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Khakassia (Russian: Хака́сия; Khakas: Хака́сия), officially the Republic of Khakassia (Russian: Респу́блика Хака́сия, tr. Respúblika Khakásiya, pronounced [rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə xɐˈkasʲɪjə]; Khakas: Хака́с Респу́бликазы, tr. Khakás Respúblikazy), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia. Its capital city is Abakan, which is also the largest city in the republic. As of the 2010 Census, the republic's population was 532,403.[9]

Republic of Khakassia
Республика Хакасия
Other transcription(s)
 • KhakasХакас Республиказы
Coat of arms of Republic of Khakassia
Coat of arms
Anthem: Xakas gįmn
(State Anthem of the Republic of Khakassia)
[3]
Map of Russia - Khakassia.svg
Coordinates: 53°30′N 90°00′E / 53.500°N 90.000°E / 53.500; 90.000Coordinates: 53°30′N 90°00′E / 53.500°N 90.000°E / 53.500; 90.000
CountryRussia
Federal districtSiberian[1]
Economic regionEast Siberian[2]
Established3 July 1991[4]
CapitalAbakan
Government
 • BodySupreme Council[5]
 • Head[7]Valentin Konovalov[6]
Area
 • Total61,900 km2 (23,900 sq mi)
Area rank46th
Population
 (2010 Census)[9]
 • Total532,403
 • Estimate 
(2018)[10]
537,513 (+1%)
 • Rank70th
 • Density8.6/km2 (22/sq mi)
 • Urban
67.3%
 • Rural
32.7%
Time zoneUTC+7 (MSK+4 Edit this on Wikidata[11])
ISO 3166 codeRU-KK
License plates19
OKTMO ID95000000
Official languagesRussian;[12] Khakas[13]
Websitewww.r-19.ru

GeographyEdit

The republic is located in the southwestern part of Eastern Siberia and borders Krasnoyarsk Krai in the north and east, the Tuva Republic in the southeast and south, the Altai Republic in the south and southwest, and Kemerovo Oblast in the west and northwest. It stretches for 460 kilometers (290 mi) from north to south and for 200 kilometers (120 mi) from east to west. Mountains (eastern slopes of Kuznetsk Alatau and the Abakan Range) cover two-thirds of the republic's territory and serve as the natural boundaries of the republic. The remaining territory is flat, with the Minusinsk Hollow being the most prominent feature. The Yenisei is the largest river in the republic. Other significant rivers include the Abakan, and the Chulym between the Yenisei and the eastern mountains. There are over three hundred lakes in the republic, both salt- and fresh-water. Climate is continental, with the average annual temperature of 0 °C (32 °F). Natural resources are abundant and include iron, gold, silver, coal, oil, and natural gas. Molybdenum deposits are the largest in Russia. Forests cover the south and the west of the republic.

HistoryEdit

The territory of modern Khakassia was the core of the old Yenisei Kirghiz state from the 6th century CE. In the 13th century, following a defeat by the Mongols, the majority of the Kyrgyz people migrated southwest to Central Asia to what now is Kyrgyzstan. Modern Khakas people regard themselves as the descendants of those Kyrgyz who remained in Siberia. Khakassia was incorporated into the Russian state under Peter the Great. This incorporation was confirmed in a treaty between Russia and China in 1729. As it was common to deport convicted criminals from European Russia to Siberia, forts were quickly constructed in Khakassia (1707 and 1718). Many prisoners remained even after release. Many of the indigenous Khakas people converted to the Russian Orthodox faith and gradually abandoned their nomadic way of life.

By the time of the 1917 Russian Revolution, Russians made up approximately half of the population. Under Soviet rule, autonomy was granted on 20 October 1930, when Khakas Autonomous Oblast was established. The borders of the autonomy are the same as the borders of the modern Khakas Republic.

During the 1920s and 1930s, the Soviet authorities resettled an estimated quarter of a million Russians in the region. These were followed by 10,000 Volga Germans deported in World War II. By the time of the 1959 Census, ethnic Khakas people represented little more than 10% of the population.

Until 1991, Khakas Autonomous Oblast was administratively subordinated to Krasnoyarsk Krai. In July 1991, it was elevated in status to that of a Soviet socialist republic, and in February 1992 it became the Republic of Khakassia.

Administrative divisionsEdit

 
Map of the Republic of Khakassia

DemographicsEdit

Population: 532,403 (2010 Census);[9] 546,072 (2002 Census);[14] 568,605 (1989 Census).[15]

Vital statisticsEdit

Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates
1970 448 7,347 3,749 3,598 16.4 8.4 8.0
1975 476 9,106 4,485 4,621 19.1 9.4 9.7
1980 508 9,994 5,345 4,649 19.7 10.5 9.2
1985 541 10,382 5,546 4,836 19.2 10.3 8.9
1990 572 8,724 6,060 2,664 15.3 10.6 4.7 2,27
1991 573 8,114 6,195 1,919 14.2 10.8 3.3 2,14
1992 574 6,917 6,843 74 12.0 11.9 0.1 1,81
1993 574 6,152 8,387 - 2,235 10.7 14.6 - 3.9 1,58
1994 572 6,219 9,426 - 3,207 10.9 16.5 - 5.6 1,57
1995 571 5,807 8,186 - 2,379 10.2 14.3 - 4.2 1,44
1996 569 5,727 8,093 - 2,366 10.1 14.2 - 4.2 1,40
1997 566 5,309 7,766 - 2,457 9.4 13.7 - 4.3 1,28
1998 563 5,602 7,821 - 2,219 10.0 13.9 - 3.9 1,34
1999 559 5,312 8,304 - 2,992 9.5 14.8 - 5.3 1,25
2000 556 5,634 8,104 - 2,470 10.1 14.6 - 4.4 1,32
2001 552 5,576 8,561 - 2,985 10.1 15.5 - 5.4 1,28
2002 547 6,118 9,280 - 3,162 11.2 17.0 - 5.8 1,39
2003 542 6,417 9,660 - 3,243 11.8 17.8 - 6.0 1,44
2004 539 6,453 8,763 - 2,310 12.0 16.3 - 4.3 1,43
2005 536 6,198 9,411 - 3,213 11.6 17.6 - 6.0 1,35
2006 533 6,465 7,927 - 1,462 12.1 14.9 - 2.7 1,40
2007 531 7,384 7,324 60 13.9 13.8 0.1 1,60
2008 531 7,935 7,427 508 14.9 14.0 1.0 1,72
2009 531 8,062 7,255 807 15.2 13.7 1.5 1,81
2010 532 8,010 7,373 637 15.0 13.8 1.2 1,80
2011 532 8,013 7,154 859 15.1 13.4 1.7 1,83
2012 533 8,534 7,137 1,397 16.0 13.4 2.6 2,00
2013 534 8,362 6,987 1,375 15.7 13.1 2.6 2,01
2014 535 8,145 6,999 1,146 15.2 13.1 2.1 2,01
2015 536 7,911 7,216 695 14.8 13.5 1.3 1,99
2016 537 7,592 6,869 723 14.1 12.8 1.3 1,97
2017 537 6,662 6,752 -90 12.4 12.5 -0.1 1,78

In 2007, the republic recorded a positive natural increase of population for the first time in many years (Although very small, less than +0.01% per year), being one of the 20 Russian regions to have a positive natural population growth rate.[16][17][18]

Ethnic groupsEdit

According to the 2010 Russian Census,[9] ethnic Russians make up 81.7% of the republic's population, while the ethnic Khakas are only 12.1%. Other groups include ethnic Germans (1.1%), Ukrainians (1%), Tatars (0.6%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.

Ethnic
group
1926 census 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002 census 2010 census1
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Khakas 44,219 49.8% 45,799 16.8% 48,512 11.8% 54,750 12.3% 57,281 11.5% 62,859 11.1% 65,421 12.0% 63,643 12.1%
Russians 41,390 46.6% 205,254 75.3% 314,455 76.5% 349,362 78.4% 395,953 79.4% 450,430 79.5% 438,395 80.3% 427,647 81.7%
Germans 46 0.1% 333 0.1% 10,512 2.6% 10,547 2.4% 11,130 2.2% 11,250 2.0% 9,161 1.7% 5,976 1.1%
Ukrainians 836 0.9% 7,788 2.9% 14,630 3.6% 9,480 2.1% 10,398 2.1% 13,223 2.3% 8,360 1.5% 5,039 1.0%
Others 2,381 2.7% 13,556 5.0% 22,938 5.6% 21,685 4.9% 23,622 4.7% 29,099 5.4% 24,735 4.5% 21,409 4.1%
1 8,689 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[19]

ReligionEdit

Religion in Khakassia as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[20][21]
Russian Orthodoxy
31.6%
Other Orthodox
1.4%
Protestantism
0.8%
Other Christians
6%
Islam
0.6%
Rodnovery and other native faiths
2%
Spiritual but not religious
37.6%
Atheism and irreligion
15.8%
Other and undeclared
4.2%

According to a 2012 survey,[20] 31.6% of the population of Khakassia adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 6% are unaffiliated Christians, 1% are Orthodox Christian believers without belonging to any church or are members of other (non-Russian) Orthodox churches. 2% of the population adheres to Slavic native faith (Rodnovery) or Khakas Tengrism and folk religion, 1% to Islam, 1% to forms of Protestantism, 0.4% to forms of Hinduism (Vedism, Krishnaism or Tantrism) and another 0.4% to Tibetan Buddhism. In addition, 38% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 16% is atheist, and 2.6% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[20]

EconomyEdit

The main industries in the republic are coal mining, ore mining, and timber.

SportsEdit

Sayany-Khakassia[22] has been playing in the highest division of Russian bandy, the Russian Bandy Super League, for a long time, but was relegated after the 2012–13 season. Now they play in the 2nd highest division.

Views of KhakassiaEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. 20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ Law #06-ZRKh
  4. ^ Law #1539-I
  5. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Khakassia, Article 72
  6. ^ Official website of the Republic of Khakassia. Viktor Mikhaylovich Zimin Archived November 25, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, Head of the Republic of Khakassia (in Russian)
  7. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Khakassia, Article 88
  8. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (May 21, 2004). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
  9. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  10. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  11. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  12. ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  13. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Khakassia, Article 69
  14. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  15. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  16. ^ Постоянное население России на начало 2008 года - 142 миллиона человек. Demoscope.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  17. ^ В 2007 году естественная убыль снизилась до 478 тысяч человек, а миграционный прирост увеличился до 240 тысяч. Demoscope.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  18. ^ Каталог публикаций::Федеральная служба государственной статистики. Gks.ru (2010-05-08). Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  19. ^ Перепись-2010: русских становится больше. Perepis-2010.ru (2011-12-19). Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  20. ^ a b c "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  21. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
  22. ^ Official home page

SourcesEdit

  • Верховный Совет Республики Хакасия. №45 25 мая 1995 г. «Конституция Республики Хакасия», в ред. Конституционного закона №19-ЗРХ от 8 апреля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Конституцию Республики Хакасия». Вступил в силу 30 июня 1995 г. Опубликован: "Вестник Хакасии", №25, 1995. (Supreme Council of the Republic of Khakassia. #45 May 25, 1995 Constitution of the Republic of Khakassia, as amended by the Constitutional Law #19-ZRKh of April 8, 2015 On Amending the Constitution of the Republic of Khakassia. Effective as of June 30, 1995.).
  • Верховный Совет РСФСР. Закон №1539-I от 3 июля 1991 г. «О порядке преобразования Адыгейской, Горно-Алтайской, Карачаево-Черкесской и Хакасской автономных областей в Советские Социалистические Республики в составе РСФСР». (Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR. Law #1539-I of July 3, 1991 On the Process of Transformation of Adyghe, Mountain Altai, Karachay-Cherkess, and Khakass Autonomous Oblasts into Soviet Socialist Republics Within the RSFSR. ).
  • Верховный Совет Республики Хакасия. Закон №06-ЗРХ от 11 февраля 2015 г. «О государственном гимне Республики Хакасия». Вступил в силу 14 февраля 2015 г. Опубликован: "Хакасия", №26, 14 февраля 2015 г. (Supreme Council of the Republic of Khakassia. Law #06-ZRKh of February 11, 2015 On the State Anthem of the Republic of Khakassia. Effective as of February 14, 2015.).