Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
The Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (initially, the Turkestan Socialist Federative Republic; 30 April 1918 – 27 October 1924) was an autonomous republic of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic located in Soviet Central Asia.
|Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic|
Туркестанская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика
|Autonomous republic of the Russian SFSR|
Map of Soviet Central Asia in 1922, indicating the location and extent of the Turkestan ASSR (brown).
|Historical era||Interwar era|
|30 April 1918|
|27 October 1924|
During the Russian Empire, the Turkestan ASSR's territory was governed as Turkestan Krai, the Emirate of Bukhara, and the Khanate of Khiva. From 1905, Pan-Turkist ideologues like Ismail Gasprinski aimed to suppress differences among the peoples who spoke Turkic languages, uniting them into one government.
This idea was supported by Vladimir Lenin, and after the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Bolsheviks in Tashkent created the Turkestan ASSR. But in February 1918, the Islamic Council (Uzbek: Shuroi Islamia) and the Council of Intelligentsia (Uzb. Shuroi Ulammo) met in Kokand city and declared a rival Turkestan Autonomous Republic, battling Bolshevik forces until the 1920s as part of the conservative Basmachi rebellion.
In the late 1917, the TSFR was cut off from the RSFSR by the revolt of the Orenburg Cossacks, but held out, despite being surrounded by hostile states, until the arrival of the Red Army in September 1919 after the Counteroffensive of Eastern Front.
Meanwhile, a power struggle among the Communists ensued between those favoring a Pan-Turkist government like Turar Ryskulov and Tursun Khojaev, and those in favor of dividing Soviet Turkestan into smaller ethnic or regional units, such as Fayzulla Khodzhayev and Akmal Ikramov. The latter group won, as national delimitation in Central Asia began in 1924. Upon dissolution, the Turkestan ASSR was split into Turkmen SSR (now Turkmenistan), Uzbek SSR (now Uzbekistan) with the Tajik ASSR (now Tajikistan), Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast (now Kyrgyzstan), and Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast (now Karakalpakstan).
|30 April 1918||Turkestan Soviet Federative Republic (constitution adopted 15 October 1918)|
|24 September 1920||Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (constitution approved 24 September 1920)|
|30 December 1922||Turkestan A.S.S.R. part of Soviet Union (within Russian S.F.S.R.)|
|27 October 1924||Dissolved|
- Kobozev, Pyotr Alekseevich (April - May 1918), Solkin, Andrey Fedorovich , contributor. (April - June 2, 1918)
- Tobolin, Ivan Osipovich (June 2 - October 5, 1918)
- Votintsev, Vsevolod Dmitrievich (October 1918 - January 19, 1919)
- - (January 19 - March 31, 1919)
- Kazakov, Aristarkh Andreevich (March 31 - July 1919)
- Kobozev, Pyotr Alekseevich (July - September 1919)
- Apin, Ivan Andreevich (September 1919 - January 1920)
- Ryskulov, Turar Ryskulovich (January - July 21, 1920)
- Biserov, Mukhammedzhan (July 21 - August 1920)
- Rakhimbaev, Abdullo Rakhimbaevich (August 4, 1920 - May 1921), Khodzhanov Sultanbek , acting. prev. (5.12.1920 -?)
- Tyuryakulov, Nazir Tyuryakulovich (May 1921 - June 1922)
- Rakhimbaev, Abdullo Rakhimbaevich (June - October 1922)
- Khidir-Aliev, Inagadzhan (October 1922 - January 1, 1924), Dadabaev Butabay , vrid. prev. (August - September 1923)
- Aytakov, Nedirbai (January 9 - November 1924)
Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars ("Turksovnarkom").
|Initial date||Final date||Name|
|15 November 1917||November 1918||Fyodor Kolesov (ru)|
|November 1918||19 January 1919||Vladislav Figelskiy (ru)|
|19 January 1919||31 March 1919||Post vacant|
|31 March 1919||12 September 1919||Karp Sorokin (ru)|
|12 September 1919||March 1920||Turksovnarkom defunct|
|March 1920||May 1920||Jānis Rudzutaks|
|May 1920||September 1920||Isidor Lubimov (ru)|
|19 September 1920||October 1922||Kaikhaziz Atabayev|
|October 1922||12 January 1924||Turar Ryskulov|
|12 January 1924||27 October 1924||Sharustam Islamov (ru)|
- Yalcin, Resul (2002). The Rebirth of Uzbekistan: Politics, Economy, and Society in the Post-Soviet Era. Garnet & Ithaca Press. pp. 36–38, 163–164.
- "ТУРКЕСТАНСКАЯ АВТОНОМНАЯ СОВЕТСКАЯ СОЦИАЛИСТИЧЕСКАЯ РЕСПУБЛИКА • Большая российская энциклопедия - электронная версия", Bigenc.ru/domestic_history/text/4210080, retrieved 2 September 2020
- "Положение о Туркестанской Советской Федеративной Республике — Викитека", Ru.wikisource.org, retrieved 2 September 2020
- Smele, Jonathan D. (15 January 2016). The 'Russian' Civil Wars, 1916-1926: Ten Years That Shook the World. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 228. ISBN 9781849044240.
- "Turkestan ASSR in Central Asia".
- Uzbekistan at worldstatesmen.org, accessed 23 July 2009.
- AUTONOMOUS TURKESTAN SOCIALIST. THE SOVIET REPUBLIC