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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Russian pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Russian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Russian. For a list of common pronunciation errors, see Anglophone pronunciation of foreign languages § Russian. See Russian alphabet for help converting spelling to pronunciation.

Russian distinguishes hard (unpalatalized or plain) and soft (palatalized) consonants. Soft consonants, most of which are denoted by a superscript j, ⟨ʲ⟩, are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, like the articulation of the y sound in yes. /j, ɕː, tɕ/ are always soft, whereas /ʂ, ts, ʐ/ are always hard.

Consonants
Hard Soft
IPA Examples English approximation IPA Examples English approximation
b About this soundбок; апде́йт[1] boot About this soundбе́лый beautiful
d About this soundдать; About this soundфутбо́л[1] do About this soundде́ло; About this soundходьба́; About this soundжени́тьба[1] dew (UK)
f About this soundфо́рма; About this soundвы́ставка;[1] About this soundбо́ров[2] fool About this soundфина́л; About this soundверфь; About this soundкровь[2] few
ɡ About this soundгод[3][4]; About this soundанекдо́т[1] goo ɡʲ About this soundгеро́й argue
N/A j About this soundесть [je-]; About this soundёж [jɵ-]; About this soundюг [ju-]; About this soundя [ja]; About this soundмайо́р[5] yes, York, you, yard, boy
k About this soundкость; About this soundбе́гство[1]; About this soundфлаг[2] scar About this soundкино́; секью́рити skew
l About this soundлуна́[6] pill About this soundлес; About this soundболь lean
m About this soundмы́ло moot About this soundмя́со; About this soundсемь mute
n About this soundнос noon About this soundнёс; About this soundдень; About this soundко́нчик[7] newt (for some dialects)
p About this soundпод; About this soundры́бка[1]; About this soundзуб[2] span About this soundпе́пел; About this soundцепь; About this soundзыбь[2] spew
r About this soundраз flapped or trilled r, like in Spanish About this soundряд; About this soundзверь flapped or trilled r, like in Spanish
s About this soundсоба́ка; About this soundска́зка[1]; About this soundглаз[2] soup About this soundси́ний; About this soundздесь; About this soundесть; About this soundгрызть[1] assume (for some dialects)
ʂ About this soundширо́кий; About this soundкни́жка[1]; About this soundмуж[2]; About this soundчто[8] rush ɕː About this soundщека́; About this soundсчита́ть; About this soundмужчи́на[9][10] wish sheep
t About this soundто; About this soundво́дка;[1] About this soundлёд[2] stand About this soundтень; About this soundдитя́; About this soundпуть; About this soundгрудь[2] stew (UK; for some dialects)
ts[11] About this soundцена́; About this soundнра́виться[10] cats [11] About this soundчай; About this soundтечь[10] chip
v About this soundвы; его́[4]; афга́н[1] voodoo About this soundвесь; About this soundвью́га view
x About this soundход; About this soundБог[3][10] loch (Scottish) About this soundхи́трый; Хью́стон; About this soundлёгкий[1][3][10] huge (for some dialects)
z About this soundзуб; About this soundсбор[1] zoo About this soundзима́; резьба́; About this soundжизнь; About this soundпро́сьба[1] presume (for some dialects)
ʐ About this soundжест; волшба́[1] rouge ʑː About this soundпо́зже[12] prestige genre
Stressed vowels
[-soft] [+soft]
IPA Examples English approximation IPA Examples English approximation
a About this soundтрава́ father æ About this soundпять; About this soundча́сть[13] pat (US)
ɛ About this soundжест; About this soundэ́тот met e About this soundпень; About this soundэ́тика[13] penny
ɨ About this soundты; About this soundши́шка; с и́грами roses (for some dialects) i About this soundли́ния; About this soundи́ли meet
o About this soundо́блако; About this soundшёпот chore ɵ About this soundтётя; About this soundплечо́[13] bird (non-rhotic)
u About this soundпу́ля boot ʉ About this soundчуть; About this soundлю́ди[13] choose
Unstressed vowels
[-soft] [+soft]
IPA Examples English approximation IPA Examples English approximation
ɐ About this soundоблака́; About this soundкако́й; About this soundсообража́ть; About this soundтропа́[14] bud N/A
ə About this soundко́жа; About this soundо́блако; About this soundсе́рдце about ə About this soundво́ля; About this soundсего́дня; About this soundку́ча[15] lasagna
ɨ About this soundдыша́ть; About this soundжена́; About this soundво́ды; About this soundэта́п; About this soundк Ива́ну roses (for some dialects) ɪ About this soundлиса́; About this soundчеты́ре; About this soundтяжёлый; About this soundде́вять; About this soundчасы́[16] bit
ʊ About this soundмужчи́на put ʉ About this soundчуде́сный; About this soundлюби́ть[13] youth
ɛ тетра́эдр; поэте́сса[17] met N/A
o About this soundра́дио; поэте́сса[17] chore ɵ ма́чо; сёрфинги́ст[18] bird (non-rhotic)
Suprasegmental
IPA Example Explanation
ˈ About this soundчеты́ре [t͡ɕɪˈtɨrʲɪ] Stress mark, placed before the stressed syllable
ː About this soundсза́ди [ˈzːadʲɪ][1] Consonant length mark, placed after the geminated consonant

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Consonants in consonant clusters are assimilated in voicing if the final consonant in the sequence is an obstruent (except [v, vʲ]). All consonants become voiceless if the final consonant is voiceless or voiced if the final consonant is voiced (Halle 1959:31).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i The voiced obstruents /b, bʲ, d, dʲ, ɡ, v, vʲ, z, zʲ, ʐ/ are devoiced word-finally unless the next word begins with a voiced obstruent (Halle 1959:22).
  3. ^ a b c г⟩ is usually pronounced [ɣ] or [x] in some religious words and colloquial derivatives from them, such as  Го́споди and  Бог, and in the interjections  ага́,  ого́,  го́споди,  ей-бо́гу, and also in бухга́лтер [bʊˈɣaltʲɪr] (Timberlake 2004:23). /ɡ/ devoices and lenites to [x] before voiceless obstruents (dissimilation) in the word roots -мягк- or -мягч-, -легк- or -легч-, -тягч-, and also in the old-fashioned pronunciation of -ногт-, -когт-, кто. Speakers of the Southern Russian dialects may pronounce ⟨г⟩ as [ɣ] (soft [ɣʲ], devoiced [x] and []) throughout.
  4. ^ a b Intervocalic ⟨г⟩ represents /v/ in certain words ( сего́дня,  сего́дняшний, итого́ ), and in the genitive suffix -ого/-его (Timberlake 2004:23).
  5. ^ The soft vowel letters ⟨е, ë, ю, я⟩ represent iotated vowels /je, jo, ju, ja/, except when following a consonant. When these vowels are unstressed (save for ⟨ë⟩, which is always stressed) and follow another vowel letter, the /j/ may not be present. The letter ⟨и⟩ produces iotated sound /ji/ only after ь.
  6. ^ /l/ is often strongly pharyngealized [ɫ], but that feature is not distinctive (Ladefoged & Maddieson 1996:187-188).
  7. ^ Alveo-palatal consonants are subjected to regressive assimilative palatalization; i.e. they tend to become palatalized in front of other phones with the same place of articulation.
  8. ^ Most speakers pronounce ⟨ч⟩ in the pronoun что and its derivatives as [ʂ]. All other occurrences of чт cluster stay as affricate and stop.
  9. ^ щ⟩ is sometimes pronounced as [ɕː] or [ɕɕ] and sometimes as [ɕtɕ], but no speakers contrast the two pronunciations. It is generally includes the other spellings of the sound, but the word счи́тывать sometimes has [ɕtɕ] because of the morpheme boundary between the prefix ⟨с-⟩ and the root ⟨-чит-⟩.
  10. ^ a b c d e [ts], [tɕ], [ɕː], [x], have voiced allophones, [dz], [], [ʑː], [ɣ] respectively, before voiced stop consonants. Examples:  плацда́рм, начди́в,  дочь бы, вещдо́к, трёхдне́вный.
  11. ^ a b The affricates [ts] and [tɕ] are sometimes written with ligature ties: [t͡s] and [t͡ɕ]. Ties are not used in transcriptions on Wikipedia (except in phonology articles) because they may not display correctly in all browsers.
  12. ^ Geminated [ʐː] is pronounced as soft [ʑː], the voiced counterpart to [ɕː], in a few lexical items (such as дрожжи or заезжать) by conservative Moscow speakers; such realization is now somewhat obsolete (Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015:224)).
  13. ^ a b c d e Vowels are fronted and/or raised in the context of palatalized consonants: /a/ and /u/ become [æ] and [ʉ], respectively between palatalized consonants, /e/ is realized as [e] before and between palatalized consonants and /o/ becomes [ɵ] after and between palatalized consonants.
  14. ^ Word-initial and pretonic (before the stress) /a/ and /o/, as well as when in a sequence.
  15. ^ Only in certain word-final morphemes (Timberlake 2004:48-51).
  16. ^ Unstressed /a/ is pronounced as [ɪ] after ⟨ч⟩ and ⟨щ⟩ except when word-final.[citation needed]
  17. ^ a b In the careful style of pronunciation unstressed /e/ and /o/ in foreign words may be pronounced with little or no reduction.
  18. ^ Unstressed [ɵ] only occurs in foreign words.

ReferencesEdit

  • Cubberley, Paul (2002), "The phonology of Modern Russian", Russian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge University Press
  • Halle, Morris (1959), Sound Pattern of Russian, MIT Press
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.
  • Timberlake, Alan (2004), "Sounds", A Reference Grammar of Russian, Cambridge University Press
  • Yanushevskaya, Irena; Bunčić, Daniel (2015), "Russian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 45 (2): 221–228, doi:10.1017/S0025100314000395