List of Vietnamese dynasties
Prior to the abdication of Bảo Đại on 30 August 1945 in the aftermath of the August Revolution, Vietnam was ruled by a series of dynasties of either local or Chinese origin. The following is a list of major dynasties in the history of Vietnam.
In Vietnamese historiography, the names of dynasties were usually derived from the family name of the ruling house. For example, the Đinh dynasty (Nhà Đinh; 家丁) is known as such because the ruling clan bore the family name Đinh (丁).
Similar to Chinese dynasties, Vietnamese dynasties would adopt a quốc hiệu (國號; lit. "name of the state") upon the establishment of the realm. However, as it was common for several dynasties to share the same official name, referring to regimes by their official name in historiography would be potentially confusing. For instance, the quốc hiệu "Đại Việt" (大越) was used by the Lý dynasty (since the reign of Lý Thánh Tông), the Trần dynasty, and the Later Lê dynasty.
In the Vietnamese language, the word for "dynasty" may be written as either nhà (家) or triều (朝). For instance, the Mạc dynasty can be rendered as "Nhà Mạc" (家莫) or "Mạc triều" (莫朝).
Origin of dynastiesEdit
Apart from over one millennium of direct Chinese rule, Vietnam was ruled by a series of "local" dynasties, some of which could have their origins traced to China.
According to the two historical Vietnamese texts, Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư (大越史記全書) and Khâm định Việt sử Thông giám cương mục (欽定越史通鑑綱目), Thục Phán of the Thục dynasty was originally a prince of the ancient Chinese State of Shu.
The Triệu dynasty, established by Triệu Đà from the Qin dynasty, was considered a local regime by traditional Vietnamese historiography. However, modern Vietnamese historians generally regard the Triệu dynasty to be a foreign regime that ruled Vietnam.
The first emperor of the Lý dynasty, Lý Công Uẩn, could have his paternal bloodline traced to modern-day Fujian, China. Lý Công Uẩn's father, Lý Thuần An, escaped to Quanzhou from Hebei after Lý Công Uẩn's grandfather, Li Song, was wrongly accused of treason and executed by the Emperor Yin of Later Han.
The origin of the Trần dynasty was traced to modern Fujian, where the ancestor of the Trần imperial clan, Trần Kính, migrated from in the 11th century CE. The Later Trần dynasty was ruled by the same imperial clan as the earlier Trần dynasty.
The Hồ dynasty claimed descent from the Duke Hu of Chen, the founder of the ancient Chinese State of Chen. The Duke Hu of Chen was in turn descended from the legendary Emperor Shun, who was recognized by Hồ Quý Ly as the progenitor of the Hồ imperial family. Accordingly, the Hồ dynasty adopted the official quốc hiệu "Đại Ngu" (大虞; lit. "Great Ngu"); "Ngu" (虞) was derived from the Emperor Shun's lineage name, Youyu (有虞). The Hồ family migrated from present-day Zhejiang, China to Vietnam under Hồ Hưng Dật during the 10th century CE.
Champa (Chăm Pa; 占婆) existed as an independent polity until its annexation by the Nguyễn dynasty in 1832 CE, thereby laying the foundation for the territories of the modern Vietnamese state. The rulers of Champa were of Cham descent, an Austronesian ethnic group distinct from the majority Kinh ethnicity of Vietnam.
There were 15 dynasties in the history of Champa. According to Chinese historical sources, Champa officially used the quốc hiệu "Lâm Ấp" (林邑) from the 1st to 4th dynasties, "Hoàn Vương" (環王) during the 5th dynasty, and "Chiêm Thành" (占城) from the 6th to 15th dynasties.
List of dynasties in Vietnamese historyEdit
This list includes the various dynasties in the history of Vietnam, of both local and Chinese origins. Dynasties of China that ruled Vietnam are highlighted in . The Triệu dynasty is highlighted in due to its disputed status.
|Dynasty||Rulers||Period of rule||First to rule[a][b]||Last to rule[b]|
(English / Vietnamese / Hán Nôm)
|Official dynastic name[c]
(Vietnamese / Hán Nôm)
|Hồng Bàng dynasty
Hồng Bàng thị
|(list)||2879 BCE||258 BCE||2621 years||Kinh Dương Vương||Hùng Duệ Vương|
|(list)||257 BCE||207 BCE||50 years||An Dương Vương||An Dương Vương|
|(list)||204 BCE||111 BCE||93 years||Wu of Nanyue||Zhao Jiande|
|No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g]||(list)||111 BCE||9 CE||120 years||Wu of Han||Liu Ying|
|No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g]||(list)||9 CE||23 CE||14 years||Wang Mang||Wang Mang|
|No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g]||(list)||25 CE||220 CE||192 years[i]||Guangwu of Han||Xian of Han|
|No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g]||(list)||229 CE||280 CE||45 years[j]||Da of Eastern Wu||Sun Hao|
|No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g]||(list)||266 CE||316 CE||41 years[l]||Wu of Jin||Min of Jin|
|No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g]||(list)||317 CE||420 CE||103 years||Yuan of Jin||Gong of Jin|
|No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g]||(list)||420 CE||479 CE||59 years||Wu of Liu Song||Shun of Liu Song|
|No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g]||(list)||479 CE||502 CE||23 years||Gao of Southern Qi||He of Southern Qi|
|No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g]||(list)||502 CE||544 CE||42 years||Wu of Liang||Wu of Liang|
|Early Lý dynasty
Nhà Tiền Lý
|(list)[n]||544 CE||602 CE||58 years||Lý Nam Đế||Hậu Lý Nam Đế|
|No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g]||(list)||602 CE||618 CE||16 years||Wen of Sui||Gong of Sui|
|No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g]||(list)||618 CE||907 CE||274 years[p]||Gaozu of Tang||Ai of Tang|
|No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g]||(list)||690 CE||705 CE||15 years||Wu Zhao||Wu Zhao|
|No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g]||(list)||930 CE||938 CE||8 years||Gaozu of Southern Han||Gaozu of Southern Han|
|Tĩnh Hải quân
|(list)||939 CE||965 CE||26 years||Tiền Ngô Vương||Nam Tấn Vương|
Thiên Sách Vương[q]
|Đại Cồ Việt
|(list)||968 CE||980 CE||12 years||Đinh Tiên Hoàng||Đinh Phế Đế|
|Early Lê dynasty
Nhà Tiền Lê
|Đại Cồ Việt
|(list)||980 CE||1009 CE||29 years||Lê Đại Hành||Lê Ngọa Triều Đế|
Đại Cồ Việt
|(list)||1009 CE||1225 CE||216 years||Lý Thái Tổ||Lý Chiêu Hoàng|
|(list)[r]||1225 CE||1400 CE||175 years||Trần Thái Tông||Trần Thiếu Đế|
|(list)||1400 CE||1407 CE||7 years||Hồ Quý Ly||Hồ Hán Thương|
|No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g]||(list)||1407 CE||1427 CE||20 years||Yongle||Xuande|
|Later Trần dynasty
Nhà Hậu Trần
|(list)||1407 CE||1413 CE||6 years||Giản Định Đế||Trùng Quang Đế|
|Primitive Lê dynasty[t]
Nhà Lê sơ
|(list)||1428 CE||1527 CE||99 years||Lê Thái Tổ||Lê Cung Hoàng|
|(list)||1527 CE||1677 CE||150 years||Mạc Thái Tổ||Mạc Kính Vũ|
|Revival Lê dynasty[t]
Nhà Lê trung hưng
|(list)||1533 CE||1789 CE||256 years||Lê Trang Tông||Lê Chiêu Thống|
|Tây Sơn dynasty
Nhà Tây Sơn
|(list)||1778 CE||1802 CE||24 years||Thái Đức Đế||Cảnh Thịnh Đế|
|(list)||1802 CE||1945 CE||143 years||Gia Long||Bảo Đại|
Timeline of dynasties in Vietnamese historyEdit
- Chinese domination of Vietnam
- East Asian cultural sphere
- Emperor at home, king abroad
- Family tree of Vietnamese monarchs
- History of Vietnam
- Hua–Yi distinction
- List of monarchs of Vietnam
- Names of Vietnam
- Southern and Northern Dynasties (Vietnam)
- Timeline of Vietnamese history
- Timeline of Vietnam under Chinese rule
- In the case of Vietnamese dynasties, the monarchs listed were the de facto founders of dynasties. However, it was common for Vietnamese monarchs to posthumously honor earlier members of the family as monarchs. For instance, while the Trần dynasty was officially established by Trần Thái Tông, four earlier members of the ruling house were posthumously accorded imperial titles, the most senior of which was Trần Kinh who was conferred the temple name Mục Tổ (穆祖) and the posthumous name Ý Hoàng Đế (懿皇帝).
- In the case of Chinese dynasties that ruled over Vietnam, the first and last monarch to rule Vietnam could be different from the founder and the final monarch of the particular dynasty.
- The official dynastic name, or quốc hiệu (derived from the Chinese equivalent guóhào), functioned as the formal name of the state during the respective period.
- The Triệu dynasty was founded by Zhao Tuo, an ethnic Chinese from the Qin dynasty. The dynasty was considered a local regime by traditional Vietnamese historiography, while modern historians usually view the regime as foreign. In Chinese historiography, the dynasty is typically regarded as a regional regime in southern China.
- The Western Han (Tây Hán; 西漢) and the Eastern Han (Đông Hán; 東漢) are collectively known as the Han dynasty (Nhà Hán; 家漢).
- China's rule over Vietnam under the Western Han, Xin dynasty, and Eastern Han (until 40 CE) constitute the First Chinese domination of Vietnam in Vietnamese historiography.
- During periods of direct Chinese rule, Vietnam naturally did not possess an independent quốc hiệu of its own. Instead, the formal name of the realm would be the respective guóhào adopted by the Chinese dynasty that governed Vietnam at that time.
- China's rule over Vietnam under the Eastern Han (since 43 CE), Eastern Wu, Western Jin, Eastern Jin, Liu Song, Southern Qi, and Liang dynasty constitute the Second Chinese domination of Vietnam in Vietnamese historiography.
- The rule of the Eastern Han over Vietnam was interrupted by the rule of the Trưng Sisters between 40 CE and 43 CE.
- The rule of the Eastern Wu over Vietnam was interrupted by the rule of the Western Jin between 266 CE and 271 CE.
- The Western Jin (Tây Tấn; 西晉) and the Eastern Jin (Đông Tấn; 東晉) are collectively known as the Jin dynasty (Nhà Tấn; 家晉).
- The rule of the Western Jin over Vietnam was interrupted by the rule of the Eastern Wu between 271 CE and 280 CE.
- Dã Năng (野能) was the quốc hiệu adopted by the realm of Đào Lang Vương.
- As Triệu Quang Phục, surnamed Triệu (趙), was not a member of the Lý (李) clan by birth, his enthronement was not a typical dynastic succession.
- China's rule over Vietnam under the Sui dynasty, Tang dynasty, Wu Zhou, and Southern Han constitute the Third Chinese domination of Vietnam in Vietnamese historiography.
- The rule of the Tang dynasty over Vietnam was interrupted by the rule of the Wu Zhou between 690 CE and 705 CE.
- Nam Tấn Vương and Thiên Sách Vương reigned as co-rulers.
- Dương Nhật Lễ, surnamed Dương (楊), was an adopted member of the Trần (陳) clan. His enthronement was therefore not a typical dynastic succession.
- China's rule over Vietnam under the Ming dynasty constitutes the Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam in Vietnamese historiography.
- The Primitive Lê dynasty (Nhà Lê sơ; 家黎初) and the Revival Lê dynasty (Nhà Lê trung hưng; 家黎中興) are collectively known as the Later Lê dynasty (Nhà Hậu Lê; 家後黎).
- While Việt Nam (越南) was the quốc hiệu bestowed on the Nguyễn dynasty by the Jiaqing Emperor of the Qing dynasty, the Nguyễn dynasty used the name Đại Việt Nam (大越南) when it conducted foreign relations with states other than China.
- Vu, Hong Lien (2016). Rice and Baguette: A History of Food in Vietnam.
- Taylor (1983), p. 19
- Asian Perspectives, Volume 28, Issue 1 (1990), p. 36
- Yoshikai Masato, "Ancient Nam Viet in historical descriptions", Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 2, ABC-CLIO, 2004, p. 934.
- Taylor (1983), p. 135
- Walker (2012), p. 134 East Asia: A New History, p. 134, at Google Books
- Catino (2010), p. 142 The Aggressors: Ho Chi Minh, North Vietnam, and the Communist Bloc, p. 142, at Google Books
- Kohn (2006), p. 308 Dictionary of Wars, p. 320, at Google Books
- Coedès (1966), pp. 45–46 The Making of South East Asia at Google Books
- Lockhart (2010), p. 221 The A to Z of Vietnam, p. 221, at Google Books
- West (2009), p. 870 Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, p. 870, at Google Books
- Le Minh Khai (Liam Kelley Professor of Vietnam History at University of Hawaii at Manoa). The Stranger Kings of the Lý and Trần Dynasties.
Dream Pool Essays volume 25
- (in Chinese) 千年前泉州人李公蕴越南当皇帝 越南史上重要人物之一
- (in Chinese) 两安海人曾是安南皇帝 有关专家考证李公蕴、陈日煚籍属晋江安海
- Lynn Pan. The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas. Harvard University Press. p. 228. ISBN 0674252101.
- (in Vietnamese) Origin of Lý Thái Tổ
- "Ethnic origin of Kinh in Vietnam".
- "Ham sắc, Tô Trung Từ tự hại mình". Retrieved 2017-09-03.
- "Nhà Trần khởi nghiệp". Retrieved 2017-09-03.
- K. W. Taylor (9 May 2013). A History of the Vietnamese. Cambridge University Press. pp. 166–. ISBN 978-0-521-87586-8.
- Kenneth R. Hall (2008). Secondary Cities and Urban Networking in the Indian Ocean Realm, C. 1400-1800. Lexington Books. pp. 161–. ISBN 978-0-7391-2835-0.
- Trần, Xuân Sinh (2003). Thuyết Trần. p. 403.
...Quý Ly claims Hồ's ancestor to be Mãn the Duke Hồ [Man, Duke Hu], founding meritorious general of the Chu dynasty, king Ngu Thuấn's [king Shun of Yu] descendant, created his country's name Đại Ngu...
- Trần, Trọng Kim (1919). "I.III.XI.". Việt Nam sử lược. Vol.I.
Quí Ly deposed Thiếu-đế, but respected [the relationship] that he [Thiếu Đế] was his [Quí Ly's] grandson, only demoted him to prince Bảo-ninh 保寧大王, and claimed himself [Quí Ly] the Emperor, changing his surname to Hồ 胡. Originally the surname Hồ [胡 Hu] were descendants of the surname Ngu [虞 Yu] in China, so Quí Ly created a new name for his country Đại-ngu 大虞.