Time in Russia

There are eleven time zones in Russia, which currently observe times ranging from UTC+02:00 to UTC+12:00. Daylight saving time (DST) has not been used in Russia since 26 October 2014. From 27 March 2011 to 26 October 2014, permanent DST was used.

Time in Russia
  KALT Kaliningrad Time UTC+2 (MSK−1)
  MSK Moscow Time UTC+3 (MSK±0)
  SAMT Samara Time UTC+4 (MSK+1)
  YEKT Yekaterinburg Time UTC+5 (MSK+2)
  OMST Omsk Time UTC+6 (MSK+3)
  KRAT Krasnoyarsk Time UTC+7 (MSK+4)
  IRKT Irkutsk Time UTC+8 (MSK+5)
  YAKT Yakutsk Time UTC+9 (MSK+6)
  VLAT Vladivostok Time UTC+10 (MSK+7)
  MAGT Magadan Time UTC+11 (MSK+8)
  PETT Kamchatka Time UTC+12 (MSK+9)

List of zonesEdit

Since 27 December 2020, the time zones are as follows:[1][2][3]

Time zone name Time of day and abbreviation UTC offset MSK offset Area covered Population (2020)[4]
Kaliningrad Time 01:15, 24 October 2021 KALT [refresh] UTC+02:00 MSK–1h Kaliningrad Oblast 1,012,512
Moscow Time 02:15, 24 October 2021 MSK [refresh] UTC+03:00 MSK+0h Most of European Russia (excluding federal subjects in UTC+02:00, UTC+04:00 and UTC+05:00 time zones) 90,155,502
Samara Time 03:15, 24 October 2021 SAMT [refresh] UTC+04:00 MSK+1h Astrakhan Oblast, Samara Oblast, Saratov Oblast, Udmurtia and Ulyanovsk Oblast 9,337,988
Yekaterinburg Time 04:15, 24 October 2021 YEKT [refresh] UTC+05:00 MSK+2h Bashkortostan, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Kurgan Oblast, Orenburg Oblast, Perm Krai, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Tyumen Oblast and Yamalia 20,954,998
Omsk Time 05:15, 24 October 2021 OMST [refresh] UTC+06:00 MSK+3h Omsk Oblast 1,926,665
Krasnoyarsk Time 06:15, 24 October 2021 KRAT [refresh] UTC+07:00 MSK+4h Altai Krai, Altai Republic, Kemerovo Oblast, Khakassia, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Novosibirsk Oblast, Tomsk Oblast and Tuva 12,800,529
Irkutsk Time 07:15, 24 October 2021 IRKT [refresh] UTC+08:00 MSK+5h Irkutsk Oblast and Buryatia 3,377,130
Yakutsk Time 08:15, 24 October 2021 YAKT [refresh] UTC+09:00 MSK+6h Amur Oblast, Zabaykalsky Krai and most of the Sakha Republic (excluding districts in UTC+10:00 and UTC+11:00 time zones) 2,769,581
Vladivostok Time 09:15, 24 October 2021 VLAT [refresh] UTC+10:00 MSK+7h Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Khabarovsk Krai, Primorsky Krai, and the Oymyakonsky, Ust-Yansky and Verkhoyansky districts of the Sakha Republic 3,395,760
Magadan Time 10:15, 24 October 2021 SRET [refresh] UTC+11:00 MSK+8h Magadan Oblast, Sakhalin Oblast, and the Abyysky, Allaikhovsky, Momsky, Nizhnekolymsky, Srednekolymsky and Verkhnekolymsky districts of the Sakha Republic 654,621
Kamchatka Time 11:15, 24 October 2021 PETT [refresh] UTC+12:00 MSK+9h Chukotka and Kamchatka Krai 363,304

Daylight saving timeEdit

Daylight saving time in Russia was originally introduced on 1 July [14 July, N.S.] 1917 by a decree of the Russian Provisional Government. However, it was abandoned by a Decree of the Soviet government six months later.

Daylight saving time was re-introduced in the USSR in 1981, beginning on 1 April and ending on 1 October each year, until mid-1984, when the USSR began following European daylight saving time rules, moving clocks forward one hour at 02:00 local standard time on the last Sunday in March, and back one hour at 03:00 local daylight time on the last Sunday in September until 1995, after which the change back occurred on the last Sunday in October.[citation needed]

On 27 March 2011, clocks were advanced as usual, but they did not go back on 30 October 2011, effectively making Moscow Time UTC+04:00 permanently.[5] On 26 October 2014, following another change in the law, the clocks in most of the country were moved back one hour, but summer Daylight Time was not reintroduced; Moscow Time returned to UTC+03:00 permanently.[6]

HistoryEdit

Russian EmpireEdit

In the Russian Empire, most of the nation observed solar time. From 1740s to 1867, Alaska belonged to Russia (Russian America) which used the Julian calendar which was 11 or 12 days behind the Gregorian calendar as the rest of Russia and had local times up to GMT+15:10. The westernmost area of Russia was Congress Poland, with local times down to GMT+01:10.

During the late 19th century, Moscow Mean Time was introduced on 1 January [13 January, N.S.] 1880, originally at GMT+02:30:17.[7] 2:30:17 corresponds to 37.6166667°, the longitude of Moscow. Other parts of Russia kept solar time for several years.

Russia adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1918, when Wednesday 31 January (O.S.) was followed by Thursday 14 February (N.S.), which dropped 13 days from the calendar.

Soviet UnionEdit

After the Soviet Union was created, Moscow Time became UTC+02:00 and the various other time zones (up to UTC+12:00) were introduced throughout Russia and the rest of the Soviet Union, for example Irkutsk Time UTC+07:00 (Irkutsk has since this always been MSK+5).[7] Between 1917 and 1922 the time was less ordered, with daylight saving time some of those years, some with two hours addition, and some of those years with one or two hours extra winter time.[7]

On 21 June 1930, the Soviet Union advanced all clocks by one hour, effectively making the nation run on daylight saving time all year (the so-called decree time).

On 1 April 1981, 00:00:00, Oymyakonsky District changed its time zone from MSK+6 to MSK+8.[8] The change occurred during DST effectively changing the offset from UTC+09:00 to UTC+12:00, the offset without DST was therefore changed from UTC+09:00 to UTC+11:00.[citation needed]

On 1 April 1982, 00:00:00, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug changed its time zone from MSK+10 to MSK+9, thus eliminating Anadyr Time (MSK+10 or UTC+13:00 without DST).[9] The change occurred during DST effectively changing the offset from UTC+14:00 to UTC+13:00, the offset without DST was therefore changed from UTC+13:00 to UTC+12:00.

On 27 March 1988, 02:00:00, Saratov and Volgograd oblasts changed its time zone from MSK+1 to MSK.[10][11] The change occurred during DST effectively changing the offset from UTC+05:00 to UTC+04:00, the offset without DST was therefore changed from UTC+04:00 to UTC+03:00.

On 26 March 1989, Kaliningrad Oblast switched from Moscow Time to Eastern European Time, and the following areas switched to Moscow Time (thus eliminating Samara Time; MSK+1 or UTC+04:00 without DST):

Russian FederationEdit

 
11 time zones in Russia from 2002 to 2010

Russia and most republics in the Soviet Union abolished the decree time (not moving the clocks) on 31 March 1991, but Russia reversed this the following year (except Samara Oblast which was already in UTC+04:00).[citation needed]

On 20 October 1991, Samara Oblast changed its time zone from MSK to MSK+1 (thus reinstating Samara Time; MSK+1), so from UTC+03:00 to UTC+04:00.[12]

On 23 May 1993, Novosibirsk Oblast changed its time zone from MSK+4 to MSK+3.[13] The change occurred during DST effectively changing the offset from UTC+08:00 to UTC+07:00, the offset without DST was therefore changed from UTC+07:00 to UTC+06:00.

On 28 May 1995, Altai Krai and Altai Republic changed its time zone from MSK+4 to MSK+3.[14]

On 30 March 1997, Sakhalin Oblast changed its time zone from MSK+8 to MSK+7.[15]

In May 2002, Tomsk Oblast changed its time zone from MSK+4 to MSK+3.[16]

 
April 2010: 9 zones

The following time zone changes occurred on 28 March 2010, which, in particular, led to abolition of two of the eleven time zones.

Although the Russian government wanted to reduce the number of time zones even further, there were protests in far-eastern Russia on the changes, including a 20,000-strong petition in support of Kamchatka returning to UTC+12:00.[21]

 
September 2011: 9 zones, "permanent DST".

Decree No. 725 of 31 August 2011 changed the UTC offset for Moscow Time and the other time zones.[22] Moscow Time Zone began using UTC+04:00 all year around. The notions of decree time and daylight saving time were abolished, but in fact, this decree mandated permanent daylight saving time (or even double daylight saving time in regions that had not abolished the decree time).

The decree also changed the offset of some parts of the Sakha Republic from Moscow. Oymyakonsky District switched from Magadan Time (MSK+8) to Vladivostok Time (MSK+7), and the following areas switched from Vladivostok Time (MSK+7) to Yakutsk Time (MSK+6):

(MSK+6)
(MSK+7)
(MSK+8)
 
October 2014: 11 zones

As a result of the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, local authorities in the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol decreed that clocks in the newly proclaimed Russian federal subjects should jump ahead two hours at 10 p.m. on 29 March 2014 to switch from Eastern European Time (UTC+02:00) to Moscow Time (UTC+04:00).[23]

On 22 July 2014, further changes were passed, which took effect on 26 October 2014. Almost all of Russia moved back one hour, so Moscow Time became UTC+03:00 again. Some areas changed offset from Moscow:[24]

The parts of the Magadan Time zone that remained on MSK+8 were given a new time zone name, Srednekolymsk Time, UTC+11:00. Annual DST changes were not observed.[25]

 
Time zones in Russia, difference with apparent solar time:
  -2 h ± 30 min
  -1 h ± 30 min
  ± 30 min
  +1 h ± 30 min
  +2 h ± 30 min

The following time zone changes occurred on 27 March 2016:[26]

  • Sakhalin Oblast moved forward one hour from UTC+10:00 to UTC+11:00 (from Vladivostok to Srednekolymsk time), except Severo-Kurilsky District, which was already in UTC+11:00 (Srednekolymsk Time)
  • Zabaykalsky Krai moved forward one hour from UTC+08:00 to UTC+09:00 (from Irkutsk to Yakutsk time)
  • Altai Krai and Altai Republic moved forward one hour from UTC+06:00 to UTC+07:00 (from Omsk to Krasnoyarsk time)
  • Astrakhan and Ulyanovsk oblasts moved forward one hour from UTC+03:00 to UTC+04:00 (from Moscow to Samara time)

On 24 April 2016, Magadan Oblast moved forward one hour from UTC+10:00 to UTC+11:00 (from Vladivostok to Srednekolymsk time).[27] After this change, the UTC+11:00 time zone was again called Magadan Time.[28]

On 29 May 2016, Tomsk Oblast moved forward one hour from UTC+06:00 to UTC+07:00 (from Omsk to Krasnoyarsk time).[29]

On 24 July 2016, Novosibirsk Oblast moved forward one hour from UTC+06:00 to UTC+07:00 (from Omsk to Krasnoyarsk time).[30]

On 4 December 2016, Saratov Oblast moved forward one hour from UTC+03:00 to UTC+04:00 (from Moscow to Samara time).[31][32]

On 28 October 2018, Volgograd Oblast moved forward one hour from UTC+03:00 to UTC+04:00 (from Moscow to Samara time),[33] but this change was reverted on 27 December 2020.[34][35]

Railway timeEdit

Until 2018, all timetables on Russian Railways (except Sakhalin railways) followed Moscow Time. From 2018 time tables follow local time.[36][37] Airports and flights follow local time.[38]

Tz DatabaseEdit

For Russia, the tz database contains several zones in the file zone.tab.

List of zonesEdit

The list below shows the 16 zones for Russia as defined in the file zone.tab of the database. The database aims to identify regions that had the same time offset rules since 1970.

Two federal subjects are contained in more than one tz zone. The Sakha Republic is divided into three: west, central, east. Sakhalin Oblast is divided into two: Sakhalin Island with Kurilsky and Yuzhno-Kurilsky districts in the Kuril Islands, and Severo-Kurilsky District in the Kuril Islands.

On the last Sunday in October 2011, daylight-saving time ended in tzdata, but all zones moved forward one hour. In other words, the clocks did not change, but the names of the time zones reverted permanently to their standard time variants and there will be no more daylight-saving time.[citation needed]

If available, the change column lists the offset changes that caused a creation of a new zone in the tz database.

"Initial zone" means that in 1970 there was already a difference in time offset from the offsets in any other zone.

C.c. Coordinates tzid Comments UTC offset (without DST, permanent since 2011) Covered area Split from[citation needed] Changes
RU +5443+02030 Europe/Kaliningrad MSK-01 - Kaliningrad +02:00 Kaliningrad Oblast Initial zone 1989-03-26 Change from UTC+03:00 to UTC+02:00
RU +554521+0373704 Europe/Moscow MSK+00 - Moscow area +03:00 Most of European Russia. Complete list given here. Initial zone
RU +4844+04425 Europe/Volgograd MSK+00 - Volgograd +03:00 Kirov Oblast, Saratov Oblast, Volgograd Oblast, and Astrakhan Oblast Europe/Samara 1992-03-29 Zone creation, causing change from UTC+04:00 to UTC+03:00
RU +5312+05009 Europe/Samara MSK+01 - Samara, Udmurtia +04:00 Samara Oblast and Udmurtia Initial zone 2010-03-28 Change from UTC+04:00 to UTC+03:00
RU +5420+04824 Europe/Ulyanovsk MSK+01 - Ulyanovsk +04:00 Ulyanovsk Oblast Europe/Moscow 2016-03-27 Zone creation, causing change from UTC+03:00 to UTC+04:00
RU +5651+06036 Asia/Yekaterinburg MSK+02 - Urals +05:00 Bashkortostan, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Kurgan Oblast, Orenburg Oblast, Perm Krai, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Tyumen Oblast, and Yamalia Initial zone
RU +5500+07324 Asia/Omsk MSK+03 - Omsk +06:00 Altai Krai, Altai Republic, and Omsk Oblast
RU +5502+08255 Asia/Novosibirsk MSK+04 - Novosibirsk +07:00 Novosibirsk Oblast and Tomsk Oblast.
RU +5345+08707 Asia/Novokuznetsk MSK+04 - Kemerovo +07:00 Kemerovo Oblast Asia/Novosibirsk 2010-03-28 Zone creation, causing change from Krasnoyarsk Time to Novosibirsk Time[40]
RU +5601+09250 Asia/Krasnoyarsk MSK+04 - Krasnoyarsk area +07:00 Khakassia, Krasnoyarsk Krai, and Tuva Republic
RU +5216+10420 Asia/Irkutsk MSK+05 - Irkutsk, Buryatia +08:00 Irkutsk Oblast and Buryatia
RU +6200+12940 Asia/Yakutsk MSK+06 - Lena River +09:00 Amur Oblast, Zabaykalsky Krai, and western Sakha Republic
RU +4310+13156 Asia/Vladivostok MSK+07 - Amur River +10:00 Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Khabarovsk Krai, Primorsky Krai, and central Sakha Republic Initial zone
RU +4658+14242 Asia/Sakhalin MSK+08 - Sakhalin Island +11:00 Sakhalin Island, and western Kuril Islands Asia/Magadan 1997-03-30 Zone creation, causing change from UTC+11 to UTC+10
RU +643337+1431336 Asia/Ust-Nera MSK+07 - Oymyakonsky +10:00 Oymyakonsky District Asia/Yakutsk 1981-04-01 Changed to Magadan time
RU +5934+15048 Asia/Magadan MSK+08 - Magadan +11:00 Magadan Oblast Initial zone 2014-10-26 Split: Magadan Oblast changed to Vladivostok time, other areas using new Srednekolymsk time
RU +6728+15343 Asia/Srednekolymsk MSK+08 - Sakha (E); North Kuril Is +11:00 eastern Kuril Islands, and eastern Sakha Republic Asia/Magadan 2014-10-26
RU +5301+15839 Asia/Kamchatka MSK+09 - Kamchatka +12:00 Kamchatka Krai Initial zone 2010-03-28 Change from UTC+12:00 to UTC+11:00
RU +6445+17729 Asia/Anadyr MSK+09 - Bering Sea +12:00 Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Initial zone

Deleted zonesEdit

Asia/Ulan Ude was a time zone identifier from the zone file of the tz database. The reference point was Ulan-Ude. It was added in tz version 2011e.[41] Edition 2011i did not contain it anymore. The area remained at Asia/Irkutsk. The contained data in zone.tab was:

RU
+5150+10736
Asia/Ulan_Ude
Moscow+05 - Buryatia

The covered area was Republic of Buryatia.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Federal law of 3 June 2011 no. 107-FZ (as amended on 22 December 2020) "On the calculation of time", Article 5. Time zones, Consultant Plus. (in Russian)
  2. ^ Russia time zones map with current local time, World Time Zone, 28 October 2018.
  3. ^ Time Zones Currently Being Used in Russia, Timeanddate.com.
  4. ^ Population of the Russian Federation by municipalities, Federal State Statistics Service of Russia. (in Russian)
  5. ^ "Медведев отменил зимнее время". Lenta.ru. 8 February 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2011.
  6. ^ Russian clocks go back for last time, BBC News, 25 October 2014
  7. ^ a b c Time Zone in Moscow, Russia
  8. ^ Clock Changes in Ust-Nera, Russia in 1981. Timeanddate.com.
  9. ^ Clock Changes in Anadyr, Russia in 1982. Timeanddate.com.
  10. ^ Clock Changes in Saratov, Russia in 1988. Timeanddate.com.
  11. ^ Clock Changes in Volgograd, Russia in 1988. Timeanddate.com.
  12. ^ Clock Changes in Samara, Russia in 1991. Timeanddate.com.
  13. ^ Time changes in year 1993 for Russia – Novosibirsk. Timeanddate.com. Retrieved on 2014-06-07.
  14. ^ Clock Changes in Barnaul, Russia in 1995. Timeanddate.com.
  15. ^ Clock Changes in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia in 1997. Timeanddate.com.
  16. ^ Clock Changes in Tomsk, Russia in 2002. Timeanddate.com.
  17. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №171 от 19 марта 2010 г. «О применении на территории Камчатского края и Чукотского автономного округа времени десятого часового пояса». Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №58, 22 марта 2010 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #171 of 19 March 2010 On Using the Time of the Tenth Time Zone on the Territory of Kamchatka Krai and Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. ).
  18. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №740 от 14 сентября 2009 г. «О применении на территории Кемеровской области времени пятого часового пояса». (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #740 of 14 September 2009 On Using the Time of the Fifth Time Zone on the Territory of Kemerovo Oblast. ).
  19. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №166 от 17 марта 2010 г. «О применении на территории Удмуртской Республики времени второго часового пояса». Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №58, 22 марта 2010 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #166 of 17 March 2010 On Using the Time of the Second Time Zone on the Territory of the Udmurt Republic. ).
  20. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №170 от 19 марта 2010 г. «О применении на территории Самарской области времени второго часового пояса». Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №58, 22 марта 2010 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #170 of 19 March 2010 On Using the Time of the Second Time Zone on the Territory of Samara Oblast. ).
  21. ^ "Thousands Protest Time Zone Changes in Russia". 13 December 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
  22. ^ Постановление Правительства Российской Федерации № 725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации».
  23. ^ "Crimea switches to Moscow time". Voice of Russia. 29 March 2014. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  24. ^ "New Russian time zones and the corresponding areas from October 26, 2014", World Time Zone, 22 July 2014.
  25. ^ "Russia Moving to Permanent Winter Time From October 26", RIA Novosti 22 July 2014, retrieved 26 July 2014
  26. ^ Russia Changes Several Time Zones, Timeanddate.com, 17 March 2016.
  27. ^ Russia Changes Time Zone in Magadan, Timeanddate.com, 7 April 2016.
  28. ^ https://www.timeanddate.com/time/zone/russia/magadan
  29. ^ Proposed Time Change in Tomsk, Russia, Timeanddate.com, 27 April 2016.
  30. ^ Proposed Time Change in Novosibirsk, Russia, Timeanddate.com, 5 July 2016.
  31. ^ Proposed Time Change in Saratov, Russia, Timeanddate.com, 14 November 2016.
  32. ^ Vladimir Putin signed law on time change in Saratov Oblast, Vzglyad-info, 22 November 2016. (in Russian)
  33. ^ New Time Zone in Russia's Volgograd Region, Timeanddate.com, 3 October 2018.
  34. ^ New Time Zone in Russia's Volgograd Region, Timeanddate.com, 17 December 2020.
  35. ^ Federal law of 22 December 2020 no. 432-FZ "On amendments to article 5 of federal law 'On the calculation of time'", Official internet portal of legal information of Russia. (in Russian)
  36. ^ Russian trains to end dependence on Moscow time
  37. ^ Russian Railways – Time tables
  38. ^ for example http://www.iktport.ru/
  39. ^ Новости NEWSru.com :: С 1 мая Томская область перешла в новый часовой пояс. Newsru.com. Retrieved on 2014-06-07.
  40. ^ proposed time zone package changes. Gmane. Retrieved on 2014-06-07.
  41. ^ proposeed time zone package changes Chile Russia Irkutsk Buryatia Morocco. Gmane. Retrieved on 2014-06-07.

External linksEdit