List of Vietnamese dynasties

Prior to the abdication of Bảo Đại on 30 August 1945 in the aftermath of the August Revolution, Vietnam was ruled by a series of dynasties of either local or Chinese origin. The following is a list of major dynasties in the history of Vietnam.

BackgroundEdit

Naming conventionEdit

In Vietnamese historiography, dynasties are generally known to historians by the family name of the monarchs. For example, the Đinh dynasty (Nhà Đinh; 茹丁) is known as such because the ruling clan bore the family name Đinh ().

Similar to Chinese dynasties, Vietnamese dynasties would adopt a quốc hiệu (國號; "name of the state") upon the establishment of the realm. However, as it was common for several dynasties to share the same official name, referring to regimes by their official name in historiography would be potentially confusing. For instance, the quốc hiệu "Đại Việt" (大越) was used by the Lý dynasty (since the reign of Lý Thánh Tông), the Trần dynasty, the Later Trần dynasty, the Later Lê dynasty, the Mạc dynasty, and the Tây Sơn dynasty.

In the Vietnamese language, the word for "dynasty" may be written as either nhà () or triều () depending on the context. The former is generally used to denote the ruling family whereas the latter refers to the dynastic regime. For instance, the Mạc dynasty can be rendered as "Nhà Mạc" (茹莫) or "Mạc triều" (莫朝).

Origin of dynastiesEdit

Apart from over one millennium of direct Chinese rule, Vietnam was ruled by a series of "local" dynasties, although some of which could have their origins traced to China.

The founder of the legendary Hồng Bàng dynasty, Lộc Tục, was recorded as a descendant of the mythical Chinese ruler Shennong.[1]

According to two historical Vietnamese texts, the Complete Annals of Đại Việt and the Imperially-commissioned Annotated Text Reflecting the Complete History of Việt, Thục Phán of the Thục dynasty was from Sichuan, China, which was previously under the rule of the ancient Chinese State of Shu.[2][3]

The Triệu dynasty, established by Zhao Tuo from the Chinese Qin dynasty,[4][5] was considered an orthodox local regime by traditional Vietnamese historiography. However, modern Vietnamese historians generally regard the Triệu dynasty to be a foreign regime that ruled Vietnam.[6]

The founder of the Early Lý dynasty, Lý Bôn, was descended from Chinese refugees who fled Wang Mang's seizure of power in the final years of the Western Han in China.[7][8][9][10][11][12][13]

The first emperor of the Lý dynasty, Lý Công Uẩn, could have his paternal bloodline traced to modern-day Fujian, China.[14][15][16][17][18] Lý Công Uẩn's father, Lý Thuần An, escaped to Quanzhou from Hebei after Lý Công Uẩn's grandfather, Li Song, was wrongly accused of treason and executed by the Emperor Yin of Later Han.[19][20]

The origin of the Trần dynasty was traced to modern Fujian, where the ancestor of the Trần imperial clan, Trần Kính, migrated from in the 11th century CE.[21][22] The Later Trần dynasty was ruled by the same imperial clan as the earlier Trần dynasty.

The Hồ dynasty was ruled by the Hồ family which migrated from present-day Zhejiang, China to Vietnam under the leadership of Hồ Hưng Dật during the 10th century CE.[20] The Hồ dynasty claimed descent from the Duke Hu of Chen, the founder of the ancient Chinese State of Chen.[23][24] The Duke Hu of Chen was in turn descended from the legendary Emperor Shun, who was recognized by Hồ Quý Ly as the progenitor of the Hồ imperial family.[25][26] Accordingly, the Hồ dynasty adopted the official quốc hiệu "Đại Ngu" (大虞; "Great Ngu"); "Ngu" () was derived from the Emperor Shun's lineage name, Youyu (有虞). Rulers of the Tây Sơn dynasty, initially surnamed Hồ, were descended from the same line as the Hồ dynasty.[27]

Familial relations among dynastiesEdit

Several Vietnamese dynasties were related:

ChampaEdit

Champa (Chăm Pa; 占婆) existed as an independent polity until its annexation by the Nguyễn dynasty in 1832 CE, thereby laying the foundation for the territories of the modern Vietnamese state. Most of the rulers of Champa were of Cham descent, an Austronesian ethnic group distinct from the majority Kinh ethnicity of Vietnam.

There were 15 dynasties in the history of Champa. According to Chinese historical sources, Champa officially used the quốc hiệu "Lâm Ấp" (林邑) from the 1st to 4th dynasties, "Hoàn Vương" (環王) during the 5th dynasty, and "Chiêm Thành" (占城) from the 6th to 15th dynasties.

List of dynasties in Vietnamese historyEdit

This list includes the various dynasties in the history of Vietnam, of both local and Chinese origins. Dynasties of China that ruled Vietnam are highlighted in orange. The Triệu dynasty is highlighted in light orange due to its disputed status.

Dynasty Period of rule Status[a] Rulers
Historiographical name
(English / Chữ Quốc ngữ / Hán Nôm)
Official name[b]
(Chữ Quốc ngữ / Hán Nôm)
From To Term Surname First to rule[c][d] Last to rule[d] List
Hồng Bàng dynasty
Hồng Bàng thị
鴻龐氏
2879–2524 BCE:
Xích Quỷ
赤鬼
2524–258 BCE:
Văn Lang
文郎
2879 BCE 258 BCE 2621 years Royal Kinh Dương Vương Hùng Duệ Vương (list)
Thục dynasty
Nhà Thục
茹蜀
Âu Lạc
甌雒
257 BCE 207 BCE[e] 50 years[e] Royal Khai Minh
開明
An Dương Vương An Dương Vương (list)
Triệu dynasty[f]
Nhà Triệu
茹趙
Nam Việt
南越
204 BCE 111 BCE 93 years 204–180 BCE; 125–111 BCE:
Royal
180–125 BCE:
Imperial[g]
Zhao
Wu of Nanyue Zhao Jiande (list)
Western Han[h][i]
Tây Hán
西漢
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 111 BCE 9 CE 120 years Imperial Liu
Wu of Han Liu Ying[k] (list)
Xin dynasty[i]
Nhà Tân
茹新
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 9 CE 23 CE 14 years Imperial Wang
Wang Mang Wang Mang (list)
Eastern Han[h][i][l]
Đông Hán
東漢
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 25 CE 220 CE 192 years[m] Imperial Liu
Guangwu of Han Xian of Han (list)
Eastern Wu[l]
Đông Ngô
東吳
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 229 CE 280 CE 45 years[n] Imperial Sun
Da of Eastern Wu Sun Hao (list)
Western Jin[o][l]
Tây Tấn
西晉
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 266 CE 316 CE 41 years[p] Imperial Sima
司馬
Wu of Jin Min of Jin (list)
Eastern Jin[o][l]
Đông Tấn
東晉
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 317 CE 420 CE 103 years Imperial Sima
司馬
Yuan of Jin Gong of Jin (list)
Liu Song[l]
Lưu Tống
劉宋
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 420 CE 479 CE 59 years Imperial Liu
Wu of Liu Song Shun of Liu Song (list)
Southern Qi[l]
Nam Tề
南齊
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 479 CE 502 CE 23 years Imperial Xiao
Gao of Southern Qi He of Southern Qi (list)
Liang dynasty[l]
Nhà Lương
茹梁
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 502 CE 544 CE 42 years Imperial Xiao
Wu of Liang Wu of Liang (list)
Early Lý dynasty
Nhà Tiền Lý
茹前李
Vạn Xuân[q]
萬春
544 CE 602 CE 58 years Imperial [r]
Lý Bôn Lý Phật Tử (list)
Sui dynasty[s]
Nhà Tùy
茹隋
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 602 CE 618 CE 16 years Imperial Yang
Wen of Sui Yang of Sui (list)
Tang dynasty[s]
Nhà Đường
茹唐
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 621 CE 907 CE 271 years[t] Imperial Li
Gaozu of Tang Ai of Tang (list)
Wu Zhou[s]
Võ Chu
武周
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 690 CE 705 CE 15 years Imperial Wu
Wu Zhao Wu Zhao (list)
Southern Han[s]
Nam Hán
南漢
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 930 CE 938 CE 8 years Imperial Liu
Gaozu of Southern Han Gaozu of Southern Han (list)
Ngô dynasty
Nhà Ngô
茹吳
Tĩnh Hải quân
靜海軍
939 CE 965 CE 26 years Royal Ngô[u]
Tiền Ngô Vương Nam Tấn Vương
(co-ruler)
Thiên Sách Vương
(co-ruler)
(list)
Đinh dynasty
Nhà Đinh
茹丁
Đại Cồ Việt
大瞿越
968 CE 980 CE 12 years Imperial[v] Đinh
Đinh Tiên Hoàng Đinh Toàn (list)
Early Lê dynasty
Nhà Tiền Lê
茹前黎
Đại Cồ Việt
大瞿越
980 CE 1009 CE 29 years Imperial[v]
Lê Hoàn Lê Long Đĩnh (list)
Lý dynasty
Nhà Lý
茹李
1009–1054 CE:
Đại Cồ Việt
大瞿越
1054–1225 CE:
Đại Việt
大越
1009 CE 1225 CE 216 years Imperial[v]
Lý Thái Tổ Lý Chiêu Hoàng (list)
Trần dynasty
Nhà Trần
茹陳
Đại Việt
大越
1225 CE 1400 CE 175 years Imperial[v] Trần[w]
Trần Thái Tông Trần An (list)
Hồ dynasty
Nhà Hồ
茹胡
Đại Ngu
大虞
1400 CE 1407 CE 7 years Imperial[v] Hồ[x]
Hồ Quý Ly Hồ Hán Thương (list)
Ming dynasty[y]
Nhà Minh
茹明
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 1407 CE 1427 CE 20 years Imperial Zhu
Yongle Xuande (list)
Later Trần dynasty
Nhà Hậu Trần
茹後陳
Đại Việt
大越
1407 CE 1413 CE 6 years Imperial[v] Trần
Giản Định Đế Trùng Quang Đế (list)
Primitive Lê dynasty[z]
Nhà Lê sơ
茹黎初
Đại Việt
大越
1428 CE 1527 CE 99 years Imperial[v]
Lê Thái Tổ Lê Cung Hoàng (list)
Mạc dynasty[aa]
Nhà Mạc
茹莫
Đại Việt
大越
1527 CE 1677 CE 150 years Imperial[v] Mạc
Mạc Thái Tổ Mạc Kính Vũ (list)
Revival Lê dynasty[z][aa]
Nhà Lê trung hưng
茹黎中興
Đại Việt
大越
1533 CE 1789 CE 256 years Imperial[v]
Lê Trang Tông Lê Mẫn Đế (list)
Tây Sơn dynasty
Nhà Tây Sơn
茹西山
Đại Việt
大越
1778 CE 1802 CE 24 years Imperial[v] Nguyễn[ab]
Thái Đức Đế Cảnh Thịnh Đế (list)
Nguyễn dynasty[ac]
Nhà Nguyễn
茹阮
1802–1804 CE:
Nam Việt
南越
1804–1839 CE:
Việt Nam[ad]
越南
1839–1945 CE:
Đại Nam
大南
1945 CE:
Đế quốc Việt Nam
帝國越南
1802 CE 1945 CE[29] 143 years Imperial[v] Nguyễn Phúc[ae]
阮福
Gia Long Đế Bảo Đại Đế (list)

Timeline of dynasties in Vietnamese historyEdit

Nguyễn dynastyTây Sơn dynastyLê dynastyMạc dynastyLê dynastyLater Trần dynastyMing dynastyHồ dynastyTrần dynastyLý dynastyEarly Lê dynastyĐinh dynastyNgô dynastySouthern HanTang dynastyZhou dynasty (690–705)Tang dynastySui dynastyEarly Lý dynastyLiang dynastySouthern QiLiu Song dynastyJin dynasty (266–420)#Eastern JinJin dynasty (266–420)Eastern WuJin dynasty (266–420)Eastern WuHan dynasty#Eastern HanHan dynasty#Eastern HanXin dynastyHan dynasty#Western HanTriệu dynastyThục dynastyHồng Bàng dynasty

Legend:

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The status of a dynasty was dependent upon the chief title bore by its monarch at any given time. For instance, since all monarchs of the Ngô dynasty held the title of king during their reign, the Ngô dynasty was of royal status.
  2. ^ The official dynastic name, or quốc hiệu (derived from the Chinese equivalent guóhào), functioned as the formal name of the state during the respective period.
  3. ^ In the case of Vietnamese dynasties, the monarchs listed were the de facto founders of dynasties. However, it was common for Vietnamese monarchs to posthumously honor earlier members of the family as monarchs. For instance, while the Trần dynasty was officially established by Trần Thái Tông, four earlier members of the ruling house were posthumously accorded imperial titles, the most senior of which was Trần Kinh who was conferred the temple name Mục Tổ (穆祖) and the posthumous name Ý Hoàng Đế (懿皇帝).
  4. ^ a b In the case of Chinese dynasties that ruled over Vietnam, the first and last monarch to rule Vietnam could be different from the founder and the final monarch of the particular dynasty. For instance, while the first and last monarch of the Ming dynasty to rule over Vietnam was the Yongle Emperor and Xuande Emperor respectively, the actual founder of the Ming dynasty was the Hongwu Emperor and the actual final Ming monarch was the Chongzhen Emperor.
  5. ^ a b Alternative sources identify the rule of the Thục dynasty as having ended in 179 BCE, for a length of 78 years.
  6. ^ The Triệu dynasty was founded by Zhao Tuo, an ethnic Chinese from the Qin dynasty.[4][5] The dynasty was considered a local regime by traditional Vietnamese historiography, while modern historians usually view the regime as foreign.[6] In Chinese historiography, the dynasty is typically regarded as a regional regime in southern China.
  7. ^ While the Emperor Wu of Nanyue and the Emperor Wen of Nanyue claimed imperial title domestically, they adopted royal title when dealing with the Western Han.
  8. ^ a b The Western Han (Tây Hán; 西漢) and the Eastern Han (Đông Hán; 東漢) are collectively known as the Han dynasty (Nhà Hán; 茹漢).
  9. ^ a b c China's rule over Vietnam under the Western Han, the Xin dynasty, and the Eastern Han (until 40 CE) constitute the First Chinese domination of Vietnam in Vietnamese historiography.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n During periods of direct Chinese rule, Vietnam naturally did not possess an independent quốc hiệu of its own. Instead, the formal name of the realm would be the respective guóhào adopted by the Chinese dynasty that governed Vietnam at that time.
  11. ^ Liu Ying was not officially enthroned and maintained the title huáng tàizǐ (皇太子; "crown prince") during the regency of Wang Mang.[28] The last Western Han monarch that ruled over Vietnam who was officially enthroned was the Emperor Ping of Han.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g China's rule over Vietnam under the Eastern Han (since 43 CE), the Eastern Wu, the Western Jin, the Eastern Jin, the Liu Song, the Southern Qi, and the Liang dynasty constitute the Second Chinese domination of Vietnam in Vietnamese historiography.
  13. ^ The rule of the Eastern Han over Vietnam was interrupted by the rule of the Trưng Sisters between 40 CE and 43 CE.
  14. ^ The rule of the Eastern Wu over Vietnam was interrupted by the rule of the Western Jin between 266 CE and 271 CE.
  15. ^ a b The Western Jin (Tây Tấn; 西晉) and the Eastern Jin (Đông Tấn; 東晉) are collectively known as the Jin dynasty (Nhà Tấn; 茹晉).
  16. ^ The rule of the Western Jin over Vietnam was interrupted by the rule of the Eastern Wu between 271 CE and 280 CE.
  17. ^ Dã Năng (野能) was the quốc hiệu adopted by the realm of Đào Lang Vương.
  18. ^ As Triệu Quang Phục, surnamed Triệu (), was not a member of the () clan by birth, his enthronement was not a typical dynastic succession.
  19. ^ a b c d China's rule over Vietnam under the Sui dynasty, the Tang dynasty, the Wu Zhou, and the Southern Han constitute the Third Chinese domination of Vietnam in Vietnamese historiography.
  20. ^ The rule of the Tang dynasty over Vietnam was interrupted by the rule of the Wu Zhou between 690 CE and 705 CE.
  21. ^ As Dương Tam Kha, surnamed Dương (), was not a member of the Ngô () clan by birth, his enthronement was not a typical dynastic succession.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k While Vietnamese rulers used the imperial title of hoàng đế (皇帝; "emperor") domestically, they adopted the royal title of vương (; "king") or quốc vương (國王; "king of state") when dealing with China—a policy historians have termed "emperor at home, king abroad".
  23. ^ Dương Nhật Lễ, surnamed Dương (), was an adopted member of the Trần () clan. His enthronement was therefore not a typical dynastic succession.
  24. ^ The ruling house of the Hồ dynasty initially bore the surname Hồ (). Hồ Liêm later adopted () as the surname. Hồ Quý Ly subsequently restored the surname Hồ after the establishment of the Hồ dynasty.
  25. ^ China's rule over Vietnam under the Ming dynasty constitutes the Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam in Vietnamese historiography.
  26. ^ a b The Primitive Lê dynasty (Nhà Lê sơ; 茹黎初) and the Revival Lê dynasty (Nhà Lê trung hưng; 茹黎中興) are collectively known as the Later Lê dynasty (Nhà Hậu Lê; 茹後黎).
  27. ^ a b The period from 1533 CE to 1592 CE is known in historiography as the Southern and Northern Dynasties (Nam-Bắc triều; 南北朝). The period began with the establishment of the Revival Lê dynasty and ended with the defeat of the Mạc dynasty, resulting in the Mạc retreat to Cao Bằng where it continued to rule until 1677 CE.
  28. ^ The ruling house of the Tây Sơn dynasty initially bore the surname Hồ (). Nguyễn () was subsequently adopted as the surname by Thái Đức Đế prior to the establishment of the Tây Sơn dynasty.
  29. ^ From 1883 CE to 1945 CE, Nguyễn monarchs nominally ruled over the French protectorates of Annam and Tonkin. In 1945 CE, the last Nguyễn monarch, Bảo Đại Đế, served as the nominal ruler of the Japanese-dominated Empire of Vietnam.
  30. ^ While Việt Nam (越南) was the quốc hiệu bestowed on the Nguyễn dynasty by the Jiaqing Emperor of the Qing dynasty, the Nguyễn dynasty used the name Đại Việt Nam (大越南) when it conducted foreign relations with states other than China.
  31. ^ The ruling house of the Nguyễn dynasty initially bore the surname Nguyễn (). Nguyễn Phúc (阮福) was subsequently adopted as the surname by Nguyễn Thái Tổ prior to the establishment of the Nguyễn dynasty.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Vu, Hong Lien (2016). Rice and Baguette: A History of Food in Vietnam. ISBN 9781780237046.
  2. ^ Taylor (1983), p. 19
  3. ^ Asian Perspectives, Volume 28, Issue 1 (1990), p. 36
  4. ^ a b Wicks, Robert (2018). Money, Markets, and Trade in Early Southeast Asia: The Development of Indigenous Monetary Systems to AD 1400. p. 27. ISBN 9781501719479.
  5. ^ a b Walker, Hugh (2012). East Asia: A New History. p. 107. ISBN 9781477265178.
  6. ^ a b Yoshikai Masato, "Ancient Nam Viet in historical descriptions", Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 2, ABC-CLIO, 2004, p. 934.
  7. ^ Taylor (1983), p. 135
  8. ^ Walker (2012), p. 134 East Asia: A New History, p. 134, at Google Books
  9. ^ Catino (2010), p. 142 The Aggressors: Ho Chi Minh, North Vietnam, and the Communist Bloc, p. 142, at Google Books
  10. ^ Kohn (2006), p. 308 Dictionary of Wars, p. 320, at Google Books
  11. ^ Coedès (1966), pp. 45–46 The Making of South East Asia at Google Books
  12. ^ Lockhart (2010), p. 221 The A to Z of Vietnam, p. 221, at Google Books
  13. ^ West (2009), p. 870 Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, p. 870, at Google Books
  14. ^ Le Minh Khai (Liam Kelley Professor of Vietnam History at University of Hawaii at Manoa). The Stranger Kings of the Lý and Trần Dynasties. Archived from the original on 2016-03-11. Retrieved 2019-10-21.
  15. ^

    Dream Pool Essays volume 25

    Classical Chinese :桓死、安南大亂、久無酋長。其後國人共立閩人李公蘊為主。

    夢溪筆談 卷25  Chinese Wikisource has original text related to this article: 夢溪筆談/卷25

  16. ^ (in Chinese) 千年前泉州人李公蕴越南当皇帝 越南史上重要人物之一
  17. ^ (in Chinese) 两安海人曾是安南皇帝 有关专家考证李公蕴、陈日煚籍属晋江安海
  18. ^ Lynn Pan (1998). The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas. Harvard University Press. p. 228. ISBN 0674252101.
  19. ^ (in Vietnamese) Origin of Lý Thái Tổ
  20. ^ a b "Ethnic origin of Kinh in Vietnam".
  21. ^ "Ham sắc, Tô Trung Từ tự hại mình". Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  22. ^ "Nhà Trần khởi nghiệp". Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  23. ^ K. W. Taylor (9 May 2013). A History of the Vietnamese. Cambridge University Press. pp. 166–. ISBN 978-0-521-87586-8.
  24. ^ Kenneth R. Hall (2008). Secondary Cities and Urban Networking in the Indian Ocean Realm, C. 1400-1800. Lexington Books. pp. 161–. ISBN 978-0-7391-2835-0.
  25. ^ Trần, Xuân Sinh (2003). Thuyết Trần. p. 403. ...Quý Ly claims Hồ's ancestor to be Mãn the Duke Hồ [Man, Duke Hu], founding meritorious general of the Chu dynasty, king Ngu Thuấn's [king Shun of Yu] descendant, created his country's name Đại Ngu...
  26. ^ Trần, Trọng Kim (1919). "I.III.XI.". Việt Nam sử lược. Vol.I. Quí Ly deposed Thiếu-đế, but respected [the relationship] that he [Thiếu Đế] was his [Quí Ly's] grandson, only demoted him to prince Bảo-ninh 保寧大王, and claimed himself [Quí Ly] the Emperor, changing his surname to Hồ . Originally the surname Hồ [ Hu] were descendants of the surname Ngu [ Yu] in China, so Quí Ly created a new name for his country Đại-ngu 大虞. |volume= has extra text (help)
  27. ^ Social Issues in Area Studies Perspectives: Theory and Cases. 2010. p. 112. ISBN 9789797995447.
  28. ^ Wang, Jiafan (1999). 中华古文明史辞典. p. 490. ISBN 9787805182773.
  29. ^ "Imperial Archives of Nguyen Dynasty (1802-1945)". United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.