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The Japanese era name (年号, nengō, "year name"), also known as gengō (元号), is the first of the two elements that identify years in the Japanese era calendar scheme. The second element is a number which indicates the year number within the era (with the first year being "gan ()"), followed by the literal "nen ()" meaning "year".

As elsewhere in East Asia, the use of nengō was originally derived from Chinese Imperial practice, although the Japanese system is independent of the Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese era-naming systems. Unlike some of these other similar systems, Japanese era names are still in use. Government offices usually require era names and years for official papers.

The four era names used since the end of the Edo period in 1868 can be abbreviated by taking the first letter of their romanized names. For example, S55 means Shōwa 55 (i.e. 1980), and H22 stands for Heisei 22 (2010). At 62 years and 2 weeks, Shōwa is the longest era to date.

The current era is Reiwa (令和),[1] which began on 1 May 2019, following the 31st (and final) year of the Heisei era (平成31年). While the Heisei era (平成) started on the day after the death of the Emperor Hirohito (8 January 1989), the Reiwa era (令和) began the day after the planned and voluntary abdication[2] of the 125th Emperor Akihito. Emperor Akihito received special one-time permission to abdicate,[3] rather than serving in his role until his death, as is the rule.[4] His elder son, Naruhito, ascended to the throne as the 126th Emperor of Japan on 1 May 2019.[5]

Contents

OverviewEdit

 
Keizō Obuchi, Chief Cabinet Secretary, announces the name of the new era "Heisei" (平成), on 7 January 1989.
 
Yoshihide Suga, Chief Cabinet Secretary, announces the name of the new era "Reiwa" (令和) at the Prime Minister's Official Residence, on 1 April 2019.
  A graphical timeline is available at
Timeline of Japanese era names

The system on which the Japanese era names are based originated in China in 140 BCE, and was adopted by Japan in 645 CE, during the reign of Emperor Kōtoku.

The first era name to be assigned was "Taika" (大化), celebrating the political and organizational changes which were to flow from the great Taika reform (大化の改新) of 645. Although the regular practice of proclaiming successive era names was interrupted in the late seventh century, it was permanently re-adopted in 701 during the reign of Emperor Monmu (697–707). Since then, era names have been used continuously up through the present day.[6]

Historical nengōEdit

Prior to the Meiji period, era names were decided by court officials and were subjected to frequent change. A new era name was usually proclaimed within a year or two after the ascension of a new emperor. A new era name was also often designated on the first, fifth and 58th years of the sexagenary cycle, because they were inauspicious years in Onmyōdō. These three years are respectively known as kakurei, kakuun, and kakumei, and collectively known as sankaku. Era names were also changed due to other felicitous events or natural disasters.

In historical practice, the first day of a nengō (元年, gannen) starts whenever the emperor chooses; and the first year continues until the next lunar new year, which is understood to be the start of the nengō's second year.[7]

Era names indicate the various reasons for their adoption. For instance, the nengō Wadō (和銅), during the Nara period, was declared due to the discovery of copper deposits in Chichibu. Most nengō are composed of two kanji, except for a short time during the Nara period when four-kanji names were sometimes adopted to follow the Chinese trend. Tenpyō Kanpō (天平感宝), Tenpyō Shōhō (天平勝宝), Tenpyō Hōji (天平宝字) and Tenpyō Jingo (天平神護) are some famous nengō names that use four characters. Since the Heian period, Confucian thoughts and ideas have been reflected in era names, such as Daidō (大同), Kōnin (弘仁) and Tenchō (天長).[citation needed] Although there currently exist a total of 248 Japanese era names, only 73 kanji have been used in composing them. Out of these 73 kanji, 31 of them have been used only once, while the rest have been used repeatedly in different combinations.

Nengō in modern JapanEdit

Mutsuhito assumed the throne in 1867, during the third year of the Keiō (慶応) era. On 23 October 1868, the era name was changed to "Meiji" (明治), and a "one reign, one era name" (一世一元, issei-ichigen) system was adopted, wherein era names would change only upon immediate imperial succession. This system is similar to the now-defunct Chinese system used since the days of the Ming dynasty. The Japanese nengō system differs from Chinese practice, in that in the Chinese system the era name was not updated until the year following the emperor's death.

In modern practice, the first year of a nengō (元年, gannen) starts immediately upon the emperor's accession and ends on 31 December. Subsequent years follow the Gregorian calendar. For example, the Meiji era lasted until 30 July 1912, when the Emperor died and the Taishō (大正) era was proclaimed. 1912 is therefore known as both "Meiji 45" and "Taishō 1" (大正元年, Taishō gannen), although Meiji technically ended on 30 July with Mutsuhito's death.

This practice, implemented successfully since the days of Meiji but never formalized, became law in 1979 with the passage of the Era Name Law (元号法, gengō-hō). Thus, since 1868, there have only been five era names assigned: Meiji, Taishō, Shōwa, Heisei, and Reiwa, each corresponding with the rule of only one emperor. Upon death, the emperor is thereafter referred to by the era of his reign. For example, Mutsuhito is posthumously known as "Emperor Meiji" (明治天皇, Meiji Tennō).

It is protocol in Japan that the reigning emperor be referred to as Tennō Heika (天皇陛下, "His Imperial Majesty the Emperor") or Kinjō Tennō (今上天皇, "current emperor"). To call the current emperor by the current era name, i.e. "Reiwa", even in English, is a faux pas, as this is — and will be — his posthumous name. Use of the emperor's given name (i.e., "Naruhito") is rare, and is considered vulgar behaviour in Japanese.

The Emperor Akihito abdicated on 30 April 2019, necessitating a change in nengō. The new name, made public on the morning of April 1 of the same year, is Reiwa (令和).[1]

Periods without era namesEdit

The era name system that was introduced by Emperor Kōtoku was abandoned after his death; no era names were designated between 654 and 686. The system was briefly reinstated by Emperor Tenmu in 686, but was again abandoned upon his death about two months later. In 701, Emperor Monmu once again reinstated the era name system, and it has continued uninterrupted through today.

Although use of the Gregorian calendar for historical dates became increasingly common in Japan, the traditional Japanese system demands that dates be written in reference to era names. The apparent problem introduced by the lack of era names was resolved by identifying the years of an imperial reign as a period.[8]

Although in modern Japan posthumous imperial names correspond with the eras of their reign, this is a relatively recent concept, introduced in practice during the Meiji period and instituted by law in 1979. Therefore, the posthumous names of the emperors and empresses who reigned prior to 1868 may not be taken as era names by themselves. For example, the year 572—the year in which Emperor Bidatsu assumed the Chrysanthemum Throne – is properly written as "敏達天皇元年" (Bidatsu-Tennō Gannen, "the first year of Emperor Bidatsu"), and not "敏達元年" (Bidatsu Gannen, "the first year of Bidatsu"), although it may be abbreviated as such.[9] By incorporating both proper era names and posthumous imperial names in this manner, it is possible to extend the nengō system to cover all dates from 660 BCE through today.[10]

Unofficial era name systemEdit

In addition to the official era name system, in which the era names are selected by the imperial court, one also observes—primarily in the ancient documents and epigraphs of shrines and temples—unofficial era names called shinengō (私年号, "personal era name"), also known as ginengō (偽年号) or inengō (異年号). Currently, there are over 40 confirmed shinengō, most of them dating from the middle ages. Shinengō used prior to the reestablishment of the era name system in 701 are usually called itsunengō (逸年号).[a]

Because official records of shinengō are lacking, the range of dates to which they apply is often unclear. For example, the well-known itsunengō Hakuhō (白鳳) is normally said to refer to 650–654 CE; a poetic synonym for the Hakuchi era. However, alternate interpretations exist. For example, in the Nichūreki, Hakuhō refers to 661–683 CE, and in some medieval temple documents, Hakuhō refers to 672–685 CE. Thus, shinengō may be used as an alternative way of dating periods for which there is no official era name.

Other well-known itsunengō and shinengō include Hōkō (法興) (591–621+ CE), Suzaku (朱雀) (686), Fukutoku (福徳) (1489–1492), Miroku (弥勒) (1506–1507 or 1507–1509) and Meiroku (命禄) (1540–1543).

The most recent shinengō is Seiro (征露) (1904–1905), named for the Russo-Japanese War.

Kyūshū nengōEdit

Edo period scholar Tsurumine Shigenobu proposed that Kyūshū nengō (九州年号), said to have been used in ancient Kumaso, should also be considered a form of shinengō. This claim is not generally recognized by the academic community. Lists of the proposed Kyūshū nengō can be seen in the Japanese language entries 鶴峯戊申 and 九州王朝説.

Software supportEdit

Character setsEdit

Certain era names have specific characters assigned to them, for instance ㋿ for the Reiwa period, which can also be written as 令和. These are included in Unicode: Code points U+32FF (㋿), U+337B (㍻), U+337C (㍼), U+337D (㍽) and U+337E (㍾) are used for the Reiwa, Heisei, Shōwa, Taishō and Meiji eras, respectively.

Calendar librariesEdit

Certain calendar libraries support the conversion from and to the era system, as well as rendering of dates using it.

Since the release of Java 8, the Japanese calendar is supported in the new Date and time API for the year Meiji 6 (1873) onwards.[11]

Support for the new era in Japanese imperial transition of 2019Edit

Computers and software manufacturers needed to test their systems in preparation for the new era which began on 1 May 2019. Windows provided a test mechanism to simulate a new era ahead of time.[12] Java Development Kit 11 supported this era using the placeholders "元号" for Japanese, "NewEra" for other languages.[13] The final name was added in JDK 12.0.1, after it was announced by the Japanese government.[14]

Unicode code point U+32FF (㋿) was reserved for representing the new era name, Reiwa.[15][16][17][18][19][20]

The list of Japanese era names is the result of a periodization system which was established by Emperor Kōtoku in 645. The system of Japanese era names (年号, nengō, "year name") was irregular until the beginning of the 8th century.[21] After 701, sequential era names developed without interruption across a span of centuries.[6] As of April 1, 2019, there have been 239 era names.

Conversion tableEdit

 
1729 Japanese calendar, which used the Jōkyō calendar procedure, published by Ise Grand Shrine.

To convert a Japanese year to a Gregorian calendar year, find the first year of the Japanese era name (also called nengō). When found, add the number of the Japanese year, then subtract 1.

Gregorian calendar years and equivalent nengō years
Gregorian calendar year Name of era Notes
(AD) Kanji Romanization of Japanese
Asuka period (538–710)
498 Earliest date for which recorded shi-nengō are identified; "Unofficial nengō system" section below
645[22] 大化 Taika Emperor Kōtoku, 645–654.[23]
650[24] 白雉 Hakuchi also Hakuhō[8][25]
654 Era not named; see "Non-Nengō periods" section below
686[26] 朱鳥 Shuchō also Suchō, Akamitori or Akamidori; Emperor Tenmu, 672–686.[27]
686 Era not named; see "Non-Nengō periods" section below
701[28] 大宝 Taihō also Daihō; Emperor Monmu, 697–707.[29]
704 慶雲 Keiun also Kyōun; Empress Genmei, 707–715.[30]
708 和銅 Wadō
Nara period (710–794)
715 霊亀 Reiki Empress Genshō, 715–724.[31]
717 養老 Yōrō
724 神亀 Jinki also Shinki; Emperor Shōmu, 724–749.[32]
729 天平 Tenpyō also Tenbyō or Tenhei
749 天平感宝 Tenpyō-kanpō also Tenbyō-kanpō
749 天平勝宝 Tenpyō-shōhō also Tenbyō-shōbō or Tenpei-shōhō; Empress Kōken, 749–758.[33]
757 天平宝字 Tenpyō-hōji also Tenbyō-hōji or Tenpei-hōji; Emperor Junnin, 758–764;[34] Empress Shōtoku, 764–770.[35]
765 天平神護 Tenpyō-jingo also Tenbyō-jingo or Tenhei-jingo
767 神護景雲 Jingo-keiun
770 宝亀 Hōki Emperor Kōnin, 770–781.[36]
781 天応 Ten'ō Emperor Kanmu, 781–806.[37]
782 延暦 Enryaku
Heian period (794–1185)
806 大同 Daidō Emperor Heizei, 806–809;[38] Emperor Saga, 809–823.[39]
810 弘仁 Kōnin Emperor Junna, 823–833.[40]
824 天長 Tenchō Emperor Ninmyō, 833–850.[41]
834 承和 Jōwa also Shōwa or Sōwa
848 嘉祥 Kashō also Kajō; Emperor Montoku, 850–858.[42]
851 仁寿 Ninju
854 斉衡 Saikō
857 天安 Ten'an also Tennan; Emperor Seiwa, 858–876.[43]
859 貞観 Jōgan Emperor Yōzei, 876–884.[44]
877 元慶 Gangyō also Gankyō or Genkei; Emperor Kōkō, 884–887.[45]
885 仁和 Ninna also Ninwa; Emperor Uda, 887–897.[46]
889 寛平 Kanpyō also Kanpei or Kanbyō or Kanbei or Kanhei; Emperor Daigo, 887–930.[47]
898 昌泰 Shōtai
901 延喜 Engi
923 延長 Enchō Emperor Suzaku, 930–946.[48]
931 承平 Jōhei also Shōhei
938 天慶 Tengyō also Tenkei or Tenkyō; Emperor Murakami, 946–967.[49]
947 天暦 Tenryaku also Tenreki
957 天徳 Tentoku
961 応和 Ōwa
964 康保 Kōhō Emperor Reizei, 967–969.[50]
968 安和 Anna also Anwa; Emperor En'yū, 969–984.[51]
970 天禄 Tenroku
973 天延 Ten'en
976 貞元 Jōgen also Teigen
978 天元 Tengen
983 永観 Eikan also Yōkan; Emperor Kazan, 984–986.[52]
985 寛和 Kanna also Kanwa; Emperor Ichijō, 986–1011.[53]
987 永延 Eien also Yōen
988 永祚 Eiso also Yōso
990 正暦 Shōryaku also Jōryaku or Shōreki
995 長徳 Chōtoku
999 長保 Chōhō
1004 寛弘 Kankō Emperor Sanjō, 1011–1016.[54]
1012 長和 Chōwa Emperor Go-Ichijō, 1016–1036.[55]
1017 寛仁 Kannin
1021 治安 Jian also Chian
1024 万寿 Manju
1028 長元 Chōgen Emperor Go-Suzaku, 1036–1045.[56]
1037 長暦 Chōryaku also Chōreki
1040 長久 Chōkyū
1044 寛徳 Kantoku Emperor Go-Reizei, 1045–1068.[57]
1046 永承 Eishō also Eijō or Yōjō
1053 天喜 Tengi also Tenki
1058 康平 Kōhei
1065 治暦 Jiryaku also Chiryaku
1069 延久 Enkyū Emperor Go-Sanjō, 1068–1073.[58]
1074 承保 Jōhō also Shōhō or Shōho; Emperor Shirakawa, 1073–1086.[59]
1077 承暦 Jōryaku also Shōryaku or Shōreki
1081 永保 Eihō also Yōhō
1084 応徳 Ōtoku
1087 寛治 Kanji Emperor Horikawa, 1087–1107.[60]
1094 嘉保 Kahō
1096 永長 Eichō also Yōchō
1097 承徳 Jōtoku also Shōtoku
1099 康和 Kōwa
1104 長治 Chōji
1106 嘉承 Kajō also Kashō or Kasō; Emperor Toba, 1107–1123.[61]
1108 天仁 Tennin
1110 天永 Ten'ei also Ten'yō
1113 永久 Eikyū also Yōkyū
1118 元永 Gen'ei
1120 保安 Hōan Emperor Sutoku, 1123–1142.[62]
1124 天治 Tenji also Tenchi
1126 大治 Daiji also Taiji
1131 天承 Tenshō also Tenjō
1132 長承 Chōshō also Chōjō
1135 保延 Hōen
1141 永治 Eiji
1142 康治 Kōji Emperor Konoe, 1142–1155.[63]
1144 天養 Ten'yō also Tennyō
1145 久安 Kyūan
1151 仁平 Ninpei also Ninpyō or Ninbyō or Ninhyō or Ninhei
1154 久寿 Kyūju Emperor Go-Shirakawa, 1155–1158.[64]
1156 保元 Hōgen also Hogen; Emperor Nijō, 1158–1165.[65]
1159 平治 Heiji also Byōji
1160 永暦 Eiryaku also Yōryaku
1161 応保 Ōhō
1163 長寛 Chōkan also Chōgan
1165 永万 Eiman also Yōman; Emperor Rokujō, 1165–1168.[66]
1166 仁安 Nin'an also Ninnan; Emperor Takakura, 1168–1180.[66]
1169 嘉応 Kaō
1171 承安 Jōan also Shōan
1175 安元 Angen
1177 治承 Jishō also Jijō or Chishō; Emperor Antoku, 1180–1185.[67]
1181 養和 Yōwa
1182 寿永 Juei Emperor Go-Toba, 1183–1198.[68]
1184 元暦 Genryaku
Kamakura period (1185–1333)
1185 文治 Bunji also Monchi
1190 建久 Kenkyū Emperor Tsuchimikado, 1198–1210.[69]
1199 正治 Shōji
1201 建仁 Kennin
1204 元久 Genkyū
1206 建永 Ken'ei also Ken'yō
1207 承元 Jōgen also Shōgen; Emperor Juntoku, 1210–1221.[70]
1211 建暦 Kenryaku
1213 建保 Kenpō also Kenhō
1219 承久 Jōkyū also Shōkyū; Emperor Chūkyō, 1221.[71] Emperor Go-Horikawa, 1221–1232.[72]
1222 貞応 Jōō also Teiō
1224 元仁 Gennin
1225 嘉禄 Karoku
1227 安貞 Antei also Anjō
1229 寛喜 Kangi also Kanki
1232 貞永 Jōei also Teiei; Emperor Shijō, 1232–1242.[73]
1233 天福 Tenpuku also Tenfuku
1234 文暦 Bunryaku also Monryaku or Monreki
1235 嘉禎 Katei
1238 暦仁 Ryakunin also Rekinin
1239 延応 En'ō also Ennō
1240 仁治 Ninji also Ninchi; Emperor Go-Saga, 1242–1246.[74]
1243 寛元 Kangen Emperor Go-Fukakusa, 1246–1260.[75]
1247 宝治 Hōji
1249 建長 Kenchō
1256 康元 Kōgen Emperor Kameyama, 1260–1274.[76]
1257 正嘉 Shōka
1259 正元 Shōgen
1260 文応 Bun'ō also Bunnō
1261 弘長 Kōchō
1264 文永 Bun'ei Emperor Go-Uda, 1274–1287.[77]
1275 建治 Kenji
1278 弘安 Kōan Emperor Fushimi, 1287–1298.[78]
1288 正応 Shōō
1293 永仁 Einin Emperor Go-Fushimi, 1298–1301.[79]
1299 正安 Shōan Emperor Go-Nijō, 1301–1308.[80]
1302 乾元 Kengen
1303 嘉元 Kagen
1306 徳治 Tokuji
1308 延慶 Enkyō also Engyō or Enkei; Emperor Hanazono, 1308–1318.[81]
1311 応長 Ōchō
1312 正和 Shōwa
1317 文保 Bunpō also Bunhō; Emperor Go-Daigo, 1318–1339.[82]
1319 元応 Gen'ō also Gennō
1321 元亨 Genkō
1324 正中 Shōchū
1326 嘉暦 Karyaku
1329 元徳 Gentoku
1331 元弘 Genkō
Nanboku-chō period (1334–1392)
Southern Court
1334 建武 Kenmu also Kenbu
1336 延元 Engen
1340 興国 Kōkoku
1346 正平 Shōhei
1370 建徳 Kentoku
1372 文中 Bunchū
1375 天授 Tenju
1381 弘和 Kōwa
1384 元中 Genchū Genchū 9 becomes Meitoku 3 in post Nanboku-chō reunification
Northern Court
1332 正慶 Shōkei also Shōkyō
1334 建武 Kenmu also Kenbu
1338 暦応 Ryakuō also Rekiō
1342 康永 Kōei
1345 貞和 Jōwa also Teiwa
1350 観応 Kannō also Kan'ō
1352 文和 Bunna also Bunwa
1356 延文 Enbun
1361 康安 Kōan
1362 貞治 Jōji also Teiji
1368 応安 Ōan
1375 永和 Eiwa
1379 康暦 Kōryaku
1381 永徳 Eitoku
1384 至徳 Shitoku
1387 嘉慶 Kakei also Kakyō
1389 康応 Kōō
1390 明徳 Meitoku Meitoku 3 replaces Genchū 9 in post-Nanboku-chō reunification
Muromachi period (1392–1573)
1394 応永 Ōei Emperor Shōkō, 1412–1428.[83]
1428 正長 Shōchō Emperor Go-Hanazono, 1428–1464.[84]
1429 永享 Eikyō also Eikō
1441 嘉吉 Kakitsu also Kakichi
1444 文安 Bun'an also Bunnan
1449 宝徳 Hōtoku
1452 享徳 Kyōtoku
1455 康正 Kōshō
1457 長禄 Chōroku
1460 寛正 Kanshō Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado, 1464–1500.[85]
1466 文正 Bunshō also Monshō
1467 応仁 Ōnin
1469 文明 Bunmei
1487 長享 Chōkyō
1489 延徳 Entoku
1492 明応 Meiō Emperor Go-Kashiwabara, 1500–1526.[86]
1501 文亀 Bunki
1504 永正 Eishō
1521 大永 Daiei Emperor Go-Nara, 1526–1557.[87]
1528 享禄 Kyōroku
1532 天文 Tenbun also Tenmon
1555 弘治 Kōji Emperor Ōgimachi, 1557–1586.[88]
1558 永禄 Eiroku
1570 元亀 Genki
Azuchi-Momoyama period (1573–1603)
1573 天正 Tenshō Emperor Go-Yōzei, 1586–1611.[89]
1592 文禄 Bunroku
1596 慶長 Keichō also Kyōchō; Emperor Go-Mizunoo, 1611–1629.[90]
Edo period (1603–1868)
1615 元和 Genna also Genwa
1624 寛永 Kan'ei Empress Meishō, 1629–1643;[91] Emperor Go-Kōmyō, 1643–1654.[92]
1644 正保 Shōhō
1648 慶安 Keian also Kyōan
1652 承応 Jōō also Shōō; Emperor Go-Sai, 1655–1663.[93]
1655 明暦 Meireki also Myōryaku or Meiryaku
1658 万治 Manji
1661 寛文 Kanbun Emperor Reigen, 1663–1687.[94]
1673 延宝 Enpō also Enhō, formerly written 延寳
1681 天和 Tenna also Tenwa
1684 貞享 Jōkyō Emperor Higashiyama, 1687–1709.[95]
1688 元禄 Genroku
1704 宝永 Hōei Emperor Nakamikado, 1709–1735.[96]
1711 正徳 Shōtoku
1716 享保 Kyōhō Emperor Sakuramachi, 1735–1747.[97]
1736 元文 Genbun
1741 寛保 Kanpō also Kanhō
1744 延享 Enkyō Emperor Momozono, 1747–1762.[98]
1748 寛延 Kan'en
1751 宝暦 Hōreki also Hōryaku; Empress Go-Sakuramachi, 1762–1771.[99]
1764 明和 Meiwa Emperor Go-Momozono, 1771–1779.[100]
1772 安永 An'ei Emperor Kōkaku, 1780–1817.[101]
1781 天明 Tenmei
1789 寛政 Kansei
1801 享和 Kyōwa
1804 文化 Bunka Emperor Ninkō, 1817–1846.[102]
1818 文政 Bunsei
1830 天保 Tenpō also Tenhō
1844 弘化 Kōka Emperor Kōmei, 1846–1867.
1848 嘉永 Kaei
1854 安政 Ansei
1860 万延 Man'en
1861 文久 Bunkyū
1864 元治 Genji
1865 慶応 Keiō Emperor Meiji, 1867–1868.
Modern Japan (from 1868)
1868 明治 Meiji Emperor Meiji, 1868–1912.
1912 大正 Taishō Emperor Taishō, 1912–1926.
1926 昭和 Shōwa Emperor Shōwa, 1926–1989.
1989 平成 Heisei Akihito, 1989–2019.
2019 令和 Reiwa Naruhito, 2019–present.

Non-nengo periodsEdit

Unofficial non-nengō periods (shinengō) before 701 are called itsunengō (逸年号).[a] Pre-Taika chronology intervals include:

  • Reign of Emperor Jimmu, 660–581 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Suizei, 581–548 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Annei, 548–510 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Itoku, 510–475 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kōshō, 475–392 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kōan, 392–290 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kōrei, 290–214 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kōgen, 214–157 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kaika, 157–97 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Sujin, 97–29 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Suinin, 29 BC–AD 71
  • Reign of Emperor Keikō, AD 71–131
  • Reign of Emperor Seimu, 131–192
  • Reign of Emperor Chūai, 192–201
  • Regency of Empress Jingū, 201–270
  • Reign of Emperor Ōjin, 270–313
  • Reign of Emperor Nintoku, 313–400
  • Reign of Emperor Richū, 400–406
  • Reign of Emperor Hanzei, 406–412
  • Reign of Emperor Ingyō, 412–454
  • Reign of Emperor Ankō, 454–457
  • Reign of Emperor Yūryaku, 457–480
  • Reign of Emperor Seinei, 480–485
  • Reign of Emperor Kenzō, 485–488
  • Reign of Emperor Ninken, 488–499
  • Reign of Emperor Buretsu, 499–507
  • Reign of Emperor Keitai, 507–534
  • Reign of Emperor Ankan, 534–536
  • Reign of Emperor Senka, 536–540
  • Reign of Emperor Kinmei, 540–572
  • Reign of Emperor Bidatsu, 572–586
  • Reign of Emperor Yōmei, 586–588
  • Reign of Emperor Sushun, 588–593
  • Reign of Emperor Suiko, 593–629[103]
  • Reign of Emperor Jomei, 629–645

Post-Taika chronology intervals not covered by the nengō system include:

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b A list of shinengō and more information can be seen in the Japanese language entry on 私年号.

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b Reiwa Nengō Announcement Footage, 1 April 2019
  2. ^ Rich, Motoko (30 April 2019). "Emperor Akihito, Who Gave Japan's Monarchy a Human Face, Abdicates Throne". New York Times. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  3. ^ "天皇陛下 「生前退位」の意向示される ("His Majesty The Emperor Indicates His Intention to 'Abdicate'")" (in Japanese). NHK. 13 July 2016. Archived from the original on 13 July 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
  4. ^ "Japanese Emperor Akihito 'wishes to abdicate'". BBC News. 13 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  5. ^ "Japan rings in new era as Naruhito becomes emperor". Al Jazeera. 30 April 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  6. ^ a b Brown & Ishida (1979), p. 32.
  7. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1956). Kyoto: the Old Capital of Japan, 794–1869, p. 321.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Murray (1894) p. 402, citing Bramsen (1880) pp. 54–55.The year-periods (nengō) do not ordinarily overlap with the reigns of the early monarchs; and generally, a new one was chosen whenever it was deemed necessary to commemorate an auspicious or ward off a malign event.
  9. ^ "The Japanese Calendar", National Diet Library, Japan
  10. ^ 年号一覧 Archived 19 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ "JapaneseDate (Java Platform SE 8 )". Archived from the original on 15 May 2015.
  12. ^ "The Japanese Calendar's Y2K Moment".
  13. ^ "JDK 11 Release Notes, Important Changes, and Information". www.oracle.com. Retrieved 1 October 2018. Japanese calendars, both in java.time.chrono and java.util packages support the upcoming Japanese new era, which will be in effect from May 1st, 2019. While the name of the era was yet to be known, placeholder names ("元号" for Japanese, "NewEra" for other languages) are provided for its display names. The placeholder names will be replaced with the legitimate era name, Reiwa, in a future update, thus applications should not depend on those placeholder names.
  14. ^ Kishida, Naoki (14 July 2018). "Java 11 API Change Proposals". DZone Java. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  15. ^ Request to reserve the code point for square Japanese new era name (PDF), 19 December 2017
  16. ^ The Japan National Body (23 May 2018), Update on SC2 N4577 “Request to reserve the code point for square Japanese new era name” (PDF)
  17. ^ "RESOLUTION M 23-10", Resolutions of the 23rd ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2 Plenary Meeting, 28 June 2018
  18. ^ Future Additions to ISO/IEC 10646 (January 2018) (PDF), 25 January 2018
  19. ^ "Proposed New Characters: Pipeline Table". Unicode Consortium. 30 June 2018.
  20. ^ Whistler, Ken (16 July 2018), Unicode 12.1 Planning Considerations
  21. ^ Tsuchihashi (1952), p. 16.
  22. ^ NengoCalc (645) 大化 Taika
  23. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 266–267; Varley (1980) pp. 132–133; Titsingh (1834) pp. 47–50
  24. ^ NengoCalc (650) 白雉 Hakuchi
  25. ^ a b Compare Nussbaum (2005) "Hakuhō" p. 280; "Hakuhou jidai". JAANUS (Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System). 2001. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
  26. ^ NengoCalc (686) 朱鳥 Suchō
  27. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 268–269; Varley (1980), pp. 135–136; Titsingh (1834) pp. 58–59
  28. ^ NengoCalc (701) 大宝 Taihō
  29. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 270–271; Varley (1980), pp. 137–140; Titsingh (1834) pp. 60–63
  30. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) p. 271; Varley (1980), p. 140; Titsingh (1834) pp. 63–65
  31. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 271–272; Varley (1980), pp. 140–141; Titsingh (1834) pp. 65–67
  32. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 272–273; Varley (1980), pp. 141–143; Titsingh (1834) pp. 67–73
  33. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 274–275; Varley (1980), p. 143; Titsingh (1834) pp. 73–75
  34. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) p. 275; Varley (1980), pp. 143–144; Titsingh (1834) pp. 75–78
  35. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) p. 276; Varley (1980), pp. 144–147; Titsingh (1834) pp. 78–81
  36. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 276–277; Varley (1980), pp. 147–148; Titsingh (1834) pp. 81–85
  37. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 277–279; Varley (1980), pp. 148–150; Titsingh (1834) pp. 86–95
  38. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 279–280; Varley (1980), p. 151; Titsingh (1834) pp. 96–97
  39. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 280–282; Varley (1980), pp. 151–164; Titsingh (1834) pp. 97–102
  40. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 282–283; Varley (1980), p. 164; Titsingh (1834) pp. 103–106
  41. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 283–284; Varley (1980), pp. 164–165; Titsingh (1834) pp. 106–112
  42. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 285–286; Varley (1980), p. 165; Titsingh (1834) pp. 112–115
  43. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 286–288; Varley (1980), pp. 166–170; Titsingh (1834) pp. 115–121
  44. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 288–289; Varley (1980), pp. 170–171; Titsingh (1834) pp. 121–124
  45. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) p. 289; Varley (1980), pp. 171–175; Titsingh (1834) pp. 124–125
  46. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 289–290; Varley (1980), pp. 175–179; Titsingh (1834) pp. 125–129
  47. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 290–293; Varley (1980), pp. 179–181; Titsingh (1834) pp. 129–134
  48. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 294–295; Varley (1980), pp. 181–183; Titsingh (1834) pp. 134–138
  49. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 295–298; Varley (1980), pp. 183–190; Titsingh (1834) pp. 139–142
  50. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) p. 298; Varley (1980), pp. 190–191; Titsingh (1834) pp. 142–143
  51. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 299–300; Varley (1980), pp. 191–192; Titsingh (1834) pp. 144–148
  52. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 300–302; Varley (1980), p. 192; Titsingh (1834) pp. 148–149
  53. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 302–307; Varley (1980), pp. 192–195; Titsingh (1834) pp. 150–154
  54. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) p. 307; Varley (1980), p. 195; Titsingh (1834) pp. 154–155
  55. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 307–310; Varley (1980), pp. 195–196; Titsingh (1834) pp. 156–160
  56. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 310–311; Varley (1980), p. 197; Titsingh (1834) pp. 160–162
  57. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 311–314; Varley (1980), pp. 197–198; Titsingh (1834) pp. 162–166
  58. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 314–315; Varley (1980), pp. 198–199; Titsingh (1834) pp. 166–168
  59. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 315–317; Varley (1980), pp. 199–202; Titsingh (1834) pp. 169–171
  60. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 317–320; Varley (1980), p. 202; Titsingh (1834) pp. 172–178
  61. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 320–322; Varley (1980), pp. 203–204; Titsingh (1834) pp. 178–181
  62. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 322–324; Varley (1980), pp. 204–205; Titsingh (1834) pp. 181–185
  63. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 324–326; Varley (1980), p. 205; Titsingh (1834) pp. 186–188
  64. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 326–327; Varley (1980), pp. 205–208; Titsingh (1834) pp. 188–190188–190.
  65. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 327–329; Varley (1980), pp. 208–212; Titsingh (1834) pp. 191–194
  66. ^ a b Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 329–330; Varley (1980), p. 212; Titsingh (1834) pp. 194–195
  67. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 333–334; Varley (1980), pp. 214–215; Titsingh (1834) pp. 20–207
  68. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 334–339; Varley (1980), pp. 215–220; Titsingh (1834) pp. 207–221
  69. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 339–341; Varley (1980), p. 220; Titsingh (1834) pp. 221–230
  70. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 341–343; Varley (1980), pp. 221–223; Titsingh (1834) pp. 230–238
  71. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 343–344; Varley (1980), pp. 223–226; Titsingh (1834) pp. 236–238
  72. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 344–349; Varley (1980), pp. 226–227; Titsingh (1834) pp. 238–241
  73. ^ Varley (1980), p. 227; Titsingh (1834) pp. 242–245
  74. ^ Varley (1980), pp. 228–231; Titsingh (1834) pp. 245–247
  75. ^ Varley (1980), pp. 231–232; Titsingh (1834) pp. 248–253
  76. ^ Varley (1980), pp. 232–233; Titsingh (1834) pp. 253–261
  77. ^ Varley (1980), pp. 233–237; Titsingh (1834) pp. 262–269
  78. ^ Varley (1980), pp. 237–238; Titsingh (1834) pp. 269–274
  79. ^ Varley (1980), pp. 238–239; Titsingh (1834) pp. 274–275
  80. ^ Varley (1980), p. 239; Titsingh (1834) pp. 275–278
  81. ^ Varley (1980), pp. 239–241; Titsingh (1834) pp. 278–281
  82. ^ Varley (1980), pp. 241–269; Titsingh (1834) pp. 281–286, 290–294
  83. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 327–331
  84. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 331–351
  85. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 352–364
  86. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 364–372
  87. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 372–382
  88. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 382–402
  89. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 402–409
  90. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 410–411
  91. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 411–412
  92. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 412–413
  93. ^ Titsingh (1834) p. 413
  94. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 414–415
  95. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 415–416
  96. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 416–417
  97. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 417–418
  98. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 418–419
  99. ^ Titsingh (1834) p. 419
  100. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 419–420
  101. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 420–421
  102. ^ Titsingh (1834) p. 421
  103. ^ The National Diet Library (NDL) website explains that "Japan organized its first calendar in the 12th year of Suiko (604)", which was a pre-nengō time frame; Nussbaum (2005) "Jikkan Jūnishi" p. 420.
  104. ^ NengoCalc (655) 斉明 Saimei
  105. ^ NengoCalc (622) 天智 Tenji
  106. ^ NengoCalc (672) 弘文 Kōbun
  107. ^ NengoCalc (673) 弘文 Tenmu
  108. ^ NengoCalc (687) 持統 Jitō
  109. ^ NengoCalc (697) 文武 Monmu

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit