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Chelyabinsk Oblast (Russian: Челя́бинская о́бласть, Chelyabinskaya oblast; Bashkir: Силәбе өлкәһе Siläbye ölkähye; Tatar: Чиләбе өлкәсе, Çiläbe ölkäse) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia in the Ural Mountains region, on the border of Europe and Asia.[11][12][13][14] Its administrative center is the city of Chelyabinsk. Population: 3,476,217 (2010 Census).[7]

Chelyabinsk Oblast
Челябинская область
Coat of arms of Chelyabinsk Oblast
Coat of arms
Anthem: Anthem of Chelyabinsk Oblast
Map of Russia - Chelyabinsk Oblast.svg
Coordinates: 54°32′N 60°20′E / 54.533°N 60.333°E / 54.533; 60.333Coordinates: 54°32′N 60°20′E / 54.533°N 60.333°E / 54.533; 60.333
CountryRussia
Federal districtUrals[1]
Economic regionUrals[2]
EstablishedJanuary 17, 1934
Administrative centerChelyabinsk
Government
 • BodyLegislative Assembly[3]
 • Governor [ru][5]Alexey Texler[4]
Area
 • Total87,900 km2 (33,900 sq mi)
Area rank36th
Population
 (2010 Census)[7]
 • Total3,476,217
 • Estimate 
(2018)[8]
3,493,036 (+0.5%)
 • Rank9th
 • Density40/km2 (100/sq mi)
 • Urban
82.0%
 • Rural
18.0%
Time zoneUTC+5 (MSK+2 Edit this on Wikidata[9])
ISO 3166 codeRU-CHE
License plates74, 174
Official languagesRussian[10]
OKTMO ID75000000
Websitehttp://www.pravmin74.ru

Contents

HistoryEdit

During the Middle Ages, Bashkir tribes inhabited the Southern Urals; they formed part of the Golden Horde, Nogai Horde, and smaller Bashkir unions. The Tsardom of Russia incorporated the area in the late 16th century. However, Russian colonization of the region only began in the 18th century, with the establishment of a system of fortresses and trade posts on the then-Russian border by the Orenburg Expedition [ru] in 1734. Many cities of Chelyabinsk Oblast, including the city of Chelyabinsk itself, trace their history back to those forts.

In 1743 the Chelyabinsk fortress became a center of the Iset Province [ru], a constituent part of the Orenburg Governorate (a direct successor of the Orenburg Expedition). The period from the 1750s to the 1770s saw the emergence of industrial enterprises in the Southern Urals when the first factory-centered towns like Miass, Kyshtym, and Zlatoust were founded. After the Southern Urals recovered from the Pugachev's Rebellion of 1773-1775, the territory of modern-day Chelyabinsk Oblast started to attract more people from the European part of Russia. By the mid-19th century Chelyabinsk was a major trade center in the Urals, and after the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway in the 1890s it became an important transport hub that connected Siberia to the rest of the Russian Empire.

In 1919 Chelyabinsk became the regional capital of the newly formed Chelyabinsk Governorate of the Russian SFSR, which combined eastern portions of the Orenburg Governorate with Kurgan of the Tobolsk Governorate. At this time, the population of the new region already exceeded one million people. In 1923, together with the Perm, Yekaterinburg Governorate [ru] and Tyumen governorates, it merged into a single Ural Oblast that lasted only ten years, until 1934. On January 17, 1934, Chelyabinsk Oblast was finally established. Its current boundaries were formed when Kurgan Oblast was detached from it in 1943.

Soviet industrializationEdit

During the 1930s the regional economy and industrial output grew as Chelyabinsk Oblast became a key focus of the First Five-Year Plan. Key factories and enterprises that formed the core of the modern Chelyabinsk economy, including the Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works, the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant and the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant, originated at this time. The economy continued to grow after the outbreak of the Great Patriotic War in 1941, as industries evacuated from the western parts of the Soviet Union to the Urals, and to Chelyabinsk Oblast in particular. During the war, Magnitogorsk alone produced one third of all Soviet steel, while the city of Chelyabinsk became the main center of Soviet tank production, earning the nickname "Tankograd" (Tank City).

Nuclear researchEdit

Chelyabinsk Oblast has been associated[by whom?] with top-secret nuclear research since the 1940s. While there are no nuclear power stations in Chelyabinsk, a number of production reactors were located there starting with the early Cold War. A serious nuclear accident occurred in 1957 at the Mayak nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, 150 km north-west of the city, which led to evacuations and fatalities throughout the oblast, although not in Chelyabinsk city. The province was closed to all foreigners until 1992, with the sole exception of allowing a British medical team in following a two-train rail explosion in the mid-1980s.

Slawomir Grunberg has made the documentary Chelyabinsk: The Most Contaminated Spot on the Planet (1994) about the unsafe dumping of radioactive waste in the Techa River and in Lake Karachay.

Recent historyEdit

On 4 July 1997, Chelyabinsk, alongside Bryansk, Magadan, Saratov, and Vologda signed a power-sharing agreement with the government of Russia, granting it autonomy.[15] The agreement would be abolished on 2 February 2002.[16]

On February 15, 2013, a 10,000 ton meteoroid entered the Earth's atmosphere over Russia at about 09:20 YEKT (03:20 UTC). It passed over the southern Ural region and exploded in an air burst over Chelyabinsk Oblast. About 1,500 people were reported injured, including 311 children. Health officials said 112 people had been hospitalized, mainly from injuries caused by glass from windows shattered by a shock wave; two were reported to be in serious condition. As many as 3,000 buildings in six cities across the region were damaged by the explosion and impacts. The meteor created a dazzling light as it air burst, bright enough to cast shadows during broad daylight in Chelyabinsk.

EconomyEdit

GeographyEdit

 
Border of Europe and Asia on the European route E30

Chelyabinsk Oblast is on the eastern slope of the Southern Urals. Only a small part of the territory to the west is on the western slopes of the Southern Urals.

Chelyabinsk Oblast is situated in the Southern Urals, near Kurgan and Sverdlovsk oblast. Most of the Oblast is located to the east of the Ural Mountains, which form the continental boundary between Europe and Asia. This boundary is marked by a stone pillar at the Uraltau pass near the Urzhumka station (8 km from Zlatoust), which has "Europe" written on one side and "Asia" on the other. In Chelyabinsk Oblast, Zlatoust city, Katav-Ivanovsk, and Satka are located in Europe, while Chelyabinsk, Troitsk, and Miass are in Asia. Magnitogorsk is located on both continents.[18]

The area of Chelyabinsk Oblast is 88,900 km2.[19] The total length of its external border is 2750 km, and the Oblast measures 400 km from north to south and 490 km from west to east.

ReliefEdit

Chelyabinsk Oblast has a very diverse landscape, ranging from lowlands and hilly plains to mountain ranges with peaks exceeding 1,000 m, including Nurgush mountain (1406 m). The mountainous area has several ski resorts.

The West Siberian Plain is bounded on the west horizontal (elevation 190 m above sea level), which passes through the village of Bagaryak, Kunashak and continues through Chelyabinsk to the south. The lowlands are located in the northeast, and the elevation drops to 130 m in the eastern border region.

HydrologyEdit

Numerous rivers originate within the region, within the basins of the Kama, Tobol, and Ural rivers. The region is home to 348 rivers longer than 10 km (totaling 10,235 km in length), 17 of which are over 100 km in length. Seven rivers, the Miass, Uy, Ural, Ay, Ufa, Uvelka, and Gumbeyka, pass through the area and are longer than 200 km.

Chelyabinsk Oblast is also home to more than 3,748 lakes, mostly located in the north and east and covering a total area of 2125 km2. Many of the lakes in this area, including Lake Turgoyak, Zyuratkul, and Lake Itkul, are famous for their clear waters and attract tourism. Some of the lakes in the eastern foothills have tectonic origins as water accumulated in tectonic failures (basins), resulting in very deep lakes that can reach 30–40 m.

PoliticsEdit

 
Seat of the Oblast government in Chelyabinsk

During the Soviet period, the highest authority in the Oblast was shared between three positions: the First Secretary of the Chelyabinsk CPSU Committee (who held the most power), the Chairman of the Oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the Oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the CPSU lost its monopoly on power.

Today, the Charter of Chelyabinsk Oblast governs the political structure of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Chelyabinsk Oblast serves as the province's regional parliament and exercises legislative authority, with the power to pass laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and oversee their implementation and observance. The Oblast Government, led by the Governor, is the highest executive body in the region, and includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day-to-day matters of the province.

Administrative divisionsEdit

DemographicsEdit

 
Governor's residence

Population: 3,476,217 (2010 Census);[7] 3,603,339 (2002 Census);[20] 3,623,732 (1989 Census).[21]

SettlementsEdit

Chelyabinsk Oblast is highly urbanized.

According to the 2010 Census, the Oblast's ethnic composition was:[7]

  • 2,829,899 Russians (83.8%);
  • 180,913 Tatars (5.4%);
  • 162,513 Bashkirs (4.8%);
  • 50,081 Ukrainians (1.5%);
  • 35,297 Kazakhs (1.00%);
  • 18,687 Germans (0.5%);
  • 13,035 Belarusians (0.4%);
  • 12,147 Mordvins (0.2%);
  • 9,311 Armenians (0.3%);
  • 65,190 others (1.6);
  • 99,144 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[19]
  • Births (2011): 47,300 (13.6 per 1000)
  • Deaths (2011): 49,469 (14.2 per 1000)[22]
Vital statistics for 2012[23]
  • Births: 49 885 (14.3 per 1000)
  • Deaths: 49 367 (14.2 per 1000)

Total fertility rate:[24]

2009 - 1.63 | 2010 - 1.65 | 2011 - 1.70 | 2012 - 1.81 | 2013 - 1.80 | 2014 - 1.86 | 2015 - 1.84 | 2016 - 1.81(e)

ReligionEdit

Religion in Chelyabinsk Oblast as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[25][26]
Russian Orthodoxy
30.9%
Other Orthodox
5.1%
Other Christians
8.9%
Islam
6.9%
Rodnovery and other native faiths
0.7%
Spiritual but not religious
29%
Atheism and irreligion
14.5%
Other and undeclared
4%

According to a 2012 survey,[25] 30.9% of the population of Chelyabinsk Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 8% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 5% adheres to other Orthodox Churches, 8% of the population is Muslim, 1% adheres to Slavic Rodnovery (Slavic Neopaganism), and 0.4% to forms of Hinduism (Vedism, Krishnaism or Tantrism). In addition, 29% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 14% is atheist, and 4.7% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[25]

Vital statistics for 2008Edit

Source:[27]

District (2008) Type Births Deaths NG BR DR NGR
Chelyabinsk Oblast Obl 44931 52625 -7694 12.8 15.0 -0.22%
Urban Areas Obl 34550 41787 -7237 12.1 14.6 -0.25%
Rural Areas Obl 10381 10838 -457 15.9 16.6 -0.07%
Chelyabinsk Urb 12540 14192 -1652 11.5 13.0 -0.15%
Verkhny Ufaley Urb 516 727 -211 13.6 19.1 -0.55%
Zlatoust Urb 2111 2658 -547 11.1 13.9 -0.28%
Karabash Urb 227 262 -35 14.5 16.7 -0.22%
Kopeysk Urb 1737 2476 -739 12.5 17.8 -0.53%
Kyshtym Urb 535 695 -160 12.5 16.2 -0.37%
Lokomotivny Urb 117 41 76 11.8 4.1 0.77%
Magnitogorsk Urb 5276 6112 -836 12.9 14.9 -0.20%
Miass Urb 2289 2559 -270 13.7 15.3 -0.16%
Ozyorsk Urb 912 1312 -400 9.2 13.2 -0.40%
Snezhinsk Urb 544 586 -42 10.8 11.6 -0.08%
Tryokhgorny Urb 402 338 64 11.7 9.8 0.19%
Troitsk Urb 1085 1269 -184 13.2 15.4 -0.22%
Ust-Katav Urb 318 515 -197 11.3 18.2 -0.69%
Chebarkul Urb 550 698 -148 12.7 16.2 -0.35%
Yuzhnouralsk Urb 428 602 -174 11.1 15.6 -0.45%
Agapovsky Rur 649 513 136 18.5 14.6 0.39%
Argayashsky Rur 831 671 160 19.7 15.9 0.38%
Ashinsky Rur 831 1286 -455 12.6 19.5 -0.69%
Bredinsky Rur 485 480 5 15.6 15.4 0.02%
Varnensky Rur 460 453 7 15.9 15.7 0.02%
Verkhneuralsky Rur 575 743 -168 13.6 17.6 -0.40%
Yemanzhelinsky Rur 648 923 -275 12.2 17.3 -0.51%
Yetkulsky Rur 443 466 -23 14.7 15.5 -0.08%
Kartalinsky Rur 702 809 -107 14.1 16.2 -0.21%
Kaslinsky Rur 461 758 -297 12.0 19.7 -0.77%
Katav-Ivanovsky Rur 448 709 -261 12.8 20.2 -0.74%
Kizilsky Rur 432 400 32 16.2 15.0 0.12%
Korkinsky Rur 900 1256 -356 13.8 19.3 -0.55%
Krasnoarmeysky Rur 638 754 -116 14.6 17.3 -0.27%
Kunashaksky Rur 521 549 -28 17.6 18.6 -0.10%
Kusinsk Rur 420 535 -115 13.9 17.7 -0.38%
Nagaybaksky Rur 334 392 -58 15.0 17.7 -0.27%
Nyazepetrovsky Rur 298 433 -135 14.6 21.3 -0.67%
Oktyabrsky Rur 419 398 21 15.6 14.8 0.08%
Plastovsky Rur 450 453 -3 17.2 17.3 -0.01%
Satkinsky Rur 1230 1398 -168 14.2 16.1 -0.19%
Sosnovsky Rur 942 933 9 16.0 15.8 0.02%
Troitsky Rur 529 506 23 17.1 16.3 0.08%
Uvelsky Rur 508 533 -25 16.1 16.9 -0.08%
Uysky Rur 385 387 -2 14.6 14.7 -0.01%
Chebarkulsky Rur 494 538 -44 16.6 18.1 -0.15%
Chesmensky Rur 311 307 4 15.5 15.3 0.02%

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ Charter, Article 8.3-1
  4. ^ Official website of the Governor of Chelyabinsk Oblast. Boris Alexandrovich Dubrovsky Archived 2014-07-07 at the Wayback Machine, Acting Governor of Chelyabinsk Oblast
  5. ^ Charter, Article 8.4
  6. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
  7. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  8. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  9. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  10. ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  11. ^ "Investing in Chelyabinsk city - Invest in Russia". Unvestunrussia.biz. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
  12. ^ "On cooperation between the Chelyabinsk region and Japan" (PDF). Rotobo.or.jp. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
  13. ^ "Invest in Ural". Investunural.com. Archived from the original on 2013-02-24. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
  14. ^ "Guide to Investment : Chelyabinsk Region" (PDF). Econom-chelrug.ru. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-06. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
  15. ^ "Moscow Signs Power-Sharing Agreements With Five More Regions". Jamestown. 1997-07-07. Retrieved 2019-05-02.
  16. ^ Chuman, Mizuki. "The Rise and Fall of Power-Sharing Treaties Between Center and Regions in Post-Soviet Russia" (PDF). Demokratizatsiya: 146.
  17. ^ "Выписки ЕГРЮЛ и ЕГРИП, проверка контрагентов, ИНН и КПП организаций, реквизиты ИП и ООО". СБИС (in Russian). Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  18. ^ "Magnitogorsk - is our city in the Urals". City of Magnitogorsk. August 24, 2012. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  19. ^ a b "ВПН-2010". Perepis-2010.ru. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
  20. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (21 May 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  21. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  22. ^ [1][dead link]
  23. ^ "Естественное движение населения в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации". Gks.ru. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
  24. ^ "Каталог публикаций::Федеральная служба государственной статистики". Gks.ru. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
  25. ^ a b c "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  26. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
  27. ^ [2][dead link]

SourcesEdit

  • Законодательное Собрание Челябинской области. Закон №22-ЗО от 25 мая 2006 г. «Устав (основной закон) Челябинской области», в ред. Закона №427-ЗО от 30 апреля 2009 г. (Legislative Assembly of Chelyabinsk Oblast. Law #22-ZO of May 25, 2006 Charter (Basic Law) of Chelyabinsk Oblast, as amended by the Law #427-ZO of April 30, 2009. ).

External linksEdit