List of Vietnamese dynasties

Prior to the abdication of Bảo Đại on 30 August 1945 in the aftermath of the August Revolution, Vietnam was ruled by a series of dynasties of either local or Chinese origin. The following is a list of major dynasties in the history of Vietnam.

BackgroundEdit

Naming conventionEdit

In Vietnamese historiography, the names of dynasties were usually derived from the family name of the ruling house. For example, the Đinh dynasty (Nhà Đinh; 家丁) is known as such because the ruling clan bore the family name Đinh ().

Similar to Chinese dynasties, Vietnamese dynasties would adopt a quốc hiệu (國號; lit. "name of the state") upon the establishment of the realm. However, as it was common for several dynasties to share the same official name, referring to regimes by their official name in historiography would be potentially confusing. For instance, the quốc hiệu "Đại Việt" (大越) was used by the Lý dynasty (since the reign of Lý Thánh Tông), the Trần dynasty, and the Later Lê dynasty.

In the Vietnamese language, the word for "dynasty" may be written as either nhà () or triều (). For instance, the Mạc dynasty can be rendered as "Nhà Mạc" (家莫) or "Mạc triều" (莫朝).

Origin of dynastiesEdit

Apart from over one millennium of direct Chinese rule, Vietnam was ruled by a series of "local" dynasties, some of which could have their origins traced to China.

The founder of the legendary Hồng Bàng dynasty, Lộc Tục, was recorded as a descendant of the mythical Chinese ruler Shennong.[1]

According to the two historical Vietnamese texts, Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư (大越史記全書) and Khâm định Việt sử Thông giám cương mục (欽定越史通鑑綱目), Thục Phán of the Thục dynasty was originally a prince of the ancient Chinese State of Shu.[2][3]

The Triệu dynasty, established by Triệu Đà from the Qin dynasty, was considered a local regime by traditional Vietnamese historiography. However, modern Vietnamese historians generally regard the Triệu dynasty to be a foreign regime that ruled Vietnam.[4]

The founder of the Early Lý dynasty, Lý Bôn, was descended from Chinese refugees who fled Wang Mang's seizure of power in the final years of the Western Han in China.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11]

The first emperor of the Lý dynasty, Lý Công Uẩn, could have his paternal bloodline traced to modern-day Fujian, China.[12][13][14][15][16] Lý Công Uẩn's father, Lý Thuần An, escaped to Quanzhou from Hebei after Lý Công Uẩn's grandfather, Li Song, was wrongly accused of treason and executed by the Emperor Yin of Later Han.[17][18]

The origin of the Trần dynasty was traced to modern Fujian, where the ancestor of the Trần imperial clan, Trần Kính, migrated from in the 11th century CE.[19][20] The Later Trần dynasty was ruled by the same imperial clan as the earlier Trần dynasty.

The Hồ dynasty claimed descent from the Duke Hu of Chen, the founder of the ancient Chinese State of Chen.[21][22] The Duke Hu of Chen was in turn descended from the legendary Emperor Shun, who was recognized by Hồ Quý Ly as the progenitor of the Hồ imperial family.[23][24] Accordingly, the Hồ dynasty adopted the official quốc hiệu "Đại Ngu" (大虞; lit. "Great Ngu"); "Ngu" () was derived from the Emperor Shun's lineage name, Youyu (有虞). The Hồ family migrated from present-day Zhejiang, China to Vietnam under Hồ Hưng Dật during the 10th century CE.[18]

ChampaEdit

Champa (Chăm Pa; 占婆) existed as an independent polity until its annexation by the Nguyễn dynasty in 1832 CE, thereby laying the foundation for the territories of the modern Vietnamese state. The rulers of Champa were of Cham descent, an Austronesian ethnic group distinct from the majority Kinh ethnicity of Vietnam.

There were 15 dynasties in the history of Champa. According to Chinese historical sources, Champa officially used the quốc hiệu "Lâm Ấp" (林邑) from the 1st to 4th dynasties, "Hoàn Vương" (環王) during the 5th dynasty, and "Chiêm Thành" (占城) from the 6th to 15th dynasties.

List of dynasties in Vietnamese historyEdit

This list includes the various dynasties in the history of Vietnam, of both local and Chinese origins. Dynasties of China that ruled Vietnam are highlighted in orange. The Triệu dynasty is highlighted in light orange due to its disputed status.

Dynasty Rulers Period of rule First to rule[a][b] Last to rule[b]
Historiographical name
(English / Vietnamese / Hán Nôm)
Official dynastic name[c]
(Vietnamese / Hán Nôm)
From To Term
Hồng Bàng dynasty
Hồng Bàng thị
鴻龐氏
2879–2524 BCE:
Xích Quỷ
赤鬼
2524–258 BCE:
Văn Lang
文郎
(list) 2879 BCE 258 BCE 2621 years Kinh Dương Vương Hùng Duệ Vương
Thục dynasty
Nhà Thục
家蜀
Âu Lạc
甌雒
(list) 257 BCE 207 BCE 50 years An Dương Vương An Dương Vương
Triệu dynasty[d]
Nhà Triệu
家趙
Nam Việt
南越
(list) 204 BCE 111 BCE 93 years Wu of Nanyue Zhao Jiande
Western Han[e][f]
Tây Hán
西漢
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g] (list) 111 BCE 9 CE 120 years Wu of Han Liu Ying
Xin dynasty[f]
Nhà Tân
家新
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g] (list) 9 CE 23 CE 14 years Wang Mang Wang Mang
Eastern Han[e][f][h]
Đông Hán
東漢
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g] (list) 25 CE 220 CE 192 years[i] Guangwu of Han Xian of Han
Eastern Wu[h]
Đông Ngô
東吳
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g] (list) 229 CE 280 CE 45 years[j] Da of Eastern Wu Sun Hao
Western Jin[k][h]
Tây Tấn
西晉
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g] (list) 266 CE 316 CE 41 years[l] Wu of Jin Min of Jin
Eastern Jin[k][h]
Đông Tấn
東晉
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g] (list) 317 CE 420 CE 103 years Yuan of Jin Gong of Jin
Liu Song[h]
Lưu Tống
劉宋
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g] (list) 420 CE 479 CE 59 years Wu of Liu Song Shun of Liu Song
Southern Qi[h]
Nam Tề
南齊
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g] (list) 479 CE 502 CE 23 years Gao of Southern Qi He of Southern Qi
Liang dynasty[h]
Nhà Lương
家梁
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g] (list) 502 CE 544 CE 42 years Wu of Liang Wu of Liang
Early Lý dynasty
Nhà Tiền Lý
家前李
Vạn Xuân[m]
萬春
(list)[n] 544 CE 602 CE 58 years Lý Nam Đế Hậu Lý Nam Đế
Sui dynasty[o]
Nhà Tùy
家隋
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g] (list) 602 CE 618 CE 16 years Wen of Sui Gong of Sui
Tang dynasty[o]
Nhà Đường
家唐
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g] (list) 618 CE 907 CE 274 years[p] Gaozu of Tang Ai of Tang
Wu Zhou[o]
Võ Chu
武周
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g] (list) 690 CE 705 CE 15 years Wu Zhao Wu Zhao
Southern Han[o]
Nam Hán
南漢
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g] (list) 930 CE 938 CE 8 years Gaozu of Southern Han Gaozu of Southern Han
Ngô dynasty
Nhà Ngô
家吳
Tĩnh Hải quân
靜海軍
(list) 939 CE 965 CE 26 years Tiền Ngô Vương Nam Tấn Vương
and
Thiên Sách Vương[q]
Đinh dynasty
Nhà Đinh
家丁
Đại Cồ Việt
大瞿越
(list) 968 CE 980 CE 12 years Đinh Tiên Hoàng Đinh Phế Đế
Early Lê dynasty
Nhà Tiền Lê
家前黎
Đại Cồ Việt
大瞿越
(list) 980 CE 1009 CE 29 years Lê Đại Hành Lê Ngọa Triều Đế
Lý dynasty
Nhà Lý
家李
1009–1054 CE:
Đại Cồ Việt
大瞿越
1054–1225 CE:
Đại Việt
大越
(list) 1009 CE 1225 CE 216 years Lý Thái Tổ Lý Chiêu Hoàng
Trần dynasty
Nhà Trần
家陳
Đại Việt
大越
(list)[r] 1225 CE 1400 CE 175 years Trần Thái Tông Trần Thiếu Đế
Hồ dynasty
Nhà Hồ
家胡
Đại Ngu
大虞
(list) 1400 CE 1407 CE 7 years Hồ Quý Ly Hồ Hán Thương
Ming dynasty[s]
Nhà Minh
家明
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[g] (list) 1407 CE 1427 CE 20 years Yongle Xuande
Later Trần dynasty
Nhà Hậu Trần
家後陳
Đại Việt
大越
(list) 1407 CE 1413 CE 6 years Giản Định Đế Trùng Quang Đế
Primitive Lê dynasty[t]
Nhà Lê sơ
家黎初
Đại Việt
大越
(list) 1428 CE 1527 CE 99 years Lê Thái Tổ Lê Cung Hoàng
Mạc dynasty
Nhà Mạc
家莫
Đại Việt
大越
(list) 1527 CE 1677 CE 150 years Mạc Thái Tổ Mạc Kính Vũ
Revival Lê dynasty[t]
Nhà Lê trung hưng
家黎中興
Đại Việt
大越
(list) 1533 CE 1789 CE 256 years Lê Trang Tông Lê Chiêu Thống
Tây Sơn dynasty
Nhà Tây Sơn
家西山
Đại Việt
大越
(list) 1778 CE 1802 CE 24 years Thái Đức Đế Cảnh Thịnh Đế
Nguyễn dynasty
Nhà Nguyễn
家阮
1802–1804 CE:
Nam Việt
南越
1804–1839 CE:
Việt Nam[u]
越南
1839–1945 CE:
Đại Nam
大南
(list) 1802 CE 1945 CE 143 years Gia Long Bảo Đại

Timeline of dynasties in Vietnamese historyEdit

Nguyễn dynastyTây Sơn dynastyRevival Lê dynastyMạc dynastyLê dynastyLater Trần dynastyMing dynastyHồ dynastyTrần dynastyLý dynastyEarly Lê dynastyĐinh dynastyNgô dynastySouthern HanTang dynastyZhou dynasty (690–705)Tang dynastySui dynastyEarly Lý dynastyLiang dynastySouthern QiLiu Song dynastyJin dynasty (266–420)#Eastern JinJin dynasty (266–420)Eastern WuJin dynasty (266–420)Eastern WuHan dynasty#Eastern HanHan dynasty#Eastern HanXin dynastyHan dynasty#Western HanTriệu dynastyThục dynastyHồng Bàng dynasty 

Legend:

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ In the case of Vietnamese dynasties, the monarchs listed were the de facto founders of dynasties. However, it was common for Vietnamese monarchs to posthumously honor earlier members of the family as monarchs. For instance, while the Trần dynasty was officially established by Trần Thái Tông, four earlier members of the ruling house were posthumously accorded imperial titles, the most senior of which was Trần Kinh who was conferred the temple name Mục Tổ (穆祖) and the posthumous name Ý Hoàng Đế (懿皇帝).
  2. ^ a b In the case of Chinese dynasties that ruled over Vietnam, the first and last monarch to rule Vietnam could be different from the founder and the final monarch of the particular dynasty.
  3. ^ The official dynastic name, or quốc hiệu (derived from the Chinese equivalent guóhào), functioned as the formal name of the state during the respective period.
  4. ^ The Triệu dynasty was founded by Zhao Tuo, an ethnic Chinese from the Qin dynasty. The dynasty was considered a local regime by traditional Vietnamese historiography, while modern historians usually view the regime as foreign.[4] In Chinese historiography, the dynasty is typically regarded as a regional regime in southern China.
  5. ^ a b The Western Han (Tây Hán; 西漢) and the Eastern Han (Đông Hán; 東漢) are collectively known as the Han dynasty (Nhà Hán; 家漢).
  6. ^ a b c China's rule over Vietnam under the Western Han, Xin dynasty, and Eastern Han (until 40 CE) constitute the First Chinese domination of Vietnam in Vietnamese historiography.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n During periods of direct Chinese rule, Vietnam naturally did not possess an independent quốc hiệu of its own. Instead, the formal name of the realm would be the respective guóhào adopted by the Chinese dynasty that governed Vietnam at that time.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g China's rule over Vietnam under the Eastern Han (since 43 CE), Eastern Wu, Western Jin, Eastern Jin, Liu Song, Southern Qi, and Liang dynasty constitute the Second Chinese domination of Vietnam in Vietnamese historiography.
  9. ^ The rule of the Eastern Han over Vietnam was interrupted by the rule of the Trưng Sisters between 40 CE and 43 CE.
  10. ^ The rule of the Eastern Wu over Vietnam was interrupted by the rule of the Western Jin between 266 CE and 271 CE.
  11. ^ a b The Western Jin (Tây Tấn; 西晉) and the Eastern Jin (Đông Tấn; 東晉) are collectively known as the Jin dynasty (Nhà Tấn; 家晉).
  12. ^ The rule of the Western Jin over Vietnam was interrupted by the rule of the Eastern Wu between 271 CE and 280 CE.
  13. ^ Dã Năng (野能) was the quốc hiệu adopted by the realm of Đào Lang Vương.
  14. ^ As Triệu Quang Phục, surnamed Triệu (), was not a member of the () clan by birth, his enthronement was not a typical dynastic succession.
  15. ^ a b c d China's rule over Vietnam under the Sui dynasty, Tang dynasty, Wu Zhou, and Southern Han constitute the Third Chinese domination of Vietnam in Vietnamese historiography.
  16. ^ The rule of the Tang dynasty over Vietnam was interrupted by the rule of the Wu Zhou between 690 CE and 705 CE.
  17. ^ Nam Tấn Vương and Thiên Sách Vương reigned as co-rulers.
  18. ^ Dương Nhật Lễ, surnamed Dương (), was an adopted member of the Trần () clan. His enthronement was therefore not a typical dynastic succession.
  19. ^ China's rule over Vietnam under the Ming dynasty constitutes the Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam in Vietnamese historiography.
  20. ^ a b The Primitive Lê dynasty (Nhà Lê sơ; 家黎初) and the Revival Lê dynasty (Nhà Lê trung hưng; 家黎中興) are collectively known as the Later Lê dynasty (Nhà Hậu Lê; 家後黎).
  21. ^ While Việt Nam (越南) was the quốc hiệu bestowed on the Nguyễn dynasty by the Jiaqing Emperor of the Qing dynasty, the Nguyễn dynasty used the name Đại Việt Nam (大越南) when it conducted foreign relations with states other than China.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Vu, Hong Lien (2016). Rice and Baguette: A History of Food in Vietnam.
  2. ^ Taylor (1983), p. 19
  3. ^ Asian Perspectives, Volume 28, Issue 1 (1990), p. 36
  4. ^ a b Yoshikai Masato, "Ancient Nam Viet in historical descriptions", Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 2, ABC-CLIO, 2004, p. 934.
  5. ^ Taylor (1983), p. 135
  6. ^ Walker (2012), p. 134 East Asia: A New History, p. 134, at Google Books
  7. ^ Catino (2010), p. 142 The Aggressors: Ho Chi Minh, North Vietnam, and the Communist Bloc, p. 142, at Google Books
  8. ^ Kohn (2006), p. 308 Dictionary of Wars, p. 320, at Google Books
  9. ^ Coedès (1966), pp. 45–46 The Making of South East Asia at Google Books
  10. ^ Lockhart (2010), p. 221 The A to Z of Vietnam, p. 221, at Google Books
  11. ^ West (2009), p. 870 Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, p. 870, at Google Books
  12. ^ Le Minh Khai (Liam Kelley Professor of Vietnam History at University of Hawaii at Manoa). The Stranger Kings of the Lý and Trần Dynasties.
  13. ^

    Dream Pool Essays volume 25

    Classical Chinese :桓死、安南大亂、久無酋長。其後國人共立閩人李公蘊為主。夢溪筆談 卷25  Chinese Wikisource has original text related to this article: 夢溪筆談/卷25

  14. ^ (in Chinese) 千年前泉州人李公蕴越南当皇帝 越南史上重要人物之一
  15. ^ (in Chinese) 两安海人曾是安南皇帝 有关专家考证李公蕴、陈日煚籍属晋江安海
  16. ^ Lynn Pan. The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas. Harvard University Press. p. 228. ISBN 0674252101.
  17. ^ (in Vietnamese) Origin of Lý Thái Tổ
  18. ^ a b "Ethnic origin of Kinh in Vietnam".
  19. ^ "Ham sắc, Tô Trung Từ tự hại mình". Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  20. ^ "Nhà Trần khởi nghiệp". Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  21. ^ K. W. Taylor (9 May 2013). A History of the Vietnamese. Cambridge University Press. pp. 166–. ISBN 978-0-521-87586-8.
  22. ^ Kenneth R. Hall (2008). Secondary Cities and Urban Networking in the Indian Ocean Realm, C. 1400-1800. Lexington Books. pp. 161–. ISBN 978-0-7391-2835-0.
  23. ^ Trần, Xuân Sinh (2003). Thuyết Trần. p. 403. ...Quý Ly claims Hồ's ancestor to be Mãn the Duke Hồ [Man, Duke Hu], founding meritorious general of the Chu dynasty, king Ngu Thuấn's [king Shun of Yu] descendant, created his country's name Đại Ngu...
  24. ^ Trần, Trọng Kim (1919). "I.III.XI.". Việt Nam sử lược. Vol.I. Quí Ly deposed Thiếu-đế, but respected [the relationship] that he [Thiếu Đế] was his [Quí Ly's] grandson, only demoted him to prince Bảo-ninh 保寧大王, and claimed himself [Quí Ly] the Emperor, changing his surname to Hồ . Originally the surname Hồ [ Hu] were descendants of the surname Ngu [ Yu] in China, so Quí Ly created a new name for his country Đại-ngu 大虞.