Jiaozhi Province

Jiaozhi Province was a province of the Ming dynasty that existed during its brief occupation of northern Vietnam (1407–1427), known in Vietnam as the Fourth Era of Northern Domination. The province's name, Jiaozhi, was an earlier Chinese name for northern Vietnam.

Jiaozhi when it was under Ming occupation (1407–1427)


Hồ Quý Ly had violently taken the Trần throne and changed the country's name to Đại Ngu. When the Ming government found out, they demanded that he reestablish the Trần dynasty, which he agreed to. However, Hồ's forces instead ambushed the Ming convoy escorting the Trần pretender, who was killed during the attack, and started harassing the Ming border.[1]

After this, the Ming dynasty invaded Đại Ngu, destroyed the Hồ dynasty, and began the Fourth Northern domination (1407–1427). The Ming created "Jiaozhi Province". At this time, the Jiaozhi Province area contained all the territory of Vietnam under the Hồ dynasty.

The Ming dynasty crushed Lê Lợi's rebellion at first but indecisively. When Lê Lợi had rebuilt his force, the rebel repeatedly defeated Ming's army and tighten their siege of Jiaozhou. Eventually, Ming's emperor accepted the de facto independence of the kingdom. Later, when Lê Lợi offered to become a vassal of China, the Ming immediately declared him as king of Dai Viet.[2]

Lê Lợi dismissed all former administrative structure and divided the nation into 5 dao. The Ming formally abolished the Jiaozhi Province in 1428.


Jiaozhi Province was structured in the same manner as the 13 existing provinces of the Ming Empire. It was divided into 15 prefectures (府) and 5 independent prefectures (直隸州):

  • 15 prefectures: Jiaozhou (交州), Beijiang (北江), Liangjiang (諒江), Sanjiang (三江), Jianping (建平, Kiến Hưng in Hồ dynasty), Xin'an (新安, Tân Hưng in the Hồ dynasty), Jianchang (建昌), Fenghua (奉化, Thiên Trường in the Hồ dynasty), Qianghua (清化), Zhenman (鎮蠻), Liangshan (諒山), Xinping (新平), Yanzhou (演州), Yian (乂安), Shunhua (順化).
  • 5 independent prefectures: Taiyuan (太原), Xuanhua (宣化, Tuyên Quang in the Hồ dynasty), Jiaxing (嘉興), Guihua (歸化), Guangwei (廣威)

Together with the 5 independent prefectures, there were other administrative divisions, which were under the normal prefectures. There were 47 divisions in total.

In 1408, the independent administrative division Taiyuan, Xuanhua was promoted to a prefecture, which increased the number to 17. Afterwards the Yanzhou prefecture was dismissed and its territory became an independent prefecture.


  1. ^ Tsai 2001, p. 179.
  2. ^ Kang et al. 2019, p. 915.


  • Tsai, Shih-shan Henry (2001). Perpetual happiness: The Ming emperor Yongle. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-98109-1.
  • Kang, David C.; Nguyen, Dat X.; Fu, Ronan Tse-min; Shaw, Meredith (2019). "War, Rebellion, and Intervention under Hierarchy: Vietnam–China Relations, 1365 to 1841". Journal of Conflict Resolution. Los Angeles, CA, USA: University of Southern California. 63 (4): 896–922. doi:10.1177/0022002718772345.