Help:IPA/Turkish

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Turkish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-tr}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

For a more in-depth coverage of the sounds of Turkish, see Turkish phonology.

Consonants
IPA Example English
approximation
b bebek about
β vücut[1] like vase, but with both lips
c şekil[2] skew
d madde ado
ocak jump
f far food
ɡ gam[2] ago
ɟ gerçek[2] argue
h anahtar home
j hayat, eğri[3] yes
k kabak[2] core
l bilinç[4] late
ɫ kulak[2] tail
m cuma much
n nesne not
ɲ engin[5] canyon
ŋ yangın[6] wing
p pazar pan
ɾ anahtarlar AmE atom
s sinek send
ʃ kişi shoe
t Türkçe table
çivi change
v çivi[1] vase
z pazar zone
ʒ jilet leisure
Vowels
IPA Example English
approximation
a kabak father
æ erkek[7] cat
e erkek bed
i çivi creek
o tokmak story
œ özgürlük somewhat like bird
u ruh soup
ɯ kış somewhat like roses
y Türkçe somewhat like cue
Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples
ˈ torbalı [toɾbaˈɫɯ] 'with bag'
Torbalı [ˈtoɾbaɫɯ] (a place name)[8]
ː â, î, û,[9] ğ[3] lan [oːˈɫan] 'boy'

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b /v/ surfaces as [β] when either preceded or followed by a rounded vowel (but not when intervocalic).
  2. ^ a b c d e [c~k], [ɟ~ɡ], and [l~ɫ] contrast only in loanwords before ⟨â, û⟩ vs. ⟨a, u⟩. In native words, [c, ɟ, l] occur before front vowels ([æ, e, i, œ, y]) and [k, ɡ, ɫ] occur before back vowels ([a, o, u, ɯ]); word-finally or preconsonantally, [c, ɟ, l] occur after front vowels and [k, ɡ, ɫ] occur after back vowels.
  3. ^ a b In Turkish, the letter ⟨ğ⟩ (also called yumuşak g, 'soft g') indicates a number of different sounds, depending on context:
    • in syllable-initial positions, is silent and indicates a syllable break, for example: ağır ('heavy') [aˈɯɾ], ağa ('Agha') [aˈa].
    • in other positions, indicates the lengthening of the preceding vowel, for example: dağ ('mountain') [daː], doğru ('true') [doːɾu].
      • if the lengthened vowel is /e/, it sounds like [j], for example: eğlence ('fun') [ejlænˈdʒe]
    • in proper names where it may appear following a consonant, it is treated as a ⟨g⟩, for example: Olğun [oɫˈɡun]
  4. ^ [l] is more accurately described as palatalized postalveolar [ʎ̟], but it is conventionally transcribed with ⟨l⟩.
  5. ^ [ɲ] appears as an allophone of /n/ before the consonants [ɟ] and [c].
  6. ^ [ŋ] appears as an allophone of /n/ before the consonants [ɡ] and [k].
  7. ^ Allophone of /e/ before sonorants [l, m, n, ɾ] in the same syllable, and in the suffix -mez.
  8. ^ In Turkish proper, proper nouns are typically stressed on the second or third last syllable (see Sezer stress), and other words (excepting certain unstressed suffixes and stressed verb tenses) are stressed on the last syllable.
  9. ^ Düzeltme işareti (Turkish for "correction mark") ⟨ˆ⟩ is a sign which indicates both the vowel length and indicates if the letter ⟨k⟩ represents [c], the letter ⟨g⟩ represents [ɟ] or the letter ⟨l⟩ represents [l] before back vowels [a] and [u].
    Yet the düzeltme işareti is used primarily to indicate palatalization, instead of length. For example, the word katil means "murder" when it is pronounced as [kaˈtil], but it means "killer" when it is pronounced as [kaːˈtil]. The letter ⟨a⟩ is left unmarked even if it is long because the sound /k/ does not become /c/ in this case.
    ⟨î⟩ is an exception, as it indicates only the vowel length.