye
愛新覺羅·玄燁
AD 1661–1722 Qing
Seongjo of Silla
신라 성조
新羅聖祖
Kim Deokman
김덕만
金德曼
AD 632–647 Silla
Trịnh Thánh Tổ
鄭聖祖
Trịnh Sâm
鄭森
AD 1767–1782 Trịnh lords
Nguyễn Thánh Tổ
阮聖祖
Nguyễn Phúc Kiểu
阮福晈
AD 1820–1841 Nguyễn

Shénzǔ (神祖)Edit

The temple name Shénzǔ (神祖/신조/Thần Tổ) can be translated to mean "Divine Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Nguyễn Thần Tổ
阮神祖
Nguyễn Phúc Lan
阮福瀾
AD 1635–1648 Nguyễn lords Also honored as "Thần Tông" (神宗).

Shǐzǔ (始祖)Edit

The temple name Shǐzǔ (始祖/시조/Thủy Tổ) can be translated to mean "First Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Shizu of Xin
新始祖
Yao Chonghua
姚重華
2233–2184 BC (as Emperor of Yu) Yu (de facto), Xin (honorary) Yao Chonghua ruled as Emperor of Yu, but was subsequently honored as "Shizu" by the Xin emperor Wang Mang.
Shizu of Eastern Wu
東吳始祖
Sun Jian
孫堅
Did not rule as monarch Eastern Wu Posthumously honored by the Eastern Wu emperor Sun Quan.
Shizu of Cheng Han
成漢始祖
Li Te
李特
Did not rule as monarch Cheng Han Posthumously honored by the Cheng Han emperor Li Xiong.
Shizu of Later Qin
後秦始祖
Yao Yizhong
姚弋仲
Did not rule as monarch Later Qin Posthumously honored by the Later Qin emperor Yao Chang.
Shizu of Northern Wei
北魏始祖
Tuoba Liwei
拓跋力微
Did not rule as monarch Northern Wei Posthumously honored by the Northern Wei emperor Tuoba Gui.
Shizu of Wu Zhou
武周始祖
Ji Chang
姬昌
Did not rule as monarch Wu Zhou Posthumously honored by the Wu Zhou empress Wu Zhao.
Shizu of Jin
金始祖
Wanyan Hanpu
完顏函普
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Dan.
Sijo of Silla
신라 시조
新羅始祖
Park Hyeokgeose
박혁거세
朴赫居世
57 BCAD 4 Silla

Shìzǔ (世祖)Edit

The temple name Shìzǔ (世祖/세조/Thế Tổ) can be translated to mean "Eternal Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Shizu of Han
漢世祖
Liu Xiu
劉秀
AD 25–57 Eastern Han
Shizu of Xin
新世祖
Tian Jian
田建
264–221 BC (as King of Qi) Qi (de facto), Xin (honorary) Tian Jian ruled as King of Qi, but was subsequently honored as "Shizu" by the Xin emperor Wang Mang.
Shizu of Cao Wei
曹魏世祖
Cao Pi
曹丕
AD 220–226 Cao Wei Also honored as "Gaozu" (高祖).
Shizu of Jin
晉世祖
Sima Yan
司馬炎
AD 266–290 Western Jin
Shizu of Former Liang
前涼世祖
Zhang Jun
張駿
Did not rule as monarch Former Liang Posthumously honored by the Former Liang emperor Zhang Zuo.
Shizu of Former Qin
前秦世祖
Fu Jian
苻堅
AD 357–385 Former Qin Also honored as "Gaozu" (高祖) and "Shizong" (世宗).
Shizu of Later Yan
後燕世祖
Murong Chui
慕容垂
AD 384–396 Later Yan
Shizu of Hu Xia
胡夏世祖
Helian Bobo
赫連勃勃
AD 407–425 Hu Xia
Shizu of Northern Wei
北魏世祖
Tuoba Tao
拓跋燾
AD 423–452 Northern Wei
Shizu of Liu Song
劉宋世祖
Liu Jun
劉駿
AD 453–464 Liu Song
Shizu of Southern Qi
南齊世祖
Xiao Ze
蕭賾
AD 482–493 Southern Qi
Shizu of Liang
梁世祖
Xiao Yi
蕭繹
AD 552–555 Liang
Shizu of Chen
陳世祖
Chen Qian
陳蒨
AD 559–566 Chen
Shizu of Northern Qi
北齊世祖
Gao Zhan
高湛
AD 561–565 Northern Qi
Shizu of Sui
隋世祖
Yang Guang
楊廣
AD 604–618 Sui
Shizu of Tang
唐世祖
Li Bing
李昞
Did not rule as monarch Tang Posthumously honored by the Tang emperor Li Yuan.
Shizu of Later Shu
後蜀世祖
Meng Cha
孟察
Did not rule as monarch Later Shu Posthumously honored by the Later Shu emperor Meng Zhixiang.
Shizu of Northern Han
北漢世祖
Liu Min
劉旻
AD 951–954 Northern Han
Shizu of Jin
金世祖
Wanyan Helibo
完顏劾里鉢
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Dan. Also honored as "Yuanzu" (元祖).
Shizu of Yuan
元世祖
Borjigin Kublai
孛兒只斤·忽必烈
AD 1260–1294 (as Khagan of the Mongol Empire), AD 1271–1294 (as Emperor of Yuan) Mongol Empire, Yuan
Shizu of Qing
清世祖
Aisin Gioro Fulin
愛新覺羅·福臨
AD 1643–1661 Qing
Sejo of Goryeo
고려 세조
高麗世祖
Wang Ryung
왕륭
王隆
Did not rule as monarch Goryeo Posthumously honored by the Goryeo king Wang Geon.
Sejo of Joseon
조선 세조
朝鮮世祖
Yi Yu
이유
李瑈
AD 1455–1468 Joseon
Trịnh Thế Tổ
鄭世祖
Trịnh Kiểm
鄭檢
AD 1545–1570 Trịnh lords
Nguyễn Thế Tổ
阮世祖
Nguyễn Phúc Ánh
阮福映
AD 1802–1820 Nguyễn

Shùnzǔ (顺祖/順祖)Edit

The temple name Shùnzǔ (顺祖/順祖/순조/Thuận Tổ) can be translated to mean "Obedient Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Shunzu of Song
宋順祖
Zhao Ting
趙珽
Did not rule as monarch Song Posthumously honored by the Northern Song emperor Zhao Kuangyin.

Sùzǔ (肃祖/肅祖)Edit

The temple name Sùzǔ (肃祖/肅祖/숙조/Túc Tổ) can be translated to mean "Solemn Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Suzu of Jin
晉肅祖
Sima Shao
司馬紹
AD 323–325 Eastern Jin Also honored as "Suzong" (肅宗).
Suzu of Northern Wei
北魏肅祖
Yuan Xie
元勰
Did not rule as monarch Northern Wei Posthumously honored by the Northern Wei emperor Yuan Ziyou.
Suzu of Wu Zhou
武周肅祖
Wu Juchang
武居常
Did not rule as monarch Wu Zhou Posthumously honored by the Wu Zhou empress Wu Zhao.
Suzu of Later Liang
後梁肅祖
Zhu An
朱黯
Did not rule as monarch Later Liang Posthumously honored by the Later Liang emperor Zhu Wen.
Suzu of Later Jin
後晉肅祖
Shi Bin
石彬
Did not rule as monarch Later Jin Posthumously honored by the Later Jin emperor Shi Jingtang.
Suzu of Liao
遼肅祖
Yelü Noulisi
耶律耨里思
Did not rule as monarch Liao Posthumously honored by the Liao emperor Yelü Yanxi.

Tàichūzǔ (太初祖)Edit

The temple name Tàichūzǔ (太初祖/태초조/Thái Sơ Tổ) can be translated to mean "Grand Primordial Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Taichuzu of Xin
新太初祖
Gongsun Xuanyuan
公孫軒轅
Legendary Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (legendary), Xin (honorary) Gongsun Xuanyuan was a legendary ruler of China, but was subsequently honored as "Taichuzu" by the Xin emperor Wang Mang.

Tǒngzǔ (统祖/統祖)Edit

The temple name Tǒngzǔ (统祖/統祖/통조/Thống Tổ) can be translated to mean "Commanding Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Tongzu of Xin
新統祖
Wei Wan
媯完
Did not rule as monarch Xin

Wángzǔ (王祖)Edit

The temple name Wángzǔ (王祖/왕조/Vương Tổ) can be translated to mean "Sovereign Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Wangzu of Xin
新王祖
Tian An
田安
Did not rule as monarch Xin Posthumously honored by the Xin emperor Wang Mang.

Wénzǔ (文祖)Edit

The temple name Wénzǔ (文祖/문조/Văn Tổ) can be translated to mean "Civil Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Wenzu of Later Han
後漢文祖
Liu Tuan
劉湍
Did not rule as monarch Later Han Posthumously honored by the Later Han emperor Liu Zhiyuan.
Trịnh Văn Tổ
鄭文祖
Trịnh Tráng
鄭梉
AD 1623–1657 Trịnh lords
Munjo of Joseon
조선 문조
朝鮮文祖
Yi Yeong
이영
李旲
Did not rule as monarch Joseon Posthumously honored by the Korean emperor Yi Hui. Also honored as "Igjong" (익종/翼宗).

Xiǎnzǔ (显祖/顯祖)Edit

The temple name Xiǎnzǔ (显祖/顯祖/현조/Hiển Tổ) can be translated to mean "Eminent Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xianzu of Jin
晉顯祖
Sima Yan
司馬衍
AD 325–342 Eastern Jin Also honored as "Xianzong" (顯宗).
Xianzu of Northern Wei
北魏顯祖
Tuoba Hong
拓跋弘
AD 465–471 Northern Wei
Xianzu of Northern Qi
北齊顯祖
Gao Yang
高洋
AD 550–559 Northern Qi Also honored as "Weizong" (威宗).
Xianzu of Wu Zhou
武周顯祖
Wu Hua
武華
Did not rule as monarch Wu Zhou Posthumously honored by the Wu Zhou empress Wu Zhao.
Xianzu of Later Han
後漢顯祖
Liu Tian
劉琠
Did not rule as monarch Later Han Posthumously honored by the Later Han emperor Liu Zhiyuan.
Xianzu of Later Shu
後蜀顯祖
Meng Dao
孟道
Did not rule as monarch Later Shu Posthumously honored by the Later Shu emperor Meng Zhixiang. Also honored as "Xianzong" (顯宗).
Xianzu of Qing
清顯祖
Aisin Gioro Taksi
愛新覺羅·塔克世
Did not rule as monarch Qing Posthumously honored by the Qing emperor Aisin Gioro Fulin.
Lê Hiển Tổ
黎顯祖
Lê Đinh
黎汀
Did not rule as monarch Later Lê Posthumously honored by the Primitive Lê emperor Lê Lợi.

Xiànzǔ (宪祖/憲祖)Edit

The temple name Xiànzǔ (宪祖/憲祖/헌조/Hiến Tổ) can be translated to mean "Constitutional Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xianzu of Later Liang
後梁憲祖
Zhu Xin
朱信
Did not rule as monarch Later Liang Posthumously honored by the Later Liang emperor Zhu Wen.
Xianzu of Later Jin
後晉憲祖
Shi Shaoyong
石紹雍
Did not rule as monarch Later Jin Posthumously honored by the Later Jin emperor Shi Jingtang. Also honored as "Xianzu" (獻祖).
Nguyễn Hiến Tổ
阮憲祖
Nguyễn Phúc Miên Tông
阮福綿宗
AD 1841–1847 Nguyễn

Xiànzǔ (献祖/獻祖)Edit

The temple name Xiànzǔ (献祖/獻祖/헌조/Hiến Tổ) can be translated to mean "Dedicated Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xianzu of Tang
唐獻祖
Li Xi
李熙
Did not rule as monarch Tang Posthumously honored by the Tang emperor Li Zhi.
Xianzu of Later Tang
後唐獻祖
Li Guochang
李國昌
Did not rule as monarch Later Tang Posthumously honored by the Later Tang emperor Li Cunxu.
Xianzu of Later Jin
後晉獻祖
Shi Shaoyong
石紹雍
Did not rule as monarch Later Jin Posthumously honored by the Later Jin emperor Shi Jingtang. Also honored as "Xianzu" (憲祖).
Xianzu of Jin
金獻祖
Wanyan Suike
完顏綏可
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Dan.

Xīngzǔ (兴祖/興祖)Edit

The temple name Xīngzǔ (兴祖/興祖/흥조/Hưng Tổ) can be translated to mean "Prosperous Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xingzu of Qing
清興祖
Aisin Gioro Fuman
愛新覺羅·福滿
Did not rule as monarch Qing Posthumously honored by the Qing emperor Aisin Gioro Fulin.
Trịnh Hưng Tổ
鄭興祖
Trịnh Lâu
鄭樓
Did not rule as monarch Trịnh lords Posthumously honored by the Trịnh lord Trịnh Sâm.
Nguyễn Hưng Tổ
阮興祖
Nguyễn Phúc Luân
阮福㫻
Did not rule as monarch Nguyễn Posthumously honored by the Nguyễn emperor Nguyễn Phúc Kiểu.

Xìnzǔ (信祖)Edit

The temple name Xìnzǔ (信祖) can be translated to mean "Faithful Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xinzu of Later Zhou
後周信祖
Guo Jing
郭璟
Did not rule as monarch Later Zhou Posthumously honored by the Later Zhou emperor Guo Wei.

Xīzǔ (熙祖)Edit

The temple name Xīzǔ (熙祖/희조/Hi Tổ) can be translated to mean "Glorious Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xizu of Ming
明熙祖
Zhu Chuyi
朱初一
Did not rule as monarch Ming Posthumously honored by the Ming emperor Zhu Yuanzhang.

Xīzǔ (僖祖)Edit

The temple name Xīzǔ (僖祖/희조/Hy Tổ) can be translated to mean "Jubilant Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xizu of Later Zhou
後周僖祖
Guo Chen
郭諶
Did not rule as monarch Later Zhou Posthumously honored by the Later Zhou emperor Guo Wei.
Xizu of Song
宋僖祖
Zhao Tiao
趙朓
Did not rule as monarch Song Posthumously honored by the Northern Song emperor Zhao Kuangyin.
Trịnh Hy Tổ
鄭僖祖
Trịnh Cương
鄭棡
AD 1709–1729 Trịnh lords

Xuānzǔ (宣祖)Edit

The temple name Xuānzǔ (宣祖) is translated as "선조" in Korean and "Tuyên Tổ" in Vietnamese.

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xuanzu of Song
宋宣祖
Zhao Hongyin
趙弘殷
Did not rule as monarch Song Posthumously honored by the Northern Song emperor Zhao Kuangyin.
Seonjo of Joseon
조선 선조
朝鮮宣祖
Yi Yeon
이연
李昖
AD 1567–1608 Joseon Also honored as "Seonjong" (선종/宣宗).
Lê Tuyên Tổ
黎宣祖
Lê Khoáng
黎曠
Did not rule as monarch Later Lê Posthumously honored by the Primitive Lê emperor Lê Lợi.
Nguyễn Tuyên Tổ
阮宣祖
Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên
阮福源
AD 1613–1635 Nguyễn lords Also honored as "Hi Tông" (熙宗).

Xuánzǔ (玄祖)Edit

The temple name Xuánzǔ (玄祖/현조/Huyền Tổ) can be translated to mean "Profound Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xuanzu of Liao
遼玄祖
Yelü Yundeshi
耶律勻德實
Did not rule as monarch Liao Posthumously honored by the Liao emperor Yelü Zongzhen.

Yánzǔ (严祖/嚴祖)Edit

The temple name Yánzǔ (严祖/嚴祖/엄조/Nghiêm Tổ) can be translated to mean "Austere Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yanzu of Wu Zhou
武周嚴祖
Wu Keji
武克已
Did not rule as monarch Wu Zhou Posthumously honored by the Wu Zhou empress Wu Zhao.

Yīngzǔ (英祖)Edit

The temple name Yīngzǔ (英祖/영조/Anh Tổ) can be translated to mean "Magnificent Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yeongjo of Joseon
조선 영조
朝鮮英祖
Yi Geum
이금
李昑
AD 1724–1776 Joseon Also honored as "Yeongjong" (영종/英宗).
Mạc Anh Tổ
莫英祖
Mạc Mậu Hợp
莫茂洽
AD 1562–1592 Mạc

Yìzǔ (毅祖)Edit

The temple name Yìzǔ (毅祖/의조/Nghị Tổ) can be translated to mean "Persistent Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yizu of Later Tang
後唐毅祖
Li Jiao
李教
Did not rule as monarch Later Tang Posthumously honored by the Later Tang emperor Li Siyuan.
Nguyễn Nghị Tổ
阮毅祖
Nguyễn Phúc Tần
阮福瀕
AD 1648–1687 Nguyễn lords Also honored as "Thái Tông" (太宗).
Trịnh Nghị Tổ
鄭毅祖
Trịnh Doanh
鄭楹
AD 1740–1767 Trịnh lords

Yìzǔ (懿祖)Edit

The temple name Yìzǔ (懿祖/의조/Ý Tổ) can be translated to mean "Benign Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yizu of Tang
唐懿祖
Li Tianxi
李天錫
Did not rule as monarch Tang Posthumously honored by the Tang emperor Li Zhi.
Yizu of Later Tang
後唐懿祖
Zhuye Zhiyi
朱邪執宜
Did not rule as monarch Later Tang Posthumously honored by the Later Tang emperor Li Cunxu.
Yizu of Liao
遼懿祖
Yelü Salade
耶律薩剌德
Did not rule as monarch Liao Posthumously honored by the Liao emperor Yelü Yanxi.
Yizu of Ming
明懿祖
Zhu Sijiu
朱四九
Did not rule as monarch Ming Posthumously honored by the Ming emperor Zhu Yuanzhang.
Uijo of Goryeo
고려 의조
高麗懿祖
Wang Je-geon
왕제건
王帝建
Did not rule as monarch Goryeo Posthumously honored by the Goryeo king Wang Geon.

Yìzǔ (翼祖)Edit

The temple name Yìzǔ (翼祖/익조/Dực Tổ) can be translated to mean "Soaring Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yizu of Later Han
後漢翼祖
Liu Zhuan
劉僎
Did not rule as monarch Later Han Posthumously honored by the Later Han emperor Liu Zhiyuan.
Yizu of Song
宋翼祖
Zhao Jing
趙敬
Did not rule as monarch Song Posthumously honored by the Northern Song emperor Zhao Heng.
Igjo of Joseon
조선 익조
朝鮮翼祖
Yi Haeng-li
이행리
李行里
Did not rule as monarch Joseon Posthumously honored by the Joseon king Yi Bang-won.
Mạc Dực Tổ
莫翼祖
Mạc Cao
莫翱
Did not rule as monarch Mạc Posthumously honored by the Mạc emperor Mạc Đăng Dung.

Yìzǔ (义祖/義祖)Edit

The temple name Yìzǔ (义祖/義祖/의조/Nghĩa Tổ) can be translated to mean "Righteous Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yizu of Southern Tang
南唐義祖
Xu Wen
徐溫
Did not rule as monarch Southern Tang Posthumously honored by the Southern Tang emperor Li Bian.
Yizu of Later Zhou
後周義祖
Guo Yun
郭蘊
Did not rule as monarch Later Zhou Posthumously honored by the Later Zhou emperor Guo Wei.

Yuānzǔ (渊祖/淵祖)Edit

The temple name Yuānzǔ (渊祖/淵祖/연조/Uyên Tổ) can be translated to mean "Erudite Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Trịnh Uyên Tổ
鄭淵祖
Trịnh Kỷ
鄭紀
Did not rule as monarch Trịnh lords Posthumously honored by the Trịnh lord Trịnh Sâm.

Yuánzǔ (元祖)Edit

The temple name Yuánzǔ (元祖/원조/Nguyên Tổ) can be translated to mean "Primal Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yuanzu of Jin
金元祖
Wanyan Helibo
完顏劾里鉢
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Liang. Also honored as "Shizu" (世祖).
Trần Nguyên Tổ
陳元祖
Trần Lý
陳李
Did not rule as monarch Trần Posthumously honored by the Trần emperor Trần Cảnh.

Yùzǔ (裕祖)Edit

The temple name Yùzǔ (裕祖/유조/Dụ Tổ) can be translated to mean "Affluent Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Trịnh Dụ Tổ
鄭裕祖
Trịnh Giang
鄭杠
AD 1729–1740 Trịnh lords
Mạc Dụ Tổ
莫裕祖
Mạc Thúy
莫邃
Did not rule as monarch Mạc Posthumously honored by the Mạc emperor Mạc Đăng Dung.

Zhāozǔ (昭祖)Edit

The temple name Zhāozǔ (昭祖/소조/Chiêu Tổ) can be translated to mean "Illustrious Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Zhaozu of Jin
金昭祖
Wanyan Shilu
完顏石魯
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Dan.
Trịnh Chiêu Tổ
鄭昭祖
Trịnh Căn
鄭根
AD 1682–1709 Trịnh lords
Mạc Chiêu Tổ
莫昭祖
Mạc Hịch
莫檄
Did not rule as monarch Mạc Posthumously honored by the Mạc emperor Mạc Đăng Dung.

Zhàozǔ (肇祖)Edit

The temple name Zhàozǔ (肇祖/조조/Triệu Tổ) can be translated to mean "Original Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Zhaozu of Qing
清肇祖
Aisin Gioro Mengtemu
愛新覺羅·孟特穆
Did not rule as monarch Qing Posthumously honored by the Qing emperor Aisin Gioro Fulin.
Trịnh Triệu Tổ
鄭肇祖
Trịnh Lan
鄭欄
Did not rule as monarch Trịnh lords Posthumously honored by the Trịnh lord Trịnh Sâm.
Nguyễn Triệu Tổ
阮肇祖
Nguyễn Kim
阮淦
Did not rule as monarch Nguyễn Posthumously honored by the Nguyễn emperor Nguyễn Phúc Ánh.

Zhèngzǔ (正祖)Edit

The temple name Zhèngzǔ (正祖/정조/Chính Tổ) can be translated to mean "Upstanding Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Jeongjo of Joseon
조선 정조
朝鮮正祖
Yi San
이산
李祘
AD 1776–1800 Joseon Also honored as "Jeongjong" (정종/正宗).

Zhuāngzǔ (庄祖/莊祖)Edit

The temple name Zhuāngzǔ (庄祖/莊祖/장조/Trang Tổ) can be translated to mean "Dignified Forefather".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Jangjo of Joseon
조선 장조
朝鮮莊祖
Yi Seon
이선
李愃
Did not rule as monarch Joseon Posthumously honored by the Korean emperor Yi Hui.

List of temple names with the suffix zōngEdit

Individuals who are known by more than one temple name have their personal name in English italicized.

Aīzōng (哀宗)Edit

The temple name Aīzōng (哀宗/애종/Ai Tông) can be translated to mean "Lamentable Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Aizong of Jin
金哀宗
Wanyan Shouxu
完顏守緒
AD 1224–1234 Jin Also honored as "Yizong" (義宗).

Ānzōng (安宗)Edit

The temple name Ānzōng (安宗/안종/An Tông) can be translated to mean "Pacific Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Anzong of Southern Ming
南明安宗
Zhu Yousong
朱由崧
AD 1644–1645 Southern Ming Also honored as "Zhizong" (質宗).
Anjong of Goryeo
고려 안종
高麗安宗
Wang Ug
왕욱
王郁
Did not rule as monarch Goryeo Posthumously honored by the Goryeo king Wang Sun.

Chéngzōng (成宗)Edit

The temple name Chéngzōng (成宗/성종/Thành Tông) can be translated to mean "Accomplished Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Chengzong of Wuyue
吳越成宗
Qian Hongzuo
錢弘佐
AD 941–947 Wuyue
Chengzong of Southern Tang
南唐成宗
Li Chao
李超
Did not rule as monarch Southern Tang Posthumously honored by the Southern Tang emperor Li Bian.
Chengzong of Yuan
元成宗
Borjigin Temür
孛兒只斤·鐵穆耳
AD 1294–1307 Yuan
Chengzong of Qing
清成宗
Aisin Gioro Dorgon
愛新覺羅·多爾袞
Did not rule as monarch Qing Posthumously honored by the Qing emperor Aisin Gioro Fulin.
Seongjong of Goryeo
고려 성종
高麗成宗
Wang Ci
왕치
王治
AD 981–997 Goryeo
Seongjong of Joseon
조선 성종
朝鮮成宗
Yi Hyeol
이혈
李娎
AD 1469–1494 Joseon

Chóngzōng (崇宗)Edit

The temple name Chóngzōng (崇宗/숭종/Sùng Tông) can be translated to mean "Lofty Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Chongzong of Western Xia
西夏崇宗
Li Qianshun
李乾順
AD 1086–1139 Western Xia

Chúnzōng (纯宗/純宗)Edit

The temple name Chúnzōng (纯宗/純宗/순종/Thuần Tông) can be translated to mean "Refined Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Sunjong of Joseon
조선 순종
朝鮮純宗
Yi Gong
이공
李玜
AD 1800–1834 Joseon Also honored as "Sunjo" (순조/純祖).
Sunjong of Korea
대한제국 순종
大韓帝國純宗
Yi Cheok
李坧
AD 1907–1910 Korean Empire
Lê Thuần Tông
黎純宗
Lê Duy Tường
黎維祥
AD 1732–1735 Revival Lê

Dàizōng (代宗)Edit

The temple name Dàizōng (代宗/대종/Đại Tông) can be translated to mean "Generational Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Daizong of Tang
唐代宗
Li Yu
李豫
AD 762–779 Tang Also honored as "Shizong" (世宗).
Daizong of Ming
明代宗
Zhu Qiyu
朱祁鈺
AD 1449–1457 Ming
Mạc Đại Tông
莫代宗
Mạc Kính Cung
莫敬恭
AD 1592–1625 Mạc

Dàizōng (戴宗)Edit

The temple name Dàizōng (戴宗/대종/Đới Tông) can be translated to mean "Esteemed Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Daejong of Goryeo
고려 대종
高麗戴宗
Wang Ug
왕욱
王旭
Did not rule as monarch Goryeo Posthumously honored by the Goryeo king Wang Ci.

Dàozōng (道宗)Edit

The temple name Dàozōng (道宗/도종/Đạo Tông) can be translated to mean "Principled Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Daozong of Liao
遼道宗
Yelü Hongji
耶律洪基
AD 1055–1101 Liao

Dézōng (德宗)Edit

The temple name Dézōng (德宗/덕종/Đức Tông) can be translated to mean "Virtuous Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Dezong of Tang
唐德宗
Li Kuo
李適
AD 779–805 Tang
Dezong of Jin
金德宗
Wanyan Zonggan
完顏宗幹
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Liang.
Dezong of Western Liao
西遼德宗
Yelü Dashi
耶律大石
AD 1124–1143 Western Liao
Dezong of Qing
清德宗
Aisin Gioro Zaitian
愛新覺羅·載湉
AD 1875–1908 Qing
Deokjong of Goryeo
고려 덕종
高麗德宗
Wang Heum
왕흠
王欽
AD 1031–1034 Goryeo
Deokjong of Joseon
조선 덕종
朝鮮德宗
Yi Jang
이장
李暲
Did not rule as monarch Joseon Posthumously honored by the Joseon king Yi Hyeol.
Lê Đức Tông
黎德宗
Lê Tân
黎鑌
Did not rule as monarch Later Lê Posthumously honored by the Primitive Lê emperor Lê Y.

Dìngzōng (定宗)Edit

The temple name Dìngzōng (定宗/정종/Định Tông) can be translated to mean "Resolute Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Dingzong of Southern Tang
南唐定宗
Li Ke
李恪
Did not rule as monarch Southern Tang Posthumously honored by the Southern Tang emperor Li Bian.
Dingzong of Yuan
元定宗
Borjigin Güyük
孛兒只斤·貴由
AD 1246–1248 (as Khagan of the Mongol Empire) Mongol Empire (de facto), Yuan (honorary) Borjigin Güyük ruled as Khagan of the Mongol Empire, but was subsequently honored as "Dingzong" by the Yuan emperor Borjigin Kublai.
Jeongjong of Goryeo
고려 정종
高麗定宗
Wang Yo
왕요
王堯
AD 945–949 Goryeo
Jeongjong of Joseon
조선 정종
朝鮮定宗
Yi Gyeong
이경
李曔
AD 1398–1400 Joseon

Duānzōng (端宗)Edit

The temple name Duānzōng (端宗/단종/Đoan Tông) can be translated to mean "Noble Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Duanzong of Song
宋端宗
Zhao Shi
趙昰
AD 1276–1278 Southern Song
Danjong of Joseon
조선 단종
朝鮮端宗
Yi Hong-wi
이홍위
李弘暐
AD 1452–1455 Joseon

Dùzōng (度宗)Edit

The temple name Dùzōng (度宗/도종/Độ Tông) can be translated to mean "Magnanimous Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Duzong of Song
宋度宗
Zhao Qi
趙禥
AD 1264–1274 Southern Song

Gāozōng (高宗)Edit

The temple name Gāozōng (高宗/고종/Cao Tông) can be translated to mean "High Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Gaozong of Shang
商高宗
Zi Zhao
子昭
1250–1192 BC Shang
Gaozong of Han
漢高宗
Liu Shi
劉奭
48–33 BC Western Han
Gaozong of Western Yan
西燕高宗
Murong Chong
慕容沖
AD 384–386 Western Yan
Gaozong of Northern Wei
北魏高宗
Tuoba Jun
拓跋濬
AD 452–465 Northern Wei
Gaozong of Southern Qi
南齊高宗
Xiao Luan
蕭鸞
AD 494–498 Southern Qi
Gaozong of Liang
梁高宗
Xiao Gang
蕭綱
AD 549–551 Liang Also honored as "Taizong" (太宗).
Gaozong of Liang
梁高宗
Xiao Tong
蕭統
Did not rule as monarch Liang Posthumously honored by the Western Liang emperor Xiao Cha.
Gaozong of Chen
陳高宗
Chen Xu
陳頊
AD 569–582 Chen
Gaozong of Tang
唐高宗
Li Zhi
李治
AD 649–683 Tang
Gaozong of Song
宋高宗
Zhao Gou
趙構
AD 1127–1129 Southern Song
Gaozong of Qing
清高宗
Aisin Gioro Hongli
愛新覺羅·弘曆
AD 1735–1796 Qing
Gojong of Goryeo
고려 고종
高麗高宗
Wang Ceol
왕철
王皞
AD 1213–1259 Goryeo
Gojong of Korea
대한제국 고종
大韓帝國高宗
Yi Hui
이희
李㷩
AD 1863–1897 (as King of Joseon), AD 1897–1907 (as Emperor of the Korean Empire) Joseon, Korean Empire
Lý Cao Tông
李高宗
Lý Long Cán
李龍翰
AD 1175–1210

Gōngzōng (恭宗)Edit

The temple name Gōngzōng (恭宗/공종/Cung Tông) can be translated to mean "Reverent Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Gongzong of Han
漢恭宗
Liu Hu
劉祜
AD 106–125 Eastern Han
Gongzong of Northern Wei
北魏恭宗
Tuoba Huang
拓跋晃
Did not rule as monarch Northern Wei Posthumously honored by the Northern Wei emperor Tuoba Jun.
Gongzong of Ming
明恭宗
Zhu Changxun
朱常洵
Did not rule as monarch Ming Posthumously honored by the Southern Ming emperor Zhu Youlang.
Gongzong of Qing
清恭宗
Aisin Gioro Puyi
愛新覺羅·溥儀
AD 1908–1912, AD 1917 Qing Also honored as "Xianzong" (憲宗).
Nguyễn Cung Tông
阮恭宗
Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Chân
阮福膺禛
AD 1883 Nguyễn

Guāngzōng (光宗)Edit

The temple name Guāngzōng (光宗/광종/Quang Tông) can be translated to mean "Radiant Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Guangzong of Song
宋光宗
Zhao Dun
趙惇
AD 1189–1194 Southern Song
Guangzong of Ming
明光宗
Zhu Changluo
朱常洛
AD 1620 Ming
Gwangjong of Goryeo
고려 광종
高麗光宗
Wang So
왕소
王昭
AD 949–975 Goryeo

Hóngzōng (弘宗)Edit

The temple name Hóngzōng (弘宗/홍종/Hoằng Tông) can be translated to mean "Majestic Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Nguyễn Hoằng Tông
阮弘宗
Nguyễn Phúc Tuấn
阮福晙
AD 1916–1925 Nguyễn

Huáizōng (怀宗/懷宗)Edit

The temple name Huáizōng (怀宗/懷宗/회종/Hoài Tông) can be translated to mean "Yearned Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Huaizong of Ming
明懷宗
Zhu Youjian
朱由檢
AD 1627–1644 Ming Also honored as "Liezong" (烈宗), "Qinzong" (欽宗), "Sizong" (思宗), "Weizong" (威宗), and "Yizong" (毅宗).

Huánzōng (桓宗)Edit

The temple name Huánzōng (桓宗/환종/Hoàn Tông) can be translated to mean "Exploratory Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Huanzong of Western Xia
西夏桓宗
Li Chunyou
李純佑
AD 1193–1206 Western Xia

Huīzōng (徽宗)Edit

The temple name Huīzōng (徽宗/휘종/Huy Tông) can be translated to mean "Exemplary Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Huizong of Song
宋徽宗
Zhao Ji
趙佶
AD 1100–1126 Northern Song
Huizong of Jin
金徽宗
Wanyan Zongjun
完顏宗峻
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Dan.
Trần Huy Tông
陳徽宗
Trần Thừa
陳承
Did not rule as monarch Trần Posthumously honored by the Trần emperor Trần Cảnh. Also honored as "Thái Tổ" (太祖).

Huìzōng (惠宗)Edit

The temple name Huìzōng (惠宗/혜종/Huệ Tông) can be translated to mean "Compassionate Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Huizong of Min
閩惠宗
Wang Yanjun
王延鈞
AD 926–935 Min Also honored as "Taizong" (太宗).
Huizong of Southern Tang
南唐惠宗
Li Zhi
李志
Did not rule as monarch Southern Tang Posthumously honored by the Southern Tang emperor Li Bian.
Huizong of Western Xia
西夏惠宗
Li Bingchang
李秉常
AD 1193–1206 Western Xia
Huizong of Yuan
元惠宗
Borjigin Toghon Temür
孛兒只斤·妥懽貼睦爾
AD 1333–1368 (as Emperor of Yuan), AD 1368–1370 (as Emperor of Northern Yuan) Yuan, Northern Yuan
Huizong of Ming
明惠宗
Zhu Yunwen
朱允炆
AD 1398–1402 Ming Also honored as "Shenzong" (神宗).
Hyejong of Goryeo
고려 혜종
高麗惠宗
Wang Mu
왕무
王武
AD 943–945 Goryeo
Lý Huệ Tông
李惠宗
Lý Sảm
李旵
AD 1210–1224

Jiǎnzōng (简宗/簡宗)Edit

The temple name Jiǎnzōng (简宗/簡宗/간종/Giản Tông) can be translated to mean "Modest Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Nguyễn Giản Tông
阮簡宗
Nguyễn Phúc Hạo
阮福昊
AD 1883–1884 Nguyễn

Jiāzōng (嘉宗)Edit

The temple name Jiāzōng (嘉宗/가종/Gia Tông) can be translated to mean "Exalted Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Lê Gia Tông
黎嘉宗
Lê Duy Cối
黎維禬
AD 1672–1675 Revival Lê

Jǐngzōng (景宗)Edit

The temple name Jǐngzōng (景宗/경종/Cảnh Tông) can be translated to mean "Admirable Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Jingzong of Tang
唐景宗
Li Zhu
李柷
AD 904–907 Tang
Jingzong of Min
閩景宗
Wang Xi
王曦
AD 939–944 Min
Jingzong of Liao
遼景宗
Yelü Xian
耶律賢
AD 969–982 Liao
Jingzong of Western Xia
西夏景宗
Li Yuanhao
李元昊
AD 1038–1048 Western Xia
Jingzong of Dali
大理景宗
Duan Zhengxing
段正興
AD 1147–1171 Later Dali
Gyeongjong of Goryeo
고려 경종
高麗景宗
Wang Ju
왕주
王伷
AD 975–981 Goryeo
Gyeongjong of Joseon
조선 경종
朝鮮景宗
Yi Yun
이윤
李昀
AD 1720–1724 Joseon
Mạc Cảnh Tông
莫景宗
Mạc Toàn
莫全
AD 1592–1593 Mạc
Nguyễn Cảnh Tông
阮景宗
Nguyễn Phúc Biện
阮福昪
AD 1885–1889 Nguyễn

Jìngzōng (敬宗)Edit

The temple name Jìngzōng (敬宗/경종/Kính Tông) can be translated to mean "Revered Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Jingzong of Han
漢敬宗
Liu Bao
劉保
AD 125–144 Eastern Han
Jingzong of Northern Wei
北魏敬宗
Yuan Ziyou
元子攸
AD 528–531 Northern Wei
Jingzong of Tang
唐敬宗
Li Zhan
李湛
AD 824–827 Tang
Lê Kính Tông
黎敬宗
Lê Duy Tân
黎維新
AD 1599–1619 Revival Lê

Jìngzōng (靖宗)Edit

The temple name Jìngzōng (靖宗/정종/Tĩnh Tông) can be translated to mean "Conciliatory Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Jeongjong of Goryeo
고려 정종
高麗靖宗
Wang Hyeong
왕형
王亨
AD 1034–1046 Goryeo

Kāngzōng (康宗)Edit

The temple name Kāngzōng (康宗/강종/Khang Tông) can be translated to mean "Harmonious Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Kangzong of Min
閩康宗
Wang Chang
王昶
AD 935–939 Min
Kangzong of Jin
金康宗
Wanyan Wuyashu
完顏烏雅束
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Dan.
Gangjong of Goryeo
고려 강종
高麗康宗
Wang O
왕오
王祦
AD 1211–1213 Goryeo

Lièzōng (烈宗)Edit

The temple name Lièzōng (烈宗/열종/Liệt Tông) can be translated to mean "Ardent Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Liezong of Han Zhao
漢趙烈宗
Liu Cong
劉聰
AD 310–318 Han Zhao
Liezong of Jin
晉烈宗
Sima Yao
司馬曜
AD 372–396 Eastern Jin
Liezong of Later Yan
後燕烈宗
Murong Bao
慕容寶
AD 396–398 Later Yan Also honored as "Liezu" (烈祖).
Liezong of Yang Wu
楊吳烈宗
Yang Wo
楊渥
AD 905–908 Yang Wu Also honored as "Liezu" (烈祖).
Liezong of Southern Han
南漢烈宗
Liu Yin
劉隱
Did not rule as monarch Southern Han Posthumously honored by the Southern Han emperor Liu Yan.
Liezong of Ming
明烈宗
Zhu Youjian
朱由檢
AD 1627–1644 Ming Also honored as "Huaizong" (懷宗), "Qinzong" (欽宗), "Sizong" (思宗), "Weizong" (威宗), and "Yizong" (毅宗).

Lǐzōng (理宗)Edit

The temple name Lǐzōng (理宗/이종/Lý Tông) can be translated to mean "Enlightened Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Lizong of Song
宋理宗
Zhao Yun
趙昀
AD 1224–1264 Southern Song

Lǐzōng (礼宗/禮宗)Edit

The temple name Lǐzōng (礼宗/禮宗/예종/Lễ Tông) can be translated to mean "August Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Lizong of Southern Ming
南明禮宗
Zhu Changying
朱常瀛
Did not rule as monarch Southern Ming Posthumously honored by the Southern Ming emperor Zhu Youlang.

Míngzōng (明宗)Edit

The temple name Míngzōng (明宗/명종/Minh Tông) can be translated to mean "Brilliant Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Mingzong of Later Tang
後唐明宗
Li Siyuan
李嗣源
AD 926–933 Later Tang
Mingzong of Yuan
元明宗
Borjigin Kusala
孛兒只斤·和世㻋
AD 1329 Yuan
Myeongjong of Goryeo
고려 명종
高麗明宗
Wang Ho
왕호
王晧
AD 1170–1197 Goryeo
Myeongjong of Joseon
조선 명종
朝鮮明宗
Yi Hwan
이환
李峘
AD 1545–1567 Joseon
Trần Minh Tông
陳明宗
Trần Mạnh
陳奣
AD 1314–1329 Trần
Lê Minh Tông
黎明宗
Lê Sùng
黎漴
Did not rule as monarch Later Lê Posthumously honored by the Primitive Lê emperor Lê Y.
Mạc Minh Tông
莫明宗
Mạc Kính Vũ
莫敬宇
AD 1638–1677 Mạc

Mǐnzōng (闵宗/閔宗)Edit

The temple name Mǐnzōng (闵宗/閔宗/Mẫn Tông) can be translated to mean "Solicitous Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Minzong of Jin
金閔宗
Wanyan Dan
完顏亶
AD 1135–1150 Jin Also honored as "Xizong" (熙宗).
Mạc Mẫn Tông
莫閔宗
Mạc Kính Chỉ
莫敬止
AD 1592–1593 Mạc

Mǐnzōng (愍宗)Edit

The temple name Mǐnzōng (愍宗/민종/Mẫn Tông) can be translated to mean "Dejected Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Minjong of Goryeo
고려 민종
高麗愍宗
Wang Song
왕송
王訟
AD 997–1009 Goryeo Also honored as "Mokjong" (목종/穆宗).

Mùzōng (穆宗)Edit

The temple name Mùzōng (穆宗/목종/Mục Tông) can be translated to mean "Sombre Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Muzong of Han
漢穆宗
Liu Zhao
劉肇
AD 88–106 Eastern Han
Muzong of Tang
唐穆宗
Li Heng
李恆
AD 820–824 Tang
Muzong of Liao
遼穆宗
Yelü Jing
耶律璟
AD 951–969 Liao
Muzong of Jin
金穆宗
Wanyan Yingge
完顏盈歌
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Sheng.
Muzong of Ming
明穆宗
Zhu Zaiji
朱載坖
AD 1567–1572 Ming
Muzong of Qing
清穆宗
Aisin Gioro Zaichun
愛新覺羅·載淳
AD 1861–1875 Qing
Mokjong of Goryeo
고려 목종
高麗穆宗
Wang Song
왕송
王訟
AD 997–1009 Goryeo Also honored as "Minjong" (민종/愍宗).

Níngzōng (宁宗/寧宗)Edit

The temple name Níngzōng (宁宗/寧宗/영종/Ninh Tông) can be translated to mean "Amicable Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Ningzong of Song
宋寧宗
Zhao Kuo
趙擴
AD 1194–1224 Southern Song
Ningzong of Yuan
元寧宗
Borjigin Rinchinbal
孛兒只斤·懿璘質班
AD 1332 Yuan

Qìngzōng (庆宗/慶宗)Edit

The temple name Qìngzōng (庆宗/慶宗/경종/Khánh Tông) can be translated to mean "Celebrated Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Qingzong of Southern Tang
南唐慶宗
Li Rong
李榮
Did not rule as monarch Southern Tang Posthumously honored by the Southern Tang emperor Li Bian.

Qīnzōng (钦宗/欽宗)Edit

The temple name Qīnzōng (钦宗/欽宗/흠종/Khâm Tông) can be translated to mean "Laudable Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Qinzong of Song
宋欽宗
Zhao Huan
趙桓
AD 1126–1127 Northern Song
Qinzong of Ming
明欽宗
Zhu Youjian
朱由檢
AD 1627–1644 Ming Also honored as "Huaizong" (懷宗), "Liezong" (烈宗), "Sizong" (思宗), "Weizong" (威宗), and "Yizong" (毅宗).

Rénzōng (仁宗)Edit

The temple name Rénzōng (仁宗/인종/Nhân Tông) can be translated to mean "Benevolent Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Renzong of Shu Han
蜀漢仁宗
Liu Shan
劉禪
AD 223–263 Shu Han
Renzong of Song
宋仁宗
Zhao Zhen
趙禎
AD 1022–1063 Northern Song
Renzong of Western Xia
西夏仁宗
Li Renxiao
李仁孝
AD 1139–1193 Western Xia
Renzong of Western Liao
西遼仁宗
Yelü Yilie
耶律夷列
AD 1150–1163 Western Liao
Renzong of Yuan
元仁宗
Borjigin Ayurbarwada
孛兒只斤·愛育黎拔力八達
AD 1311–1320 Yuan
Renzong of Ming
明仁宗
Zhu Gaochi
朱高熾
AD 1424–1425 Ming
Renzong of Qing
清仁宗
Aisin Gioro Yongyan
愛新覺羅·顒琰
AD 1796–1820 Qing
Injong of Goryeo
고려 인종
高麗仁宗
Wang Hae
왕해
王楷
AD 1122–1146 Goryeo
Injong of Joseon
조선 인종
朝鮮仁宗
Yi Ho
이호
李峼
AD 1544–1545 Joseon
Lý Nhân Tông
李仁宗
Lý Càn Đức
李乾德
AD 1072–1127
Trần Nhân Tông
陳仁宗
Trần Khâm
陳昑
AD 1278–1293 Trần
Lê Nhân Tông
黎仁宗
Lê Bang Cơ
黎邦基
AD 1442–1459 Primitive Lê

Ruìzōng (睿宗)Edit

The temple name Ruìzōng (睿宗/예종/Duệ Tông) can be translated to mean "Astute Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Ruizong of Tang
唐睿宗
Li Dan
李旦
AD 684–690, AD 710–712 Tang
Ruizong of Northern Han
北漢睿宗
Liu Jun
劉鈞
AD 954–968 Northern Han
Ruizong of Jin
金睿宗
Wanyan Zongyao
完顏宗堯
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Yong.
Ruizong of Yuan
元睿宗
Borjigin Tolui
孛兒只斤·拖雷
Did not rule as monarch Yuan Posthumously honored by the Yuan emperor Borjigin Kublai.
Ruizong of Ming
明睿宗
Zhu Youyuan
朱祐杬
Did not rule as monarch Ming Posthumously honored by the Ming emperor Zhu Houcong.
Yejong of Goryeo
고려 예종
高麗睿宗
Wang U
왕우
王俁
AD 1105–1122 Goryeo
Yejong of Joseon
조선 예종
朝鮮睿宗
Yi Gwang
이황
李晄
AD 1468–1469 Joseon
Trần Duệ Tông
陳睿宗
Trần Kính
陳曔
AD 1373–1377 Trần
Nguyễn Duệ Tông
阮睿宗
Nguyễn Phúc Thuần
阮福淳
AD 1765–1776 Nguyễn lords

Shàozōng (绍宗/紹宗)Edit

The temple name Shàozōng (绍宗/紹宗/소종/Thiệu Tông) can be translated to mean "Perpetual Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Shaozong of Southern Ming
南明紹宗
Zhu Yujian
朱聿鍵
AD 1645–1646 Southern Ming

Shèngzōng (圣宗/聖宗)Edit

The temple name Shèngzōng (圣宗/聖宗/성종/Thánh Tông) can be translated to mean "Sagacious Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Shengzong of Liao
遼聖宗
Yelü Longxu
耶律隆緒
AD 982–1031 Liao
Lý Thánh Tông
李聖宗
Lý Nhật Tôn
李日尊
AD 1054–1072
Trần Thánh Tông
陳聖宗
Trần Hoảng
陳晃
AD 1258–1278 Trần
Lê Thánh Tông
黎聖宗
Lê Tư Thành
黎思誠
AD 1460–1497 Primitive Lê

Shénzōng (神宗)Edit

The temple name Shénzōng (神宗/신종/Thần Tông) can be translated to mean "Divine Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Shenzong of Song
宋神宗
Zhao Xu
趙頊
AD 1067–1085 Northern Song
Shenzong of Dali
大理神宗
Duan Zhixiang
段智祥
AD 1205–1238 Later Dali
Shenzong of Western Xia
西夏神宗
Li Zunxu
李遵頊
AD 1211–1223 Western Xia
Shenzong of Ming
明神宗
Zhu Yunwen
朱允炆
AD 1398–1402 Ming Also honored as "Huizong" (惠宗).
Shenzong of Ming
明神宗
Zhu Yijun
朱翊鈞
AD 1572–1620 Ming
Sinjong of Goryeo
고려 신종
高麗神宗
Wang Tak
왕탁
王晫
AD 1197–1204 Goryeo
Lý Thần Tông
李神宗
Lý Dương Hoán
李陽煥
AD 1128–1138
Lê Thần Tông
黎神宗
Lê Duy Kỳ
黎維祺
AD 1619–1643, AD 1649–1662 Revival Lê
Nguyễn Thần Tông
阮神宗
Nguyễn Phúc Lan
阮福瀾
AD 1635–1648 Nguyễn lords Also honored as "Thần Tổ" (神祖).

Shìzōng (世宗)Edit

The temple name Shìzōng (世宗/세종/Thế Tông) can be translated to mean "Eternal Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Shizong of Han
漢世宗
Liu Che
劉徹
141–87 BC Western Han
Shizong of Jin
晉世宗
Sima Shi
司馬師
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Western Jin emperor Sima Yan.
Shizong of Later Zhao
後趙世宗
Shi Zhouhezhu
石周曷朱
Did not rule as monarch Later Zhao Posthumously honored by the Later Zhao emperor Shi Le.
Shizong of Former Qin
前秦世宗
Fu Jian
苻健
AD 351–355 Former Qin Also honored as "Gaozu" (高祖) and "Shizu" (世祖).
Shizong of Former Liang
前涼世宗
Zhang Chonghua
張重華
AD 346–353 Former Liang
Shizong of Southern Yan
南燕世宗
Murong De
慕容德
AD 398–405 Southern Yan
Shizong of Southern Qi
南齊世宗
Xiao Zhangmao
蕭長懋
Did not rule as monarch Southern Qi Posthumously honored by the Southern Qi emperor Xiao Zhaoye.
Shizong of Northern Wei
北魏世宗
Yuan Ke
元恪
AD 499–515 Northern Wei
Shizong of Northern Qi
北齊世宗
Gao Cheng
高澄
Did not rule as monarch Northern Qi Posthumously honored by the Northern Qi emperor Gao Yang.
Shizong of Northern Zhou
北周世宗
Yuwen Yu
宇文毓
AD 557–560 Northern Zhou
Shizong of Western Liang
西梁世宗
Xiao Kui
蕭巋
AD 562–585 Western Liang
Shizong of Sui
隋世宗
Yang Zhao
楊昭
Did not rule as monarch Sui Posthumously honored by the Sui emperor Yang Tong.
Shizong of Nanzhao
南詔世宗
Meng Luoshengyan
蒙邏盛炎
Did not rule as monarch Nanzhao Posthumously honored by the Nanzhao king Meng Piluoge.
Shizong of Tang
唐世宗
Li Yu
李豫
AD 762–779 Tang Also honored as "Daizong" (代宗).
Shizong of Wuyue
吳越世宗
Qian Yuanguan
錢元瓘
AD 932–941 Wuyue
Shizong of Liao
遼世宗
Yelü Ruan
耶律阮
AD 940–947 (as King of Dongdan), AD 947–951 (as Emperor of Liao) Dongdan, Liao
Shizong of Later Zhou
後周世宗
Chai Rong
柴榮
AD 954–959 Later Zhou
Shizong of Jin
金世宗
Wanyan Yong
完顏雍
AD 1161–1189 Jin
Shizong of Tianwan
天完世宗
Xu Shouhui
徐壽輝
AD 1351–1360 Tianwan
Shizong of Ming
明世宗
Zhu Houcong
朱厚熜
AD 1521–1567 Ming
Shizong of Qing
清世宗
Aisin Gioro Yinzhen
愛新覺羅·胤禛
AD 1709–1722 Qing
Sejong of Joseon
조선 세종
朝鮮世宗
Yi Do
이도
李祹
AD 1418–1450 Joseon
Lê Thế Tông
黎世宗
Lê Duy Đàm
黎維潭
AD 1573–1599 Revival Lê
Nguyễn Thế Tông
阮世宗
Nguyễn Phúc Khoát
阮福濶
AD 1738–1765 Nguyễn lords

Shùnzōng (顺宗/順宗)Edit

The temple name Shùnzōng (顺宗/順宗/순종/Thuận Tông) can be translated to mean "Obedient Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Shunzong of Tang
唐順宗
Li Song
李誦
AD 805 Tang
Shunzong of Liao
遼順宗
Yelü Jun
耶律濬
Did not rule as monarch Liao Posthumously honored by the Liao emperor Yelü Yanxi.
Shunzong of Yuan
元順宗
Borjigin Darmabala
孛兒只斤·答剌麻八剌
Did not rule as monarch Yuan Posthumously honored by the Yuan emperor Borjigin Khayishan.
Sunjong of Goryeo
고려 순종
高麗順宗
Wang Hun
왕훈
王勳
AD 1083 Goryeo
Trần Thuận Tông
陳順宗
Trần Ngung
陳顒
AD 1388–1398 Trần

Sīzōng (思宗)Edit

The temple name Sīzōng (思宗/사종/Tư Tông) can be translated to mean "Pensive Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Sizong of Ming
明思宗
Zhu Youjian
朱由檢
AD 1627–1644 Ming Also honored as "Huaizong" (懷宗), "Liezong" (烈宗), "Qinzong" (欽宗), "Weizong" (威宗), and "Yizong" (毅宗).

Sùzōng (肃宗/肅宗)Edit

The temple name Sùzōng (肃宗/肅宗/숙종/Túc Tông) can be translated to mean "Solemn Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Suzong of Han
漢肅宗
Liu Da
劉炟
AD 75–88 Eastern Han
Suzong of Jin
晉肅宗
Sima Shao
司馬紹
AD 323–325 Eastern Jin Also honored as "Suzu" (肅祖).
Suzong of Northern Wei
北魏肅宗
Yuan Xu
元詡
AD 515–528 Northern Wei
Suzong of Northern Qi
北齊肅宗
Gao Yan
高演
AD 535–561 Northern Qi
Suzong of Tang
唐肅宗
Li Heng
李亨
AD 756–762 Tang
Suzong of Jin
金肅宗
Wanyan Pocishu
完顏頗刺淑
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Dan.
Sukjong of Goryeo
고려 숙종
高麗肅宗
Wang Ong
왕옹
王顒
AD 1095–1105 Goryeo
Sukjong of Joseon
조선 숙종
朝鮮肅宗
Yi Sun
이순
李焞
AD 1674–1720 Joseon
Lê Túc Tông
黎肅宗
Lê Kính Phủ
黎敬甫
AD 1504 Primitive Lê
Nguyễn Túc Tông
阮肅宗
Nguyễn Phúc Chú
阮福澍
AD 1725–1738 Nguyễn lords

Tàizōng (太宗)Edit

The temple name Tàizōng (太宗/태종/Thái Tông) can be translated to mean "Grand Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Taizong of Shang
商太宗
Zi Zhi
子至
1580–1557 BC Shang
Taizong of Han
漢太宗
Liu Heng
劉恆
180–157 BC Western Han
Taizong of Cheng Han
成漢太宗
Li Xiong
李雄
AD 304–334 Cheng Han
Taizong of Former Liang
前涼太宗
Zhang Mao
張茂
AD 320–324 Former Liang
Taizong of Jin
晉太宗
Sima Yu
司馬昱
AD 372 Eastern Jin
Taizong of Former Qin
前秦太宗
Fu Deng
苻登
AD 386–394 Former Qin
Taizong of Later Zhao
後趙太宗
Shi Koumi
石寇覓
Did not rule as monarch Later Zhao
Taizong of Northern Wei
北魏太宗
Tuoba Si
拓跋嗣
AD 409–423 Northern Wei
Taizong of Liu Song
劉宋太宗
Liu Yu
劉彧
AD 465–472 Liu Song
Taizong of Liang
梁太宗
Xiao Gang
蕭綱
AD 549–551 Liang Also honored as "Gaozong" (高宗).
Taizong of Tang
唐太宗
Li Shimin
李世民
AD 626–649 Tang
Taizong of Nanzhao
南詔太宗
Meng Shengluopi
蒙盛邏皮
Did not rule as monarch Nanzhao Posthumously honored by the Nanzhao king Meng Piluoge.
Taizong of Min
閩太宗
Wang Yanjun
王延鈞
AD 926–935 Min Also honored as "Huizong" (惠宗).
Taizong of Liao
遼太宗
Yelü Deguang
耶律德光
AD 927–947 Liao
Taizong of Song
宋太宗
Zhao Jiong
趙炅
AD 976–997 Northern Song
Taizong of Western Xia
西夏太宗
Li Deming
李德明
Did not rule as monarch Western Xia Posthumously honored by the Western Xia emperor Li Yuanhao.
Taizong of Jin
金太宗
Wanyan Sheng
完顏晟
AD 1123–1135 Jin
Taizong of Yuan
元太宗
Borjigin Ögedei
孛兒只斤·窩闊台
AD 1229–1241 (as Khagan of the Mongol Empire) Mongol Empire (de facto), Yuan (honorary) Borjigin Ögedei ruled as Khagan of the Mongol Empire, but was subsequently honored as "Taizong" by the Yuan emperor Borjigin Kublai.
Taizong of Ming
明太宗
Zhu Di
朱棣
AD 1402–1424 Ming Also honored as "Chengzu" (成祖).
Taizong of Qing
清太宗
Aisin Gioro Hong Taiji
愛新覺羅·皇太極
AD 1626–1636 (as Khan of Later Jin), AD 1636–1643 (as Emperor of Qing) Later Jin, Qing
Taejong of Silla
신라 태종
新羅太宗
Kim Chun-chu
김춘추
金春秋
AD 654–661 Silla
Taejong of Joseon
조선 태종
朝鮮太宗
Yi Bang-won
이방원
李芳遠
AD 1400–1418 Joseon
Lý Thái Tông
李太宗
Lý Phật Mã
李佛瑪
AD 1028–1054
Trần Thái Tông
陳太宗
Trần Cảnh
陳煚
AD 1226–1258 Trần
Lê Thái Tông
黎太宗
Lê Nguyên Long
黎元龍
AD 1433–1442 Primitive Lê
Mạc Thái Tông
莫太宗
Mạc Đăng Doanh
莫登瀛
AD 1529–1540 Mạc
Nguyễn Thái Tông
阮太宗
Nguyễn Phúc Tần
阮福瀕
AD 1648–1687 Nguyễn lords Also honored as "Nghị Tổ" (毅祖).

Tǒngzōng (统宗/統宗)Edit

The temple name Tǒngzōng (统宗/統宗/통종/Thống Tông) can be translated to mean "Commanding Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Tongzong of Han
漢統宗
Liu Ao
劉驁
33–7 BC Western Han

Wénzōng (文宗)Edit

The temple name Wénzōng (文宗/문종/Văn Tông) can be translated to mean "Civil Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Wenzong of Tang
唐文宗
Li Ang
李昂
AD 827–840 Tang
Wenzong of Yuan
元文宗
Borjigin Tugh Temür
孛兒只斤·圖帖睦爾
AD 1328–1329, AD 1329–1332 Yuan
Wenzong of Qing
清文宗
Aisin Gioro Yizhu
愛新覺羅·奕詝
AD 1850–1861 Qing
Munjong of Goryeo
고려 문종
高麗文宗
Wang Hui
왕휘
王徽
AD 1046–1083 Goryeo
Munjong of Joseon
조선 문종
朝鮮文宗
Yi Hyang
이향
李珦
AD 1450–1452 Joseon

Wēizōng (威宗)Edit

The temple name Wēizōng (威宗/위종/Uy Tông) can be translated to mean "Mighty Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Weizong of Han
漢威宗
Liu Zhi
劉志
AD 146–168 Eastern Han
Weizong of Northern Qi
北齊威宗
Gao Yang
高洋
AD 550–559 Northern Qi Also honored as "Xianzu" (顯祖).
Weizong of Ming
明威宗
Zhu Youjian
朱由檢
AD 1627–1644 Ming Also honored as "Huaizong" (懷宗), "Liezong" (烈宗), "Qinzong" (欽宗), "Sizong" (思宗), and "Yizong" (毅宗).

Wǔzōng (武宗)Edit

The temple name Wǔzōng (武宗/무종/Vũ Tông) can be translated to mean "Martial Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Wuzong of Tang
唐武宗
Li Chan
李瀍
AD 840–846 Tang
Wuzong of Western Xia
西夏武宗
Li Jiqian
李繼遷
Did not rule as monarch Western Xia, Shun Posthumously honored by the Tangut leader Li Deming. Also honored as "Taizu" (太祖).
Wuzong of Yuan
元武宗
Borjigin Khayishan
孛兒只斤·海山
AD 1307–1311 Yuan
Wuzong of Ming
明武宗
Zhu Houzhao
朱厚照
AD 1505–1521 Ming

Xiāngzōng (襄宗)Edit

The temple name Xiāngzōng (襄宗/양종/Tương Tông) can be translated to mean "Assisted Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xiangzong of Tang
唐襄宗
Li Ye
李曄
AD 888–900 Tang Also honored as "Zhaozong" (昭宗).
Xiangzong of Western Xia
西夏襄宗
Li Anquan
李安全
AD 1206–1211 Western Xia

Xiǎnzōng (显宗/顯宗)Edit

The temple name Xiǎnzōng (显宗/顯宗/현종/Hiển Tông) can be translated to mean "Eminent Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xianzong of Han
漢顯宗
Liu Zhuang
劉莊
AD 58–75 Eastern Han
Xianzong of Jin
晉顯宗
Sima Yan
司馬衍
AD 325–342 Eastern Jin Also honored as "Xianzu" (顯祖).
Xianzong of Later Shu
後蜀顯宗
Meng Dao
孟道
Did not rule as monarch Later Shu Posthumously honored by the Later Shu emperor Meng Zhixiang. Also honored as "Xianzu" (顯祖).
Xianzong of Jin
金顯宗
Wanyan Yungong
完顏允恭
Did not rule as monarch Jin Posthumously honored by the Jin emperor Wanyan Jing.
Xianzong of Yuan
元顯宗
Borjigin Gammala
孛兒只斤·甘麻剌
Did not rule as monarch Yuan Posthumously honored by the Yuan emperor Borjigin Yesün Temür.
Hyeonjong of Goryeo
고려 현종
高麗顯宗
Wang Sun
왕순
王詢
AD 1010–1031 Goryeo
Hyeonjong of Joseon
조선 현종
朝鮮顯宗
Yi Yeon
이연
李棩
AD 1659–1674 Joseon
Lê Hiển Tông
黎顯宗
Lê Duy Diêu
黎維祧
AD 1740–1786 Revival Lê
Nguyễn Hiển Tông
阮顯宗
Nguyễn Phúc Chu
阮福淍
AD 1691–1725 Nguyễn lords

Xiànzōng (宪宗/憲宗)Edit

The temple name Xiànzōng (宪宗/憲宗/헌종/Hiến Tông) can be translated to mean "Constitutional Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xianzong of Tang
唐憲宗
Li Chun
李純
AD 805–820 Tang
Xianzong of Dali
大理憲宗
Duan Yu
段譽
AD 1108–1147 Later Dali
Xianzong of Yuan
元憲宗
Borjigin Möngke
孛兒只斤·蒙哥
AD 1251–1259 (as Khagan of the Mongol Empire) Mongol Empire (de facto), Yuan (honorary) Borjigin Möngke ruled as Khagan of the Mongol Empire, but was subsequently honored as "Xianzong" by the Yuan emperor Borjigin Kublai.
Xianzong of Ming
明憲宗
Zhu Jianru
朱見濡
AD 1464–1487 Ming
Xianzong of Qing
清憲宗
Aisin Gioro Puyi
愛新覺羅·溥儀
AD 1908–1912, AD 1917 Qing Also honored as "Gongzong" (恭宗).
Heonjong of Joseon
조선 헌종
朝鮮憲宗
Yi Hwan
이환
李烉
AD 1834–1849 Joseon
Trần Hiến Tông
陳憲宗
Trần Vượng
陳旺
AD 1329–1341 Trần
Lê Hiến Tông
黎憲宗
Lê Tăng
黎鏳
AD 1497–1504 Primitive Lê
Mạc Hiến Tông
莫憲宗
Mạc Phúc Hải
莫福海
AD 1540–1546 Mạc

Xiànzōng (献宗/獻宗)Edit

The temple name Xiànzōng (献宗/獻宗/헌종/Hiến Tông) can be translated to mean "Dedicated Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xianzong of Western Xia
西夏獻宗
Li Dewang
李德旺
AD 1223–1226 Western Xia
Heonjong of Goryeo
고려 헌종
高麗獻宗
Wang Uk
왕욱
王昱
AD 1094–1095 Goryeo

Xiàozōng (孝宗)Edit

The temple name Xiàozōng (孝宗/효종/Hiếu Tông) can be translated to mean "Filial Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xiaozong of Jin
晉孝宗
Sima Dan
司馬聃
AD 344–361 Eastern Jin
Xiaozong of Song
宋孝宗
Zhao Shen
趙眘
AD 1162–1189 Southern Song
Xiaozong of Ming
明孝宗
Zhu Youcheng
朱祐樘
AD 1487–1505 Ming
Hyojong of Joseon
조선 효종
朝鮮孝宗
Yi Ho
이호
李淏
AD 1649–1659 Joseon
Lê Hiếu Tông
黎孝宗
Lê Duy Khoáng
黎維絖
Did not rule as monarch Later Lê Posthumously honored by the Revival Lê emperor Lê Duy Bang.

Xīngzōng (兴宗/興宗)Edit

The temple name Xīngzōng (兴宗/興宗/흥종/Hưng Tông) can be translated to mean "Prosperous Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xingzong of Liao
遼興宗
Yelü Zongzhen
耶律宗真
AD 1031–1055 Liao
Xingzong of Dali
大理興宗
Duan Silian
段思廉
AD 1044–1075 Former Dali
Xingzong of Ming
明興宗
Zhu Biao
朱標
Did not rule as monarch Ming Posthumously honored by the Ming emperor Zhu Yunwen.

Xīzōng (熙宗)Edit

The temple name Xīzōng (熙宗/희종/Hy Tông) can be translated to mean "Glorious Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xizong of Jin
金熙宗
Wanyan Dan
完顏亶
AD 1135–1150 Jin
Huijong of Goryeo
고려 희종
高麗熙宗
Wang Yeong
왕영
王韺
AD 1204–1211 Goryeo Also honored as "Jeongjong" (정종/貞宗).
Nguyễn Hy Tông
阮熙宗
Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên
阮福源
AD 1613–1635 Nguyễn lords Also honored as "Tuyên Tổ" (宣祖).
Lê Hy Tông
黎熙宗
Lê Duy Cáp
黎維祫
AD 1675–1705 Revival Lê

Xīzōng (僖宗)Edit

The temple name Xīzōng (僖宗/희종/Hy Tông) can be translated to mean "Jubilant Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xizong of Tang
唐僖宗
Li Xuan
李儇
AD 873–888 Tang

Xīzōng (熹宗)Edit

The temple name Xīzōng (熹宗/희종/Hy Tông) can be translated to mean "Coruscating Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xizong of Ming
明熹宗
Zhu Youjiao
朱由校
AD 1620–1627 Ming

Xuānzōng (宣宗)Edit

The temple name Xuānzōng (宣宗) is translated as "선종" in Korean and "Tuyên Tông" in Vietnamese.

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xuanzong of Tang
唐宣宗
Li Chen
李忱
AD 846–859 Tang
Xuanzong of Northern Liao
北遼宣宗
Yelü Chun
耶律淳
AD 1122 Northern Liao
Xuanzong of Dali
大理宣宗
Duan Zhixing
段智興
AD 1172–1200 Later Dali
Xuanzong of Jin
金宣宗
Wanyan Xun
完顏珣
AD 1213–1224 Jin
Xuanzong of Ming
明宣宗
Zhu Zhanji
朱瞻基
AD 1425–1435 Ming
Xuanzong of Qing
清宣宗
Aisin Gioro Minning
愛新覺羅·旻寧
AD 1820–1850 Qing
Seonjong of Goryeo
고려 선종
高麗宣宗
Wang Un
왕운
王運
AD 1083–1094 Goryeo
Seonjong of Joseon
조선 선종
朝鮮宣宗
Yi Yeon
이연
李昖
AD 1567–1608 Joseon Also honored as "Seonjo" (선조/宣祖).
Mạc Tuyên Tông
莫宣宗
Mạc Phúc Nguyên
莫福源
AD 1546–1561 Mạc

Xuánzōng (玄宗)Edit

The temple name Xuánzōng (玄宗/현종/Huyền Tông) can be translated to mean "Profound Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Xuanzong of Tang
唐玄宗
Li Longji
李隆基
AD 713–756 Tang
Lê Huyền Tông
黎玄宗
Lê Duy Vũ
黎維䄔
AD 1662–1671 Revival Lê

Yīngzōng (英宗)Edit

The temple name Yīngzōng (英宗/영종/Anh Tông) can be translated to mean "Magnificent Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yingzong of Song
宋英宗
Zhao Shu
趙曙
AD 1063–1067 Northern Song
Yingzong of Dali
大理英宗
Duan Zhilian
段智廉
AD 1201–1204 Later Dali
Yingzong of Yuan
元英宗
Borjigin Shidibala
孛兒只斤·碩德八剌
AD 1320–1323 Yuan
Yingzong of Ming
明英宗
Zhu Qizhen
朱祁鎮
AD 1435–1449, AD 1457–1464 Ming
Yeongjong of Goryeo
고려 영종
高麗英宗
Wang Chang
왕창
王淐
AD 1269 Goryeo
Yeongjong of Joseon
조선 영종
朝鮮英宗
Yi Geum
이금
李昑
AD 1724–1776 Joseon Also honored as "Yeongjo" (영조/英祖).
Lý Anh Tông
李英宗
Lý Thiên Tộ
李天祚
AD 1138–1175
Trần Anh Tông
陳英宗
Trần Thuyên
陳烇
AD 1293–1314 Trần
Lê Anh Tông
黎英宗
Lê Duy Bang
黎維邦
AD 1556–1573 Revival Lê
Nguyễn Anh Tông
阮英宗
Nguyễn Phúc Trăn
阮福溙
AD 1687–1691 Nguyễn lords

Yìzōng (毅宗)Edit

The temple name Yìzōng (毅宗/의종/Nghị Tông) can be translated to mean "Persistent Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yizong of Western Xia
西夏毅宗
Li Liangzuo
李諒祚
AD 1048–1068 Western Xia
Yizong of Ming
明毅宗
Zhu Youjian
朱由檢
AD 1627–1644 Ming Also honored as "Huaizong" (懷宗), "Liezong" (烈宗), "Qinzong" (欽宗), "Sizong" (思宗), and "Weizong" (威宗).
Uijong of Goryeo
고려 의종
高麗毅宗
Wang Hyeon
왕현
王晛
AD 1146–1170 Goryeo

Yìzōng (懿宗)Edit

The temple name Yìzōng (懿宗/의종/Ý Tông) can be translated to mean "Benign Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yizong of Tang
唐懿宗
Li Cui
李漼
AD 859–873 Tang
Lê Ý Tông
黎懿宗
Lê Duy Thận
黎維祳
AD 1735–1740 Revival Lê

Yìzōng (翼宗)Edit

The temple name Yìzōng (翼宗/익종/Dực Tông) can be translated to mean "Soaring Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Igjong of Joseon
조선 익종
朝鮮翼宗
Yi Yeong
이영
李旲
Did not rule as monarch Joseon Posthumously honored by the Joseon king Yi Hwan. Also honored as "Munjo" (문조/文祖).
Nguyễn Dực Tông
阮翼宗
Nguyễn Phúc Thì
阮福時
AD 1847–1883 Nguyễn Also honored as "Thành Tổ" (成祖).

Yìzōng (义宗/義宗)Edit

The temple name Yìzōng (义宗/義宗/의종/Nghĩa Tông) can be translated to mean "Righteous Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yizong of Tang
唐義宗
Li Hong
李弘
Did not rule as monarch Tang Posthumously honored by the Tang emperor Li Xian.
Yizong of Liao
遼義宗
Yelü Bei
耶律倍
AD 926–930 (as King of Dongdan) Dongdan (de facto), Liao (honorary) Yelü Bei ruled as King of Dongdan, but was subsequently honored as "Yizong" by the Liao emperor Yelü Zongzhen.
Yizong of Jin
金義宗
Wanyan Shouxu
完顏守緒
AD 1224–1234 Jin Also honored as "Aizong" (哀宗).

Yìzōng (艺宗/藝宗)Edit

The temple name Yìzōng (艺宗/藝宗/예종/Nghệ Tông) can be translated to mean "Competent Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Trần Nghệ Tông
陳藝宗
Trần Phủ
陳暊
AD 1370–1372 Trần

Yìzōng (益宗)Edit

The temple name Yìzōng (益宗/익종/Ích Tông) can be translated to mean "Flourishing Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yizong of Northern Yuan
北元益宗
Borjigin Tögüs Temür
孛兒只斤·脫古思帖木兒
AD 1378–1388 Northern Yuan

Yòuzōng (佑宗)Edit

The temple name Yòuzōng (佑宗/우종/Hựu Tông) can be translated to mean "Blessed Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Lê Hựu Tông
黎佑宗
Lê Duy Vĩ
黎維禕
Did not rule as monarch Later Lê Posthumously honored by the Revival Lê emperor Lê Duy Kỳ.

Yuánzōng (元宗)Edit

The temple name Yuánzōng (元宗/원종/Nguyên Tông) can be translated to mean "Primal Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yuanzong of Southern Tang
南唐元宗
Li Jing
李璟
AD 943–961 Southern Tang
Wonjong of Goryeo
고려 원종
高麗元宗
Wang Sik
왕식
王禃
AD 1260–1269, AD 1269–1274 Goryeo
Wonjong of Joseon
조선 원종
朝鮮元宗
Yi Bu
이부
李琈
Did not rule as monarch Joseon Posthumously honored by the Joseon king Yi Jong.

Yùzōng (裕宗)Edit

The temple name Yùzōng (裕宗/유종/Dụ Tông) can be translated to mean "Affluent Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Yuzong of Yuan
元裕宗
Borjigin Zhenjin
孛兒只斤·真金
Did not rule as monarch Yuan Posthumously honored by the Yuan emperor Borjigin Temür.
Trần Dụ Tông
陳裕宗
Trần Hạo
陳暭
AD 1341–1369 Trần
Lê Dụ Tông
黎裕宗
Lê Duy Đường
黎維禟
AD 1705–1729 Revival Lê

Zhāngzōng (章宗)Edit

The temple name Zhāngzōng (章宗/장종/Chương Tông) can be translated to mean "Decorous Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Zhangzong of Jin
金章宗
Wanyan Jing
完顏璟
AD 1189–1208 Jin

Zhāozōng (昭宗)Edit

The temple name Zhāozōng (昭宗/소종/Chiêu Tông) can be translated to mean "Illustrious Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Zhaozong of Tang
唐昭宗
Li Ye
李曄
AD 888–900 Tang Also honored as "Xiangzong" (襄宗).
Zhaozong of Jin
金昭宗
Wanyan Chenglin
完顏承麟
AD 1234 Jin
Zhaozong of Northern Yuan
北元昭宗
Borjigin Ayushiridara
孛兒只斤·愛猷識理達臘
AD 1370–1378 Northern Yuan Also honored as "Zhezong" (哲宗).
Zhaozong of Southern Ming
南明昭宗
Zhu Youlang
朱由榔
AD 1646–1662 Southern Ming
Lê Chiêu Tông
黎昭宗
Lê Y
黎椅
AD 1516–1522 Primitive Lê

Zhèngzōng (正宗)Edit

The temple name Zhèngzōng (正宗/정종/Chính Tông) can be translated to mean "Upstanding Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Jeongjong of Joseon
조선 정종
朝鮮正宗
Yi San
이산
李祘
AD 1776–1800 Joseon Also honored as "Jeongjo" (정조/正祖).

Zhēnzōng (真宗)Edit

The temple name Zhēnzōng (真宗/진종/Chân Tông) can be translated to mean "Sterling Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Zhenzong of Song
宋真宗
Zhao Heng
趙恆
AD 997–1022 Northern Song
Jinjong of Joseon
조선 진종
朝鮮真宗
Yi Haeng
이행
李緈
Did not rule as monarch Joseon Posthumously honored by the Joseon king Yi San.
Lê Chân Tông
黎真宗
Lê Duy Hựu
黎維祐
AD 1643–1649 Revival Lê

Zhēnzōng (贞宗/貞宗)Edit

The temple name Zhēnzōng (贞宗/貞宗/정종/Trinh Tông) can be translated to mean "Steadfast Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Jeongjong of Goryeo
고려 정종
高麗貞宗
Wang Yeong
왕영
王韺
AD 1204–1211 Goryeo Also honored as "Huijong" (희종/熙宗).

Zhézōng (哲宗)Edit

The temple name Zhézōng (哲宗/철종/Triết Tông) can be translated to mean "Sapient Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Zhezong of Song
宋哲宗
Zhao Xu
趙煦
AD 1085–1100 Northern Song
Zhezong of Northern Yuan
北元哲宗
Borjigin Ayushiridara
孛兒只斤·愛猷識理達臘
AD 1370–1378 Northern Yuan Also honored as "Zhaozong" (昭宗).
Cheoljong of Joseon
조선 철종
朝鮮哲宗
Yi Byeon
이변
李昪
AD 1849–1864 Joseon

Zhìzōng (质宗/質宗)Edit

The temple name Zhìzōng (质宗/質宗/질종/Chất Tông) can be translated to mean "Spartan Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Zhizong of Southern Ming
南明質宗
Zhu Yousong
朱由崧
AD 1644–1645 Southern Ming Also honored as "Anzong" (安宗).

Zhōngzōng (中宗)Edit

The temple name Zhōngzōng (中宗/중종/Trung Tông) can be translated to mean "Resurgent Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Zhongzong of Shang
商中宗
Zi Mi
子密
1535–1460 BC Shang
Zhongzong of Shang
商中宗
Zi Teng
子滕
1372–1353 BC Shang
Zhongzong of Han
漢中宗
Liu Xun
劉詢
74–49 BC Western Han
Zhongzong of Jin
晉中宗
Sima Rui
司馬睿
AD 318–323 Eastern Jin
Zhongzong of Cheng Han
成漢中宗
Li Shou
李壽
AD 338–343 Cheng Han
Zhongzong of Later Yan
後燕中宗
Murong Sheng
慕容盛
AD 398–401 Later Yan
Zhongzong of Liu Song
劉宋中宗
Liu Yilong
劉義隆
AD 424–453 Liu Song Also honored as "Taizu" (太祖).
Zhongzong of Western Liang
西梁中宗
Xiao Cha
蕭詧
AD 555–562 Western Liang
Zhongzong of Tang
唐中宗
Li Xian
李顯
AD 684, AD 705–710 Tang
Zhongzong of Southern Han
南漢中宗
Liu Sheng
劉晟
AD 943–958 Southern Han
Zhongzong of Dali
大理中宗
Duan Zhengchun
段正淳
AD 1096–1108 Later Dali
Jungjong of Joseon
조선 중종
朝鮮中宗
Yi Yeok
이역
李懌
AD 1506–1544 Joseon
Tiền Lê Trung Tông
前黎中宗
Lê Long Việt
黎龍鉞
AD 1005 Early Lê
Lê Trung Tông
黎中宗
Lê Huyên
黎暄
AD 1548–1556 Revival Lê

Zhuāngzōng (庄宗/莊宗)Edit

The temple name Zhuāngzōng (庄宗/莊宗/장종/Trang Tông) can be translated to mean "Dignified Ancestor".

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty Remarks
Zhuangzong of Later Tang
後唐莊宗
Li Cunxu
李存勗
AD 923–926 Later Tang
Lê Trang Tông
黎莊宗
Lê Ninh
黎寧
AD 1533–1548 Revival Lê

List of temple names with limited recognitionEdit

This list contains individuals whose temple names were derived from unverified or uncertain sources and are not widely recognized by academia. Nonetheless, referencing these individuals by their unofficial temple names is common in non-academic sources.[1]

Temple name Personal name Reign Dynasty
Shizu of Shang
商始祖
Zi Xie
子契
Did not rule as monarch Shang
Kuizong of Shang
商夔宗
Zi Zhugui
子主癸
Did not rule as monarch Shang
Shizu of Shang
商世祖
Zi Xun
子旬
c. 1300 BC Shang
Shizong of Shang
商世宗
Zi Zai
子載
1204–1171 BC Shang
Jiazong of Shang
商甲宗
Zi Xian
子先
1171–1167 BC Shang
Kangzu of Shang
商康祖
Zi Xiao
子囂
1167–1159 BC Shang
Wuzu of Shang
商武祖
Zi Qu
子瞿
1159–1124 BC Shang
Shizu of Han
漢始祖
Liu Tuan
劉煓
Did not rule as monarch Han
Shenzong of Han
漢神宗
Liu Fuling
劉弗陵
87–74 BC Western Han
Yanzong of Han
漢延宗
Liu Xuan
劉玄
AD 23–25 Han
Changzong of Han
漢昌宗
Liu Penzi
劉盆子
AD 25–27 Han
Dezong of Jin
晉德宗
Sima Zhong
司馬衷
AD 290–301, AD 301–307 Western Jin
Renzu of Jin
晉仁祖
Sima Chi
司馬熾
AD 307–311 Western Jin
Aizong of Jin
晉哀宗
Sima Ye
司馬鄴
AD 313–316 Western Jin
Xiangzong of Han Zhao
漢趙襄宗
Liu Yao
劉曜
AD 318–329 Han Zhao
Yanzong of Jin
晉延宗
Sima Yue
司馬岳
AD 342–344 Eastern Jin
Yingzong of Former Liang
前涼英宗
Zhang Yaoling
張曜靈
AD 353–354 Former Liang
Ningzong of Jin
晉寧宗
Sima Pi
司馬丕
AD 361–365 Eastern Jin
Yuzong of Jin
晉虞宗
Sima Yi
司馬奕
AD 365–372 Eastern Jin
Liezong of Former Qin
前秦烈宗
Fu Pi
苻丕
AD 385–386 Former Qin
Kangzong of Western Yan
西燕康宗
Murong Yong
慕容永
AD 386–394 Western Yan
Weizong of Zhai Wei
翟魏威宗
Zhai Liao
翟遼
AD 388–391 Zhai Wei
Chengzong of Jin
晉成宗
Sima Dezong
司馬德宗
AD 396–419 Eastern Jin
Yingzong of Later Liang
後涼英宗
Lü Zuan
呂纂
AD 400–401 Later Liang
Qizong of Jin
晉祺宗
Sima Dewen
司馬德文
AD 419–420 Eastern Jin
Taizong of Dali
大理太宗
Duan Siliang
段思良
AD 946–951 Former Dali
Shenzong of Former Liang
前涼神宗
Zhang Tianxi
張天錫
AD 964–976 Former Liang
Gongzong of Liao
遼恭宗
Yelü Yanxi
耶律延禧
AD 1101–1125 Liao
Xizu of Yuan
元熙祖
Borjigin Bodonchar
孛兒只斤·孛端察兒
Did not rule as monarch Yuan
Xuanzu of Yuan
元宣祖
Borjigin Khabul
孛兒只斤·合不勒
AD 1130–1148 (as Khan of Khamag Mongol) Khamag Mongol (de facto), Yuan (honorary)
Muzong of Yuan
元穆宗
Borjigin Jochi
孛兒只斤·朮赤
Did not rule as monarch Yuan
Xiangzong of Western Liao
西遼襄宗
Yelü Zhilugu
耶律直魯古
AD 1177–1211 Western Liao
Shengzong of Yuan
元聖宗
Borjigin Chagatai
孛兒只斤·察合台
AD 1226–1242 (as Khan of the Chagatai Khanate) Chagatai Khanate (de facto), Yuan (honorary)
Fazong of Song
宋法宗
Zhao Xian
趙㬎
AD 1274–1276 Southern Song
Gongzong of Song
宋恭宗
Huaizong of Song
宋懷宗
Zhao Bing
趙昺
AD 1278–1279 Southern Song
Jinzong of Yuan
元晉宗
Borjigin Yesün Temür
孛兒只斤·也孫鐵木兒
AD 1323–1328 Yuan
Gaozu of Chen Han
陳漢高祖
Chen Youliang
陳友諒
AD 1360–1363 Chen Han
Gongzong of Northern Yuan
北元恭宗
Borjigin Yesüder
孛兒只斤·也速迭兒
AD 1388–1392 Northern Yuan
Kangzong of Northern Yuan
北元康宗
Borjigin Elbeg
孛兒只斤·額勒伯克
AD 1393–1399 Northern Yuan
Minzong of Northern Yuan
北元愍宗
Borjigin Gün Temür
孛兒只斤·坤帖木兒
AD 1400–1402 Northern Yuan
Shunzong of Ming
明順宗
Zhu Cilang
朱慈烺
Did not rule as monarch Ming
Yizong of Southern Ming
南明義宗
Zhu Yihai
朱以海
Did not rule as monarch Southern Ming
Wenzong of Southern Ming
南明文宗
Zhu Yuyue
朱聿𨮁
AD 1646–1647 Southern Ming
Pingzong of Southern Ming
南明平宗
Zhu Benli
朱本鉝
AD 1646–1664 Southern Ming
Jingzong of Southern Ming
南明敬宗
Zhu Changqing
朱常清
AD 1648–1649 Southern Ming
Shizu of Qing
清始祖
Aisin Gioro Bukūri Yongšon
愛新覺羅·布庫里雍順
Did not rule as monarch Qing
Aejong of Joseon
조선 애종
朝鮮哀宗
Yi Gu
이구
李玖
Did not rule as monarch Joseon
Nguyễn Hiến Tông
阮憲宗
Nguyễn Phúc Minh
阮福明
AD 1884–1885 Nguyễn

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit