The Syrian Interim Government (SIG) is an alternative government in Syria, formed by the umbrella opposition group, the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces. The interim government indirectly controls some areas of the country and claims to be the sole legitimate government on behalf of the Syrian opposition in defiance of the Council of Ministers of the Syrian Arab Republic. The interim government's headquarters in Syria are located in the city of Azaz in Aleppo Governorate.
|Syrian Interim Government|
|الحكومة السورية المؤقتة|
|Established||18 March 2013|
|State||Syria (Syrian opposition)|
|Appointed by||President of the Syrian Coalition|
|Responsible to||Syrian Coalition|
At a conference held in Istanbul on 19 March 2013, the Syrian National Coalition (SNC) elected Ghassan Hitto as prime minister of a Syrian interim government. Hitto announced that a technical government would be formed led by 10 to 12 ministers, with the minister of defence to be chosen by the Free Syrian Army. At first, the SIG was "based in exile and lack[ed] an organizational base inside Syria." It was intended that the new ministries would not be placed in a single location but distributed in regions under the control of the Syrian opposition.
A Christian, a Kurd and a woman were part of the first cabinet; Ahmad Ramadan of the SNC stated that the cabinet was appointed on a meritocratic basis. The Assyrian component of the National Coalition said that they were not given any attention in the selection of the cabinet. Its General Assembly has an administrative function. The first interim cabinet was dissolved in July 2014. A new cabinet was formed in October 2014.
The SIG has been the primary civilian authority throughout most of Syria's opposition-held areas. Its system of administrative local councils operate services such as schools and hospitals in these areas. In December 2015, the SIG founded the Free Aleppo University (FAU), as an alternative to government-run universities; an estimated 7,000 students were enrolled in FAU in early 2018, with campuses in opposition-held territory across five provinces. In January 2018, the SIG moved the University's administration from Idlib to the west Aleppo town of Bashqateen. In late September 2016, the Syrian interim government minister for local administration was among a dozen people killed by an ISIL suicide bomber in the southern city of Inkhil.
The interim government was based in Turkey and has received direct funding from the United States. In January 2015, the Syrian interim government received US$6 million from the United States, the first funding of this kind. The funds were to be used for reconstruction efforts and the strengthening of local government in opposition-held parts of Syria such as northern Aleppo and northwestern Idlib, with the interim government planning to expand into northern Latakia and northern Hama in the following months. By August 2017, the Syrian interim government stopped paying salaries to workers, and work within the interim government became voluntary work. As the Turkish occupation of northern Syria grew from 2016, the SIG moved into the Turkish-controlled territories and began to exert partial authority there, including providing documents to Syrian citizens.
By late 2017, the SIG presided over 12 provincial councils and over 400 elected local councils. It held elections across Idlib Governorate in 2017. It also operates a major border crossing between Syria and Turkey, which generates an estimated $1 million revenue each month. In opposition areas outside the Turkish-occupied ones, the SIG has been in conflict with the Islamist Syrian Salvation Government for control since September 2017.
On 30 December 2017, at least 30 factions operating under the banner of the Syrian Interim Government merged in a unified armed group after four months of preparations. Jawad Abu Hatab, the SIG's Prime Minister and Defence Minister, announced the formation of the Syrian National Army (SNA) after meeting with rebel commanders in the town of Azaz. The newly formed body claimed to have 22,000 fighters, many of them trained and equipped by Turkey. The National Front for Liberation is also aligned to the Syrian Interim Government, and eventually became a subgroup of the SNA.
List of presidents Edit
|Took office||Left office||Political party||Note(s)|
|11 November 2012||22 April 2013||Independent|
|22 April 2013||6 July 2013||Syrian National Council||Acting President.|
|6 July 2013||9 July 2014||Syrian National Council||Re-elected on 5 January 2014.|
|9 July 2014||4 January 2015||Independent|
|4 January 2015||5 March 2016||Independent||Re-elected on 3 August 2015.|
|5 March 2016||6 May 2017||Independent|
|6||Riad Seif||6 May 2017||9 March 2018||Independent|
|7||Abdurrahman Mustafa||9 March 2018||29 June 2019||Syrian Turkmen Assembly|
|29 June 2019||12 July 2020||Syrian National Council|
|12 July 2020||12 July 2021||Independent Revolutionary Movement|
|10||Salem al-Meslet||12 July 2021||Incumbent||Syrian Council of Tribes and Clans|
Prime ministers Edit
|No.||Portrait||Name||Took office||Left office||Political party||Note(s)|
Acting Prime Minister
|18 March 2013||14 September 2013||Independent|
Failed to form a government;
resigned on 8 July.
|1||Ahmad Tu'mah||14 September 2013||22 July 2014||Independent|
|(1)||Ahmad Tu'mah||14 October 2014||17 May 2016||Independent|
|2||Jawad Abu Hatab||17 May 2016||10 March 2019||Independent|
|3||Abdurrahman Mustafa||30 June 2019||Incumbent||Syrian National Council|
List of ministers Edit
|Akram Tomeh||Vice Prime Minister||12 July 2016||Incumbent|
|Salim Idris||Minister of Defense||1 September 2019||Incumbent|
|Jawad Abu Hatab||Minister of the Interior||12 July 2016||Incumbent|
|Abdel Moneim Alhalabi||Minister of Finance||12 July 2016||Incumbent|
|Mohammed Firas Aljundi||Minister of Health||12 July 2016||Incumbent|
|Abdul Aziz Aldughem||Minister of Higher Education||12 July 2016||Incumbent|
|Imad Albarq||Minister of Education||12 July 2016||Incumbent|
|Yaaqoub Alammar||Minister of Local Administration||12 July 2016||Incumbent|
|Jamal Kallash||Minister of Agriculture||12 July 2016||Incumbent|
|Abdullah Razzouk||Minister of Services||12 July 2016||Incumbent|
Population centers Edit
This list includes some of the largest cities and towns under the Syrian Interim Government.
|English Name||Arabic Name||Kurdish Name||Turkish Name|
|Tell Abyad||تل أبيض||Girê Spî||Tellebyad|
|Ras al-Ayn||رأس العين||Serê Kaniyê||Resulayn|
See also Edit
- SyriaSource by Hosam al-Jablawi Has the International Community Succeeded in Creating a Safe Zone in Syria After Years of War? atlanticcouncil.org 17 April 2017
- Lister, Charles (31 October 2017). "Turkey's Idlib incursion and the HTS question: Understanding the long game in Syria". War on the Rocks. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
- "Russia and Turkey Have Agreed to Create 'Safe Zones' in Syria, But Rebels Are Unimpressed". Time. Associated Press. 3 May 2017. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
- "Syrian rebels to choose interim defence minister". World Bulletin. 29 March 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
- Sayigh, Yezid (3 April 2013). "The Syria's opposition 's leadership problem". Carnegie Middle East Center in Beirut. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
- "New ministries will not be in single location- Syrian opposition". World Bulletin. 29 March 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
- "Syrian opposition government begins work as Kurds announce self-rule". Asharq Al-Awsat. 15 November 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
- "Syrian National Coalition of Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces - General Body". 19 December 2013. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- "Syrian opposition coalition dissolves interim government". Reuters. 22 July 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- "HTS-backed civil authority moves against rivals in latest power grab in northwest Syria". Syria Direct. 13 December 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
- "A power struggle over education emerges between rival opposition governments in Idlib province". Syria Direct. 10 January 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
- At least 13 persons including the minister of “interim government” killed in explosion at police station in Inkhel SOHR, 22 September 2016
- ISIS suicide attack rocks rebel HQ in southern Syria Archived 7 April 2020 at the Wayback Machine Al Masdar, 22 September 2016
- "US gives $6 million to Syria opposition government". Agence France-Presse. 22 January 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
- "The Syrian interim government stopped paying salaries and volunteering work". Micro Syria. 8 August 2017.
- "Safe zone 'crucial for Turkmen in Syria'". aa.com.tr. Archived from the original on 7 October 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- "Has the International Community Succeeded in Creating a Safe Zone in Syria After Years of War?". 17 April 2017. Archived from the original on 7 October 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- Macaron, Joe. "Trump's 'real estate' approach to safe zones in Syria". aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 24 May 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
- "Turkey's troops cross over into Syria's Afrin". aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 28 April 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
- "Suriye'de güvenli bölge planları ne kadar gerçekçi? | DW | 28.09.2019". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 7 November 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
- "30 rebel groups merge under Interim Govt's banner, form 'The National Army'". Zaman al-Wasl. 31 December 2017.
- "Syria opposition names interim leader". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- "Syrian opposition bloc appoints new leader". Al Jazeera English. 5 January 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
- "Syrian Coalition Re-elects Presidential Body for 2nd Term". 2 August 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "Leading Syrian opposition body elects dissident Riad Seif as new chief". Middle East Eye. 6 May 2017.
-  SMDK Başkanı Seyf istifa etti
- "Anas Al Abde". National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
- "Salem al-Meslet, New Opposition President, Met with Optimism and Pessimism". The Syrian Observer. 15 July 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
- "Al-Khodr re-elected PM of Syrian interim government". KUNA. 14 October 2014. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- al-Khateb, Khaled (15 March 2019). "Is this the end of the Syrian Interim Government?". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- "Syrian Coalitions' General Assembly Elects New Presidential & Political Bodies & New SIG Head". National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces. 30 June 2019. Retrieved 29 September 2019.