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Sudan Revolutionary Front

The Sudan Revolutionary Front (Arabic: الجبهة الثورية السودان Al-Jabhat Al-Thawriyat Al-Sudan), or the Sudanese Revolutionary Front, is an alliance between Sudanese factions opposed to the government led by President Omar al-Bashir. It was declared on 12 November 2011, following several months of support by Darfuri rebel groups for the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North in the conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile.

Sudan Revolutionary Front
الجبهة الثورية السودان
Participant in the Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile and the War in Darfur
Flag of the Sudan Revolutionary Front.svg
Active12 November 2011 — present
IdeologyNew Sudan
Group(s) Justice and Equality Movement
Sudan Liberation Movement (al-Nur)
Sudan Liberation Movement (Minnawi)
Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North
Leaders Abdelaziz al-Hilu
Minni Minnawi
Abdul Wahid al Nur
Khalil Ibrahim 
Gibril Ibrahim
Area of operations Sudan
Blue Nile
North Darfur
North Kordofan
South Darfur
South Kordofan
West Darfur
Size60,000
Allies South Sudan (alleged)
Opponent(s) Sudanese government

CompositionEdit

The alliance created in November 2011 brings together the two main factions of the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army, as well as the other major rebel group in Darfur, the Justice and Equality Movement, with rebels in South Kordofan and Blue Nile states. The declaration of the SRF's formation was delayed until a disagreement between JEM and the other factions on the role of Islam in a post-revolutionary federal government was resolved.[1]

The signers for each group were Yasir Arman for the SPLM-N, Ahmed Tugud for the JEM, Abul Gassim Al-Haj for the SLM-al-Nur, and Al-Rayah Mahmoud for the SLM-Minnawi.[2]

Areas of operationEdit

Yasir Arman, the secretary-general of the SPLM-N and a prominent member of the SRF's high political committee, said shortly after the SRF's formation that "all Sudan is a theatre for operations, including Khartoum". However, the JEM and both SLM factions are based in the region of Darfur, and the SPLM-N has not expanded its fight against the Sudanese government north of Blue Nile and South Kordofan.[1][3] In late December 2011, JEM fighters advanced into North Kordofan with the stated intention of ousting President Omar al-Bashir from power, though they suffered a setback when their leader, Khalil Ibrahim, was killed in action in the state.[4]

Around the time of the SRF's formation in November 2011, the Sudanese government accused neighbouring South Sudan of supporting the rebel groups. In addition to bombing South Sudanese infrastructure and camps, South Sudanese authorities stated that Sudan had backed armed opposition factions within South Sudan.[2]

Sudanese peace processEdit

The August 2019 Draft Constitutional Declaration, signed by military and civilian representatives during the 2018–19 Sudanese Revolution, requires that a peace agreement for resolving the War in Darfur and the Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile be made within the first six months of the 39-month transition period to democratic civilian government.[5][6] As part of the resulting Sudanese peace process, on 21 October 2019, el-Hadi Idris, on behalf of the SRF, and Hemetti, on behalf of the Sovereignty Council (the collective head of state), signed a political agreement (co-signed by a South Sudanese mediator) including a renewed ceasefire, the delivering of humanitarian assistance by government agencies to areas under conflict, and commitment to negotiate further.[7]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Sudanese Darfur Rebel Group Joins Anti-Government Alliance". Businessweek. 13 November 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  2. ^ a b "Rebel groups agree to work together for regime change in Sudan". Sudan Tribune. 12 November 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  3. ^ "Sudan rebels form alliance to oust president". Al Jazeera English. 13 November 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  4. ^ "Sudan army kills Darfur rebel leader". Al Jazeera English. 25 December 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
  5. ^ FFC; TMC (2019-08-04). "(الدستوري Declaration (العربية))" [(Constitutional Declaration)] (PDF). raisethevoices.org (in Arabic). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-08-05. Retrieved 2019-08-05.
  6. ^ FFC; TMC; IDEA; Reeves, Eric (2019-08-10). "Sudan: Draft Constitutional Charter for the 2019 Transitional Period". sudanreeves.org. Archived from the original on 2019-08-10. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
  7. ^ "SRF rebels, Sudan govt sign agreement in Juba". Radio Dabanga. 2019-10-21. Archived from the original on 2019-10-22. Retrieved 2019-10-22.