Quasi-state

  (Redirected from Proto-state)

A quasi-state or state-like entity,[2] including what is termed a proto-state,[3][2] is a political entity that does not represent a fully institutionalised or autonomous sovereign state.[4]

Map of the British Empire under Queen Victoria at the end of the nineteenth century. "Dominions" refers to all territories belonging to the Crown.
A map of the Middle East showing areas controlled by ISIL as of May 2015: a number of major cities in northern Syria and Iraq, and corridors connecting them.
Maximum extent of the territory of the Islamic State (frequently described as a proto-state) in Iraq and Syria, on 21 May 2015.[1]

The precise definition of quasi-state in political literature fluctuates depending on the context in which it is used. It has been used by some modern scholars to describe the self-governing British colonies and dependencies that exercised a form of home rule but remained crucial parts of the British Empire and subject firstly to the metropole's administration.[5] Similarly, the Republics of the Soviet Union, which represented administrative units with their own respective national distinctions, have also been described as quasi-states.[4]

In more recent[when?] usage, the term quasi-state has most often been evoked in reference to militant secessionist groups who claim, and exercise some form of territorial control over, a specific region, but which lack institutional cohesion.[5][failed verificationsee discussion] Such quasi-states include the Republika Srpska and Herzeg-Bosnia during the Bosnian War[5] and Azawad during the 2012 Tuareg rebellion.[6] The Islamic State is also widely held to be an example of a modern quasi-state or proto-state.[7][2][8][9]

HistoryEdit

 
Tuareg rebels in the short-lived proto-state of Azawad.

The term "proto-state" has been used in reference to contexts as far back as Ancient Greece, to refer to the phenomenon that the formation of a large and cohesive nation would often be preceded by very small and loose forms of statehood.[10] For instance, historical sociologist Gary Runciman describes the evolution of social organisation in the Greek Dark Ages from statelessness, to what he calls semistates based on patriarchal domination but lacking inherent potential to achieve the requirements for statehood, sometimes transitioning into protostates with governmental roles able to maintain themselves generationally, which could evolve into larger and more centralised entities fulfilling the requirements of statehood by 700 BC in the archaic period.[10][11]

Most ancient proto-states were the product of tribal societies, consisting of relatively short-lived confederations of communities that united under a single warlord or chieftain endowed with symbolic authority and military rank.[10] These were not considered sovereign states since they rarely achieved any degree of institutional permanence and authority was often exercised over a mobile people rather than measurable territory.[10] Loose confederacies of this nature were the primary means of embracing a common statehood by people in many regions, such as the Central Asian steppes, throughout ancient history.[12]

Proto-states proliferated in Western Europe during the Middle Ages, likely as a result of a trend towards political decentralisation following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and the adoption of feudalism.[13] While theoretically owing allegiance to a single monarch under the feudal system, many lesser nobles administered their own fiefs as miniature "states within states" that were independent of each other.[14] This practice was especially notable with regards to large, decentralised political entities such as the Holy Roman Empire, that incorporated many autonomous and semi-autonomous proto-states.[15]

Following the Age of Discovery, the emergence of European colonialism resulted in the formation of colonial proto-states in Asia, Africa, and the Americas.[16] A few colonies were given the unique status of protectorates, which were effectively controlled by the metropole but retained limited ability to administer themselves, self-governing colonies, dominions, and dependencies.[5] These were distinct administrative units that each fulfilled many of the functions of a state without actually exercising full sovereignty or independence.[16] Colonies without a sub-national home rule status, on the other hand, were considered administrative extensions of the colonising power rather than true proto-states.[17] Colonial proto-states later served as the basis for a number of modern nation states, particularly on the Asian and African continents.[16]

During the twentieth century, some proto-states existed as not only distinct administrative units, but their own theoretically self-governing republics joined to each other in a political union such as the socialist federal systems observed in Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet Union.[5][4][18]

 
Territory controlled by the Anti-Fascist Council of Yugoslavia, which established its own proto-state in 1942

Another form of proto-state that has become especially common since the end of World War II[citation needed] is established through the unconstitutional seizure of territory by an insurgent or militant group that proceeds to assume the role of a de facto government.[7] Although denied recognition and bereft of civil institutions, insurgent proto-states may engage in external trade, provide social services, and even undertake limited diplomatic activity.[19] These proto-states are usually formed by movements drawn from geographically concentrated ethnic or religious minorities, and are thus a common feature of inter-ethnic civil conflicts.[20] This is often due to the inclinations of an internal cultural identity group seeking to reject the legitimacy of a sovereign state's political order, and create its own enclave where it is free to live under its own sphere of laws, social mores, and ordering.[20] Since the 1980s a special kind of insurgent statehood has emerged in form of the "Jihadi proto-state", as the Islamist concept of statehood is extremely flexible. For instance, a Jihadi emirate can be simply understood as a territory or group ruled by an emir; accordingly, it might rule a significant area or just a neighborhood. Regardless of its extent, the assumption of statehood provides Jihadi militants with important internal legitimacy and cementes their self-identification as frontline society opposed to certain enemies.[7]

The accumulation of territory by an insurgent force to form a sub-national geopolitical system and eventually, a proto-state, was a calculated process in China during the Chinese Civil War that set a precedent for many similar attempts throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.[21] Proto-states established as a result of civil conflict typically exist in a perpetual state of warfare and their wealth and populations may be limited accordingly.[22] One of the most prominent examples of a wartime proto-state in the twenty-first century is the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant,[23][24][25] that maintained its own administrative bureaucracy and imposed taxes.[26]

Theoretical basisEdit

The definition of a proto-state is not concise, and has been confused by the interchangeable use of the terms state, country, and nation to describe a given territory.[27] The term proto-state is preferred to "proto-nation" in an academic context, however, since some authorities also use nation to denote a social, ethnic, or cultural group capable of forming its own state.[27]

A proto-state does not meet the four essential criteria for statehood as elaborated upon in the declarative theory of statehood of the 1933 Montevideo Convention: a permanent population, a defined territory, a government with its own institutions, and the capacity to enter into relations with other states.[27] A proto-state is not necessarily synonymous with a state with limited recognition that otherwise has all the hallmarks of a fully functioning sovereign state, such as Rhodesia or the Republic of China, also known as Taiwan.[27] However, proto-states frequently go unrecognised since a state actor that recognises a proto-state does so in violation of another state actor's external sovereignty.[28] If full diplomatic recognition is extended to a proto-state and embassies exchanged, it is defined as a sovereign state in its own right and may no longer be classified as a proto-state.[28]

 
Territory of Croatia controlled by the Republic of Serbian Krajina proto-state 1991–1995.

Throughout modern history, partially autonomous regions of larger recognised states, especially those based on a historical precedent or ethnic and cultural distinctiveness that places them apart from those who dominate the state as a whole, have been considered proto-states.[5] Home rule generates a sub-national institutional structure that may justifiably be defined as a proto-state.[29] When a rebellion or insurrection seizes control and begins to establish some semblance of administration in regions within national territories under its effective rule, it has also metamorphosed into a proto-state.[30] These wartime proto-states, sometimes known as insurgent states, may eventually transform the structure of a state altogether, or demarcate their own autonomous political spaces.[30] While not a new phenomenon, the modern formation of a proto-states in territory held by a militant non-state entity was popularised by Mao Zedong during the Chinese Civil War, and the national liberation movements worldwide that adopted his military philosophies.[21] The rise of an insurgent proto-state was sometimes also an indirect consequence of a movement adopting Che Guevara's foco theory of guerrilla warfare.[21]

Secessionist proto-states are likeliest to form in preexisting states that lack secure boundaries, a concise and well-defined body of citizens, or a single sovereign power with a monopoly on the legitimate use of military force.[31] They may be created as a result of putsches, insurrections, separatist political campaigns, foreign intervention, sectarian violence, civil war, and even the bloodless dissolution or division of the state.[31]

Proto-states can be important regional players, as their existence impacts the options available to state actors, either as potential allies or as impediments to their political or economic policy articulations.[30]

List of proto-statesEdit

Constituent proto-statesEdit

CurrentEdit

Proto-state Parent state Achieved statehood Since Source
  Adygea   Russia Russian republic 1991 [5]
  Åland[citation needed]   Finland No 1921[citation needed] [5][32]
  Altai Republic   Russia Russian republic 1992 [5]
  Ashanti[citation needed]   Ghana No 1957[citation needed] [33]
  Azad Kashmir[citation needed]   Pakistan No 1975[citation needed] [5]
  Azores[citation needed]   Portugal No 1816[citation needed] [5]
  Bashkortostan   Russia de jure 1990 [5]
  British Virgin Islands   United Kingdom No 1960 [5]
  Bougainville   Papua New Guinea de facto 2001 [5]
  Buryatia   Russia Russian republic 1990 [5]
  Canary Islands[citation needed]   Spain No 1816[citation needed] [5]
  Catalonia   Spain No 1978 [5]
  Cayman Islands   United Kingdom No 1962 [5]
  Chechnya   Russia de facto 1996 [5]
  Chin State[citation needed]   Myanmar No 1949[citation needed] [5]
  Christmas Island[citation needed]   Australia No 1958[citation needed] [5]
  Chuvashia   Russia Russian republic 1992 [5]
  Cook Islands   New Zealand de jure 1888 [5]
  Corsica[citation needed]   France No 1978[citation needed] [5]
  Curaçao[citation needed]   Netherlands No 1816[citation needed] [5]
  Dagestan   Russia Russian republic 1991 [5]
  Easter Island[citation needed]   Chile No 1944[citation needed] [5]
  Euskadi   Spain No 1978 [5]
  Falkland Islands[citation needed]   United Kingdom No 1833[citation needed] [5]
  Faroe Islands   Denmark No 1948 [5]
  Flanders[citation needed]   Belgium No 1970[citation needed] [5]
  French Polynesia[citation needed]   France No 1847[citation needed] [5]
  Galicia   Spain No 1978 [5]
  Greenland   Denmark No 1816 [5]
  Guam   United States No 1816 [5]
  Guernsey[citation needed]   United Kingdom No 1204[citation needed] [5]
  Indian reservations   United States de jure 1658 [5]
Indigenous territory (Brazil)   Brazil No 1850[34]
  Ingushetia   Russia Russian republic 1992 [5]
  Iraqi Kurdistan   Iraq No 1991 [35]
  Isle of Man   United Kingdom No 1828 [5]
  Jersey   United Kingdom de jure 1204 [5]
  Jewish Autonomous Oblast   Russia de jure 1934
  Jubaland   Somalia No 2001 [note 1]
  Kabardino-Balkaria   Russia Russian republic 1992 [5]
  Kachin State   Myanmar No 1949 [5]
  Kalmykia   Russia Russian republic 1992 [5]
  Karachay-Cherkessia   Russia Russian republic 1992 [5]
  Karelia   Russia Russian republic 1991 [5]
  Kayah State   Myanmar No 1949 [5]
  Kayin State   Myanmar No 1949 [5]
  Khakassia   Russia Russian republic 1992 [5]
  Komi Republic   Russia Russian republic 1996 [5]
  Madeira[citation needed]   Portugal No 1816[citation needed] [5]
  Mari El   Russia Russian republic 1990 [5]
  Marquesas Islands[citation needed]   France No 1844[citation needed] [5]
  Montserrat[citation needed]   United Kingdom No 1632[citation needed] [5]
  Mon State   Myanmar No 1949 [5]
  Mordovia   Russia Russian republic 1994 [5]
  New Caledonia[citation needed]   France No 1853[citation needed] [5]
Noakhali[citation needed]   Bangladesh No 2005[citation needed]
  Northern Marianas[citation needed]   United States No 1899 [5]
  North Ossetia-Alania   Russia No 1995 [5]
  Nunavut[citation needed]   Canada No 1999 [5]
  Puerto Rico[citation needed]   United States No 1816 [5]
  Puntland   Somalia No 1998 [38]
  Quebec[citation needed]   Canada No 1816 [5]
  Saint Helena[citation needed]   United Kingdom No 1834 [5]
  Sakha Republic   Russia Russian republic 1991 [5]
  Shan State   Myanmar No 1949 [5]
  Sint Maarten[citation needed]   Netherlands No 1848 [5]
  South Tyrol[citation needed]   Italy No 1926 [5]
  Svalbard[citation needed]   Norway No 1992[citation needed] [5]
  Tatarstan   Russia Russian republic 1990 [5]
  Temotu[citation needed]   Solomon Islands No 1981[citation needed] [5]
  Turks and Caicos[citation needed]   United Kingdom No 1973 [5]
  Tuva   Russia Russian republic 1992 [5]
  Udmurtia   Russia Russian republic 1990 [5]
  United States Virgin Islands[citation needed]   United States No 1816 [5]
  Wallonia   Belgium No 1970 [5]
  Wa State   Myanmar No 1989 [39][40]
  Zanzibar   Tanzania No 1964 [5]

FormerEdit

Proto-state Parent state Achieved statehood Dates Source
  Adjara   Georgia No 1921–2004 [5]
  Aruba   Netherlands No 1986–1995 [5]
  Bophuthatswana   South Africa De jure 1977–1994 [41]
  Bosnia-Herzegovina   Yugoslavia Yes 1943–1992 [18]
  Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic   Russian SFSR,   Soviet Union Yes 1920–1991
  Ciskei   South Africa De jure 1981–1994 [41]
  Republic of Crimea   Ukraine No March 11–18, 2014 [42][43]
  Croatia   Yugoslavia Yes 1943–1991 [18]
  Carpathian Ruthenia   Czechoslovakia De facto 1919–1939
  Czech Socialist Republic   Czechoslovakia Yes 1969–1993 [31]
  East Caprivi   South Africa No 1972–1989 [41]
  Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic   Finland No 1918
  Galician Ruthenians   Austria-Hungary De facto 1848–1918
  Gagauzia   Moldova No 1991–1994 [5]
  Gazankulu   South Africa No 1971–1994 [41]
  Jammu and Kashmir   India No 1921–2019 [5]
  Hereroland   South Africa No 1970–1989 [41]
  KaNgwane   South Africa No 1972–1994 [41]
  Karelian ASSR   Russian SFSR,   Soviet Union union republic 1923–1940
  Kavangoland   South Africa No 1973–1989 [41]
  KwaNdebele   South Africa No 1981–1994 [41]
  KwaZulu   South Africa No 1981–1994 [41]
  Lebowa   South Africa No 1972–1994 [41]
  Macedonia   Yugoslavia Yes 1945–1991 [18]
   Montenegro   Yugoslavia,   Serbia and Montenegro Yes 1945–2006 [18]
  Moldavian ASSR   Ukrainian SSR,   Soviet Union union republic 1924–1940
  Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic   Soviet Union Yes 1940–1991
  Ovamboland   South Africa No 1973–1989 [41]
  QwaQwa   South Africa No 1974–1994 [41]
  Russian SFSR   Soviet Union Yes 1917–1991 [4]
   Serbia   Yugoslavia,   Serbia and Montenegro Yes 1945–2006 [18]
  Singapore   Malaysia Yes 1963–1965 [5]
  Slovak Socialist Republic   Czechoslovakia Yes 1969–1993 [31]
  Slovenia   Yugoslavia Yes 1945–1991 [18]
  South West Africa (Namibia)   South Africa Yes 1915–1991 [44]
  Southern Sudan   Sudan Yes 2005–2011 [45]
  Transkei   South Africa De jure 1976–1994 [41]
  Trucial States   United Kingdom Yes 1820–1971 [46]
  Turkestan ASSR   Russian SFSR No 1918–1924 [47]
  Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets   Russian SFSR No 1917–1918
  Ukrainian Soviet Republic   Russian SFSR No 1918
  Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic   Russian SFSR,   Soviet Union Yes 1919–1991 [48]
  Venda   South Africa De jure 1979–1994 [41]

Secessionist, insurgent, and self-proclaimed autonomous proto-statesEdit

CurrentEdit

Proto-state Parent state Achieved statehood Since Source
  Abkhazia   Georgia De facto 1992
  Somaliland   Somalia De facto 1991
  Northern Cyprus   Cyprus De facto 1974
  Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan   Islamic State of Afghanistan Yes 1994
  Al-Qaeda   Mali
  Somalia
De facto 2006
  Al-Shabaab   Somalia No 2009 [49]
  Allied Democratic Forces   Democratic Republic of the Congo
  Uganda
No 1996 [50]
  Ambazonia   Cameroon No 2017
  Cabinda   Angola No 1975
  Coalition of Patriots for Change   Central African Republic No 2020
  Kachin   Myanmar No 1961
  Kosovo   Serbia Yes 2008
  Ansar al-Sharia (Yemen)   Yemen No 2011 [49]
  Dar El Kuti   Central African Republic De facto 2015 [51]
  Donetsk People's Republic and

  Luhansk People's Republic

  Ukraine De facto 2014 [52]
  Islamic State   Iraq
  Syria
  Afghanistan
  Somalia
  Yemen
  Nigeria
  Libya
  Mozambique
De facto 2013 [27][53][54]
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan   Pakistan No c. 2006 [49]
  Republic of Artsakh   Azerbaijan/  Armenia De facto 1991
  Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria   Syria Partial 2012 [55]
  Sahrawi Republic   Morocco Yes 1976

[56]

  South Ossetia   Georgia De facto 1991
  Taiwan   China Yes 1949
  Tigray People's Liberation Front   Ethiopia Partial 2020
  Transnistria   Moldova De facto 1990
  Southern Transitional Council   Yemen De facto 2017
  State of Palestine   Israel Yes 1988
  Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan   Pakistan No 2002 [49]
  West Papua   Indonesia No 1971
  Zapatista Autonomous Municipalities   Mexico De facto 1994
  Azawad   Mali De facto 2012
  Oromo Liberation Front   Ethiopia No 1973
  Sudan Revolutionary Front   Sudan No 2011
  Ansar al-Sunna   Mozambique No 2020
  National Democratic Alliance Army   Myanmar No 1989
  United Wa State Army   Myanmar No 1989
  Houthi movement   Yemen No 2004
  Revolutionary Commando Army   Syria No 2016
  Hayat Tahrir al-Sham   Syria No 2017
  Syrian National Army   Syria No 2017
  Nduma Defense of Congo-Renovated   Democratic Republic of the Congo No 2015
Mai-Mai   Democratic Republic of the Congo No 2015
  National Resistance Front of Afghanistan   Afghanistan No 2021

FormerEdit

Proto-state Parent state Achieved statehood Dates Source
  Al-Nusra Front   Syria No 2012–2017 [53]
  Ansar al-Islam   Iraq No 2001–2003 [49]
  Angola   Portugal Yes 1961–1975
  Ansar al-Sharia (Libya)   Libya No 2014–2017 [53]
  Ansar Dine   Mali No 2012–2013 [53]
  Armed Forces of South Russia   Russia No 1919–1920 [57]
  Azawad   Mali De facto 2012–2013 [6]
  Boko Haram   Nigeria
  Cameroon
No 2013–2015 [53]
  Carpatho-Ukraine   Czechoslovakia,   Hungary De facto 1938–1939
  Chechen Ichkeria   Russia No 1991–2000 [28]
  Chinese Soviet Republic   China No 1931–1937 [21]
  Communist China   China Yes 1927–1949 [21]
  Dubrovnik Republic   Yugoslavia No 1991–1992 [5]
  Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia   Yugoslavia No 1995–1998 [5]
  FARC   Colombia No 1964–2017 [58]
  Fatah al-Islam   Lebanon No 2007 [49]
  Fujian   China No 1933–1934
Groupe islamique armé   Algeria No 1993–1995 [49]
  Herzeg-Bosnia   Bosnia-Herzegovina No 1991–1996 [5]
  Hyderabad State   India De facto 1947–1948 [5]
  Idel-Ural State   Russia No 1917–1918 [59]
  Irish Republic   United Kingdom Yes 1919–1922 [60]
Islamic Emirate of Kunar   Afghanistan No 1989–1991 [49]
  Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan   Islamic State of Afghanistan De facto 1996–2001
Islamic Republic of Imbaba   Egypt No 1989–1992 [49]
  Jamiat-e Islami   Afghanistan No 1982–1989 [61]
  Republic of Kosova   FR Yugoslavia No 1992–1999 [62]
  Kharkiv People's Republic   Ukraine No 2014 [63]
  Jiangxi   China No 1931–1937 [21]
  Republic of Kosova   FR Yugoslavia No 1992–1999 [64]
  Jubaland   Somalia No 1998–2001 [36]
  Junbish-e Milli   Afghanistan No 1992-1997 [65]
  Liberated Yugoslavia   Independent State of Croatia
  Occupied Serbia
Yes 1942–1945 [66]
  Mongolia   China Yes 1911–1946
  Mozambique   Portugal Yes 1964–1974 [note 2]
  Revolutionary Vietnam   South Vietnam No 1969–1976

[56]

  Republika Srpska   Bosnia-Herzegovina No 1991–1995 [5]
Red Spears' rebel area in Dengzhou   China No 1929 [67]
  Serbian Krajina   Croatia No 1991–1995 [68]
  Sudetenland   Czechoslovakia No 1918–1938 [69]
  "Taylorland" or Greater Liberia   Liberia No 1990–1995/97 [note 3]
Tamil Eelam   Sri Lanka No 1983–2008 [58]
  Tibet   China No 1912–1951 [note 4]
  Ukrainian National Government   Soviet Union,   Nazi Germany No 1941
  Ukrainian People's Republic   Russian Republic,   Russian SFSR Yes 1917–1921
  UNITA   Angola No 1975–2002 [72]
  United States   Great Britain Yes 1776-1783
  West Ukrainian People's Republic   Austria-Hungary,   Poland No 1918–1919
  Western Bosnia   Yugoslavia No 1993–1995 [5]
  Zaporozhian Sich   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Yes 16th century–1649 [73]

See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

AnnotationsEdit

  1. ^ Jubaland declared itself independent of Somalia in 1998.[36] It technically rejoined Somalia in 2001 when its ruling Juba Valley Alliance became part of the country's Transitional Federal Government. However, Jubaland has continued to persist as a more or less autonomous state.[37]
  2. ^ The erosion of Portuguese military control over northern Mozambique during the Mozambican War of Independence allowed local guerrillas to establish a proto-state there, which survived until the war ended in 1974. Home to about a million people, the miniature insurgent proto-state was managed by FRELIMO's civilian wing and was able to provide administrative services, open trade relations with Tanzania, and even supervise the construction of its own schools and hospitals with foreign aid.[19]
  3. ^ In course of the First Liberian Civil War, the Liberian central government effectively collapsed, allowing warlords to establish their own fiefs. One of the most powerful rebel leaders in Liberia, Charles Taylor, set up his own domain in a way resembling an actual state: He reorganised his militia into a military-like organisation (split into Army, Marines, Navy, and Executive Mansion Guard), established his de facto capital at Gbarnga, and created a civilian government and justice system under his control that were supposed to enforce law and order. The area under his control was commonly called "Taylorland" or "Greater Liberia" and even became somewhat stable and peaceful until it largely disintegrated in 1994/5 as result of attacks by rival militias. In the end, however, Taylor won the civil war and was elected President of Liberia, with his regime becoming the new central government.[70][71]
  4. ^ See Tibetan sovereignty debate

ReferencesEdit

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  3. ^ "How the Islamic State Declared War on the World". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2016-07-20.
  4. ^ a b c d Hahn, Gordon (2002). Russia's Revolution from Above, 1985-2000: Reform, Transition, and Revolution in the Fall of the Soviet Communist Regime. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. p. 527. ISBN 978-0765800497.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci Griffiths, Ryan (2016). Age of Secession: The International and Domestic Determinants of State Birth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 85–102, 213–242. ISBN 978-1107161627.
  6. ^ a b Alvarado, David (May 2012). "Independent Azawad: Tuaregs, Jihadists, and an Uncertain Future for Mali" (PDF). Barcelona: Barcelona Center for International Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2017. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
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  8. ^ "The caliphate cracks". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2016-07-20.
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  10. ^ a b c d Scheidel, Walter; Morris, Ian (2009). The Dynamics of Ancient Empires: State Power from Assyria to Byzantium. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 5–6, 132. ISBN 978-0195371581.
  11. ^ Runciman, W. G. (July 1982). "Origins of States: The Case of Archaic 351–377 Greece". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 24 (3): 351–377. doi:10.1017/S0010417500010045. ISSN 0010-4175.
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  13. ^ Borza, Eugene (1992). In the Shadow of Olympus: The Emergence of Macedon. Princeton: Princeton University Press. pp. 238–240. ISBN 978-0691008806.
  14. ^ Duverger, Maurice (1972). The Study of Politics. Surrey: Thomas Nelson and Sons, Publishers. pp. 144–145. ISBN 978-0690790214.
  15. ^ Beattie, Andrew (2011). The Danube: A Cultural History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0199768356.
  16. ^ a b c Abernethy, David (2002). The Dynamics of Global Dominance: European Overseas Empires, 1415-1980. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 327–328. ISBN 978-0300093148.
  17. ^ Morier-Genoud, Eric (2012). Sure Road? Nationalisms in Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV. p. 2. ISBN 978-9004222618.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Kostovicova, Denisa (2005). Kosovo: The Politics of Identity and Space. New York: Routledge Books. pp. 5–7. ISBN 978-0415348065.
  19. ^ a b Sellström, Tor (2002). Sweden and National Liberation in Southern Africa: Vol. 2 : Solidarity and assistance, 1970–1994. Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute. pp. 97–99. ISBN 978-91-7106-448-6.
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