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Abakan (Russian: Абака́н, IPA: [ɐbɐˈkan]; Khakas: Ағбан or Абахан) is the capital city of the Republic of Khakassia, Russia, located in the central part of Minusinsk Depression, at the confluence of the Yenisei and Abakan Rivers. As of the 2010 Census, it had a population of 165,214[7]—a slight increase over 165,197 recorded during the 2002 Census[14] and a further increase from 154,092 recorded during the 1989 Census.[15]


Other transcription(s)
 • KhakasАғбан, Абахан
Abakan City Administration building
Abakan City Administration building
Flag of Abakan
Coat of arms of Abakan
Coat of arms
Anthem: none[2]
Location of Abakan
Abakan is located in Russia
Location of Abakan
Abakan is located in Khakassia
Abakan (Khakassia)
Coordinates: 53°43′N 91°28′E / 53.717°N 91.467°E / 53.717; 91.467Coordinates: 53°43′N 91°28′E / 53.717°N 91.467°E / 53.717; 91.467
Federal subjectKhakassia[1]
City status since30 April 1931[4]
 • BodyCouncil of Deputies[5]
 • Head[5]Nikolay Bulakin[6]
 • Total112.38 km2 (43.39 sq mi)
245 m (804 ft)
 • Total165,214
 • Estimate 
184,168 (+11.5%)
 • Rank109th in 2010
 • Density1,500/km2 (3,800/sq mi)
 • Subordinated toCity of Abakan[1]
 • Capital ofRepublic of Khakassia[1][9]
 • Capital ofCity of Abakan[1]
 • Urban okrugAbakan Urban Okrug[10]
 • Capital ofAbakan Urban Okrug[10]
Time zoneUTC+7 (MSK+4 Edit this on Wikidata[11])
Postal code(s)[12]
655000–655012, 655014–655019, 655022, 655400, 655899, 655961, 655965, 655966
Dialing code(s)+7 3902
City DaySecond to last Saturday in August[13]
OKTMO ID95701000001



Abakansky ostrog (Абаканский острог), also known as Abakansk (Абаканск), was built at the mouth of the Abakan River in 1675.[3] In the 1780s, the selo of Ust-Abakanskoye (Усть-Абаканское) was established in this area.[3] It was granted town status and given its current name on 30 April 1931.[4]

Chinese exilesEdit

In 1940, Russian construction workers found ancient ruins during the construction of a highway between Abakan and Askiz. When the site was excavated by Soviet archaeologists in 1941–1945, they realized that they had discovered a building absolutely unique for the area: a large (1500 square meters) Chinese-style, likely Han Dynasty era (206 BC–220 AD) palace. The identity of the high-ranking personage who lived luxuriously in Chinese style, far outside of the borders of the Han Empire, has remained a matter for discussion ever since. Russian archaeologist L.A. Yevtyukhova surmised, based on circumstantial evidence, that the palace may have been the residence of Li Ling, a Chinese general who had been defeated by the Xiongnu in 99 BCE, and defected to them as a result.[16] While this opinion has remained popular, other views have been expressed as well. More recently, for example, it was claimed by A.A. Kovalyov as the residence of Lu Fang (盧芳), a Han throne pretender from the Guangwu era.[17]

Lithuanian exilesEdit

In the late 18th and during the 19th century, Lithuanian participants in the 1794, 1830–1831, and 1863 rebellions against Russian rule were exiled to Abakan. A group of camps was established where prisoners were forced to work in the coal mines. After Stalin's death, Lithuanian exiles from the nearby settlements moved in.[18]

Administrative and municipal statusEdit

Abakan is the capital of the republic.[1][19] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the City of Abakan—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts[1] As a municipal division, the City of Abakan is incorporated as Abakan Urban Okrug.[10]


The city has a river port, industry enterprises, Katanov State University of Khakasia, and three theatres. Furthermore, it has a commercial center that produces footwear, foodstuffs, and metal products.


Abakan (together with Tayshet) was a terminal of the major Abakan-Taishet Railway. Now it is an important railway junction.

The city is served by the Abakan International Airport.


The 100th Air Assault Brigade of the Russian Airborne Troops was based in the city until circa  1996.[20]


Statue of Vladimir Lenin in Abakan
Abakan Cathedral of the Transfiguration

Abakan's sites of interest include:

  • Holy Transfiguration Cathedral
  • "Good Angel of Peace" sculpture
  • Park of Topiary Art (Park Topiarnogo Iskucstva)
  • Khakasskiy Natsional'nyy Krayevedcheskiy Muzey Im. L.r. Kyzlasova (Local history museum)


Bandy, similar to hockey, is the one of the most popular sports in the city. Sayany-Khakassia[21] was playing in the top-tier Super League in the 2012–13 season but was relegated for the 2013–14 season and has been playing in the Russian Bandy Supreme League ever since. Russian Government Cup was played here in 1988 and in 2012.



Abakan has a borderline humid continental (Köppen climate classification Dwb)/cold semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk). Temperature differences between seasons are extreme, which is typical for Siberia. Precipitation is concentrated in the summer and is less common because of rain shadow from nearby mountains.

Climate data for Abakan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.0
Average high °C (°F) −13.9
Daily mean °C (°F) −18.3
Average low °C (°F) −22.8
Record low °C (°F) −45
Average precipitation mm (inches) 7.6



  1. ^ a b c d e f g Law #20
  2. ^ Article 7 of the Charter of Abakan lists a flag and a coat of arms but not an anthem among the symbols of the city
  3. ^ a b c Энциклопедия Города России ["Cities and Towns of Russia" Encyclopedia]. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 13. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  4. ^ a b Resolution of April 30, 1931
  5. ^ a b Charter of Abakan, Article 20
  6. ^ Official website of Abakan. Nikolay Genrikhovich Bulakin ‹See Tfd›(in Russian)
  7. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  8. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  9. ^ Munro 1995, p. 2
  10. ^ a b c Law #59
  11. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  12. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) ‹See Tfd›(in Russian)
  13. ^ Charter of Abakan, Article 7
  14. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  15. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  16. ^ Yevtyukhova 1954[page needed]
  17. ^ Kovalyov 2007, p. 148
  18. ^ Juodvalkytė 2001[page needed]
  19. ^ Hoiberg 1993, p. 7
  20. ^ Schofield 1993[page needed]
  21. ^ Team picture of Sayany-Khakassia
  22. ^ Anon 2012a


  • Верховный Совет Республики Хакасия. Закон №20 от 5 мая 2004 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Хакасия», в ред. Закона №54-ЗРХ от 10 июня 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Хакасия "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Хакасия"». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вестник Хакасии", №22, 12 мая 2004 г. (Supreme Council of the Republic of Khakassia. Law #20 of May 5, 2004 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Republic of Khakassia, as amended by the Law #54-ZRKh of June 10, 2015 On Amending the Law of the Republic of Khakassia "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Republic of Khakassia". Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the official publication date.).
  • Верховный Совет Республики Хакасия. Закон №59 от 7 октября 2004 г. «Об утверждении границ муниципального образования город Абакан и наделении его статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №88-ЗРХ от 7 ноября 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Хакасия "Об утверждении границ муниципального образования город Абакан и наделении его статусом городского округа"». Вступил в силу с 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Вестник Хакасии", №48, 15 октября 2004 г. (Supreme Council of the Republic of Khakassia. Law #59 of October 7, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the City of Abakan and on Granting It Urban Okrug Status, as amended by the Law #88-ZRKh of November 7, 2014 On Amending the Law of the Republic of Khakassia "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the City of Abakan and on Granting It Urban Okrug Status". Effective as of January 1, 2005.).
  • Абаканский городской Совет депутатов. Решение №222 от 28 декабря 2005 г. «Об утверждении устава города Абакан в новой редакции», в ред. Решения №256 от 22 сентября 2015 г. «О внесении изменений и дополнений в Устав города Абакана». Вступил в силу 21 февраля 2006 г. Опубликован: "Абакан", №6, 15–21 февраля 2006 г. (Abakan City Council of Deputies. Decision #222 of December 28, 2005 On Adopting the New Edition of the Charter of the City of Abakan, as amended by the Decision #256 of September 22, 2015 On Amending and Supplementing the Charter of the City of Abakan. Effective as of February 21, 2006.).
  • Президиум Центрального исполнительного комитета СССР. Постановление от 30 апреля 1931 г. «О преобразовании села Усть-Абаканское, центра Хакасской автономной области, в город с переименованием его в "Абакан"». (Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR. Resolution of April 30, 1931 On the Transformation of the Selo of Ust-Abakanskoye, the Center of Khakas Autonomous Oblast, into a City and on Renaming It "Abakan". ).
  • Anon (2012a). "Abakan, Khakasia, Russia #29865". Archived from the original on August 14, 2014. Retrieved August 14, 2014.
  • Anon (2011). "Russia Time Zones - Russia Current Times". Archived from the original on August 14, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
  • Yevtyukhova, L. A. (1954). "Южная Сибирь в древности [Southern Siberia in Ancient Times]". По следам древних культур: от Волги до Тихого Океана [Tracing Ancient Cultures between the Volga and the Pacific] (in Russian). Moscow, Russia. pp. 195–224.
  • Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (1993). Encyclopædia Britannica. 1: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ISBN 0-85229-961-3. LCCN 2002113989.
  • Juodvalkytė, Aldona (2001). "Abakan (Abakanas)". Universal Lithuanian Encyclopedia (in Lithuanian). I: A-Ar. Vilnius, Lithuania: Science and Encyclopedia Publishing Institute.
  • Kovalyov, A. A. (2007). "Китайский император на Енисее? Ещё раз о хозяине ташебинского «дворца» [Chinese Emperor on the Yenisy? Once Again About the Owner of the Tashebik "Palace"]". Этноистория и археология Северной Евразии: теория, методология и практика исследования [The Ethnohistory and Archaeology of Northern Eurasia: Theory, Methods, and Practice] (PDF) (in Russian). Irkutsk, Russian. pp. 145–148. ISBN 978-5-8038-0430-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 14, 2014.
  • Munro, David, ed. (1995). "Abakan". Oxford Dictionary of the World. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866184-3.
  • Schofield, Carey (1993). The Russian Elite: Inside Spetsnaz and the Airborne Forces. Greenhill Press. pp. 249–251. ISBN 1-8536-7155-X.

External linksEdit