Help:IPA/Ukrainian

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet represents Ukrainian language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-uk}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

Ukrainian contrasts palatalized "soft" and unpalatalized "hard" consonants. Palatalized consonants, denoted by a superscript ⟨j⟩, are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, like in the [j] sound in yes.

See Ukrainian phonology for more details on the sounds of Ukrainian.

Consonants
Hard Soft
IPA Examples English approximations IPA Examples English approximations
b бог[1] About this sound[bɔɦ] boot N/A
d дим[1] About this sound[dɪm] do дім, мідь[1] About this sound[d⁽ʲ⁾im], [midʲ] dew
dz дзе́ркало[1] About this sound[ˈdzɛrkɐlo] pads dzʲ ґедзь, дзьоб[1] About this sound[ɡɛdzʲ], About this sound[dzʲɔb] pad's yours
джміль[1] About this sound[dʒmilʲ] jump, ridge N/A
f фа́рба About this sound[ˈfɑrbɐ] fool
ɡ ґа́нок[1] About this sound[ˈɡɑnok] good
ɣ чахохбі́лі[1] [tʃɐxoɣˈbil⁽ʲ⁾i] between good and hood
ɦ газе́та About this sound[ɦɐˈzɛtɐ] behind
N/A j йти, гай, їда́льня About this sound[jtɪ], About this sound[ɦɑj], About this sound[jiˈdɑlʲnʲɐ] yes
k ключ About this sound[klʲutʃ] scar N/A
l лось About this sound[lɔsʲ] bell лід, сіль About this sound[l⁽ʲ⁾id], About this sound[s⁽ʲ⁾ilʲ] least
m мир About this sound[mɪr] moot N/A
n не́бо About this sound[ˈnɛbo] noon ні́жний, день About this sound[ˈn⁽ʲ⁾iʒnɪj], About this sound[dɛnʲ] new
p пил About this sound[pɪl] spare N/A
r лі́кар About this sound[ˈl⁽ʲ⁾ikɐr] trilled r, like in Spanish riesgo рі́чка About this sound[ˈr⁽ʲ⁾itʃkɐ] trilled r, like in Spanish riesgo
s суп About this sound[sup] soup сі́но, вісь About this sound[ˈs⁽ʲ⁾ino], [wisʲ] suit
ʃ шпари́на, ви́ще About this sound[ʃpɐˈrɪnɐ], About this sound[ˈwɪʃtʃe] shop N/A
t тин About this sound[tɪn] star тінь, мить About this sound[t⁽ʲ⁾inʲ], About this sound[mɪtʲ] stew
ts цибу́ля About this sound[tsɪˈbulʲɐ] cats tsʲ ціна́, віне́ць About this sound[ts⁽ʲ⁾iˈnɑ], About this sound[wiˈnɛtsʲ] cat's young
очере́т, вище About this sound[otʃeˈrɛt], About this sound[ˈwɪʃtʃe] choose N/A
вчи́тель, став About this sound[ˈu̯tʃɪtelʲ], [stɑu̯] tow
v Афганіста́н[1] [ɐvɦɐn⁽ʲ⁾iˈstɑn] vine
w віл About this sound[wil] between wine and vine
x ховра́х [xou̯ˈrɑx] Bach, loch
z зуб[1] About this sound[zub] zoo зі́ллю, рі́зьблення[1] [ˈz⁽ʲ⁾ilʲːʊ], About this sound[ˈr⁽ʲ⁾izʲblenʲːɐ] presume
ʒ жи́то[1] About this sound[ˈʒɪto] measure, garage N/A
Vowels
Stressed Unstressed
IPA Examples English approximation IPA Examples English approximation
ɑ гай About this sound[ɦɑj] father ɐ гарма́та About this sound[ɦɐrˈmɑtɐ] hug
ɛ день, єсть About this sound[dɛnʲ], About this sound[jɛsʲtʲ] met e ефі́рний About this sound[eˈfirnɪj] rate
i кіт, і́кла About this sound[kit], [ˈiklɐ] meet i біле́т About this sound[biˈlɛt] meet
ɪ ми́ша About this sound[ˈmɪʃɐ] bit ɪ кра́сний[2] About this sound[ˈkrɑsnɪj] bit
ɔ по́ле, льон About this sound[ˈpɔle], [lʲɔn] off o ору́дний About this sound[oˈrudnɪj] cold
u дух, лють About this sound[dux], About this sound[lʲutʲ] fool ʊ туди́ About this sound[tʊˈdɪ] put
Other symbols
IPA Explanation
ˈ stress (placed before the stressed syllable)
ˌ secondary stress (placed before the stressed syllable)
ː gemination (the consonant is pronounced twice as long)[3]
⁽ʲ⁾ optional nature of consonant palatalization before /i/

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Voiceless obstruents /p t tʲ ts tsʲ tʃ k x f s sʲ ʃ/ are voiced [b d dʲ dz dzʲ dʒ ɡ ɣ v z zʲ ʒ] before other voiced obstruents. [ɣ] and [v] only ever occur in this case.
  2. ^ May also be realized as [e].
  3. ^ In Ukrainian, geminates are found between vowels: бага́ття  [bɐˈɦɑtʲːɐ] 'bonfire', подру́жжя  [poˈdruʒːɐ] 'married couple', обли́ччя  [oˈblɪtʃːɐ] 'face'. Geminates also occur at the beginning of a few words: лля́ний [ˈlʲːɑnɪj] 'flaxen', forms of the verb ли́ти 'to pour' (ллючи́  [lʲːʊˈtʃɪ], ллю [lʲːu], ллєш [lʲːɛʃ] etc.), сса́ти  [ˈsːɑtɪ] 'to suck' and derivatives.[citation needed]

BibliographyEdit

  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995). Ukrainian. Lincom Europa. ISBN 978-3-929075-08-3.
  • Жовтобрюх, М.А.; Кулик, Б.М. (1965). Курс сучасної української літературної мови. Частина I. (in Ukrainian). Kiev: Радянська школа.