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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Danish pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

This guide follows the way reputable sources transcribe Danish.[1] In some cases, it radically differs from the prototypical values of IPA symbols. For instance, the plosives [b, d, ɡ] differ from [p, t, k] not by voicing (as in French or Russian) but purely by aspiration or affrication and all of them are voiceless (strict IPA: [p, t, k], [pʰ, tˢ, kʰ]), much like the plosives of Icelandic and Standard Chinese. Therefore, words like bog and pol are actually pronounced [ˈpɔwˀ] and [ˈpʰoːˀl] even though they are here transcribed as [ˈbɔwˀ] and [ˈpoːˀl].

See Danish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of the language.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximations
b bog [ˈbɔwˀ] spare
d dåb [ˈdɔːˀb] start
ð øde [ˈøːðə] bathe
ð̩ skinnede [ˈsɡenð̩ðə] the book (pronounced quickly)
f fod [ˈfoðˀ] foot
ɡ god [ˈɡoðˀ] scan
h hat [ˈhad] hat
k kone [ˈkoːnə] cone
l lov [ˈlɒw] law
solen [ˈsoːˀl̩n] bottle
m mod [ˈmoðˀ] mood
København [købm̩ˈhɑwˀn] rhythm
n node [ˈnoːðə] noon
vinden [ˈvenˀn̩] suddenly
ŋ lang [ˈlɑŋˀ] long
ŋ̍ ryggen [ˈʁœɡŋ̍] Washington
p pol [ˈpoːˀl] pole
ʁ rød [ˈʁœðˀ] French parler
s sod [ˈsoðˀ] soon
ɕ Sjælland [ˈɕɛˌlanˀ][2] sheep
t tak [ˈtɑɡ] too
tjener [ˈtɕeːnɐ][2] cheer
v våd [ˈvɔðˀ] vote
Semivowels
ɐ̯ er [ˈæɐ̯][3] ear
j jord [ˈjoɐ̯ˀ], mig [ˈmɑj][3] you, day
w hav [ˈhɑw] "ocean"[3] now
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a kat [ˈkad] hat
ɑ tak [ˈtɑɡ] art
ɑː barn [ˈbɑːˀn] father
ʌ ånd [ˈʌnˀ][4] off
ɒ og [ˈɒw]
ɒː i går [iˈɡɒːˀ] dog
æ frisk [ˈfʁæsɡ] bet
æː gade [ˈɡæːðə] bed
e fed [ˈfeðˀ] "fat" Somewhat like face
ɛ ven [ˈvɛn]
hel [ˈheːˀl] Somewhat like phase
ɛː hæl [ˈhɛːˀl]
i tisse [ˈtisə] leaf
si [ˈsiːˀ] leave
o flod [ˈfloðˀ][4] Somewhat like oak
ɔ ost [ˈɔsd][4]
kone [ˈkoːnə] Somewhat like go
ɔː måle [ˈmɔːlə]
ø nød [ˈnøðˀ] Somewhat like nurse
œ bønne [ˈbœnə]
ɶ tør [ˈtɶɐ̯ˀ]
øː løber [ˈløːbɐ] "runner" Somewhat like fur
œː afgrøde [ˈawɡʁœːðə]
ɶː røre [ˈʁɶːɐ]
u ud [ˈuðˀ] boot
hule [ˈhuːlə] food
y tyk [ˈtyɡ] Somewhat like cute
synlig [ˈsyːnli] Somewhat like feud
Stress
ˈ  ˌ husmor [ˈhusˌmoɐ̯]
Stød
ˀ ti [ˈtiːˀ] button
Unstressed-only
ɐ løber [ˈløːbɐ] "runner" but
ə hoppe [ˈhʌbə] balance
ɪ kage [ˈkæːɪ][5] hit
ʊ mave [ˈmæːʊ][5] foot

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ The set of symbols used in this guide follows most closely the one used by Den Danske Ordbog, but it is also close to how Grønnum (2005) transcribes Danish.
  2. ^ a b [tɕ] is phonemically /tj/, and [ɕ] is phonemically /sj/.
  3. ^ a b c Diphthongs with an underlying long vowel always have stød, but the ones with an underlying short vowel do not. [ej, ɛj, æj, øj, æw, ow, ɔw] all have an underlying long vowel and so always have stød. Conversely, [ɑj, ʌj, uj, ɑw, ɒw] have an underlying short vowel and so never have stød. The other diphthongs (including all diphthongs ending with [ɐ̯]) appear both with and without stød (Grønnum (2005:294)).
  4. ^ a b c Both [o] and [ɔ] are allophones of the short /o/. Generally, the former appears in open syllables and the latter in closed ones, but there are exceptions such as flod [ˈfloðˀ] which has [o] instead of the expected [ɔ]. The short /ɔ/ is realized as [ʌ] (Basbøll (2005:50)).
  5. ^ a b [ɪ] and [ʊ] are assimilatory variants of [jə] and [wə], respectively.

BibliographyEdit

  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6