Later Trần dynasty

The Later Trần dynasty (Vietnamese: Hậu Trần triều; Hán tự: 後陳朝) was a Vietnamese dynasty, the continuous line of the Tran dynasty that led Vietnamese rebellions against the Ming Empire from between 1407 and 1413. The regime was characterized by two revolts against the Chinese Ming dynasty which had by then established its rule over Vietnam.

Đại Việt Quốc (大越國)
1407–1413
StatusUnrecognized proto-state[1]
CapitalMô Độ
(1407–1409)

Bình Than
(1409–1413)
Common languagesChinese[2]
Vietnamese[2]
Religion
Buddhism (official), Taoism, Confucianism
GovernmentMonarchy
Emperor 
• 1407–1409
Giản Định Đế (first)
• 1409–1413
Trùng Quang Đế (last)
Historical eraPostclassical Era
• Established
1407
• Disestablished
1413
CurrencyCopper-alloy cash coins
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Fourth Era of Northern Domination
Fourth Era of Northern Domination
Today part ofVietnam

HistoryEdit

First phase (1407–1409)Edit

The Ming conquest of Vietnam of 1406-1407 in attempt to remove Ho Quy Ly and to bring the previous Tran family back to the throne of Dai Viet, however resulted in the destruction of Dai Viet and the creation of Ming province of Jiaozhi. The Ming's chronicles said when the they didn't see a Tran heir, they incorporated the Vietnamese kingdom into Ming Empire, but when Tran royal family members appeared and challenged the Ming rule, the Ming ignored them, even hunted down and executed them.[1] The first Vietnamese uprising against the Ming Chinese rule led by Prince Tran Ngoi, the second son of the former Tran king, in 1408.[3] The Ming emperor ordered Mu Sheng mobilized 40,000 from Yunnan, Guangxi, Guizhou and Sichuan to repress the rebellion, but was utterly defeated by Tran Ngoi's guerrilla bands of "freedom fighters."[4] On February 23, 1409, Zhang Fu who was appointed to replaced Mu Sheng, mobilizing 8,600 boats he had captured in 1407, along with 47,000 troops, overwhelmed Tran Ngoi's 20,000 men and 600 ships in a naval battle in September 1409.[4] While Tran Ngoi was captured in December and being delivered to Nanjing for execution, his nephew Tran Quy Khoang continued leading the struggle against the Ming dynasty.[4] Tran Quy Khoang however, wanted to gain recognition from Yongle as the king of the Great kingdom of Annam, but Yongle ignored, killed most of his envoys, and offered him the title "Provincial civil commissioner."[5]

Second phase and defeat (1409–1414)Edit

Tran Quy Khoang eventually renewed his movement, rally more people into his rebellion. Zhang Fu was ordered to returned Jiaozhi to suppress the Vietnamese, and learned that Tran Quy Khoang had high ambitions in that part of the world and would not allow the Chinese emperor to dictate the destiny of his people.[6] Zhang Fu again mobilized a strong force of 24,000, battled Tran Quy Khoang's forces in Nam Định on February 12, 1411, killed 4,500 and captured 2,000.[7] On August 6, the Ming army under general Zhang Sheng won fiercely battle in Thanh Hóa, sank 160 vessels, captured 120 boats and killed hundreds of thousands of Vietnamese.[6][8]

Outgunned and outnumbered, Tran Quy Khoang and his partisans continued fought against the superior Chinese forces by utilizing Vietnam's terrains against the Chinese regulars, and retreating into Cambodia when necessary.[6] By end of 1413, his force lost 60% to 70% and was forced to steal food from the Chinese for survival. He, his wife, and his brother were captured by the Chinese on March 30, 1414, and was executed in Nanjing on August 16.[9]

MonarchsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Baldanza 2016, p. 66.
  2. ^ a b Taylor 2013, pp. 108-121.
  3. ^ Tsai 2011, p. 180.
  4. ^ a b c Tsai 2011, p. 181.
  5. ^ Baldanza 2016, p. 66-67.
  6. ^ a b c Tsai 2011, p. 182.
  7. ^ Sun 2006, p. 83.
  8. ^ Sun 2006, p. 84.
  9. ^ Baldanza 2016, p. 67.

Works citedEdit

  • Baldanza, Kathlene (2016). Ming China and Vietnam: Negotiating Borders in Early Modern Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-316-44055-1.
  • Sun, Laichen (2006), "Chinese Gunpowder Technology and Đại Việt, ca. 1390–1497", in Reid, Anthony; Tran, Nhung Tuyet (eds.), Viet Nam: Borderless Histories, University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 72–120, ISBN 978-1-316-44504-4
  • Tsai, Shih-shan Henry (2011). Perpetual happiness: The Ming emperor Yongle. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-98109-1.
  • Taylor, K. W. (9 May 2013). A History of the Vietnamese. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-24435-1.
Preceded by Dynasty of Vietnam
1407–1413
Succeeded by