Help:IPA/Georgian

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Georgian language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-ka}}, {{IPAc-ka}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Georgian phonology for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Georgian.

Consonants
IPA Mkhedruli Asomtavruli Nuskhuri Romanization English approximation
b[1] b bash
ɡ[1] g gate
d[1] d do
v[2] v, w van
z z zoo
t table
roughly like the unaspirated "k" in sky (ejective)[3]
l[4] l leaf
m m much
n n not
roughly like the unaspirated "p" in spy (ejective)[3]
ʒ zh pleasure
r[5] r Spanish río
s s sue
roughly like the unaspirated "t" in sty (ejective)[3]
p pan
k can
ʁ gh Guttural R, Scottish English loch, but voiced
χʼ (often referred as q') Dakota hã.χʼãna (ejective)[3]
ʃ sh shoe
tʃʰ ch choose
tsʰ ts, c cats
dz dz pads
tsʼ tsʼ, cʼ Navajo ts'in (ejective)[3]
tʃʼ chʼ roughly like the unaspirated "ch" in question (ejective)[3]
χ kh, x Scottish loch; the English exclamation "ugh"
j hedge
h h head
Marginal consonants
f[6] f fan
ʔ[7] the catch in uh-oh
Vowels
IPA Mkhedruli Asomtavruli Nuskhuri Romanization English approximation
ɑ a bra
ɛ e bell
i i feel
ɔ o off
u u moon

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c In word-final position, /b, d, g/ may be devoiced to [ ].
  2. ^ /v/ is realized as [ʷ] after a consonant.
  3. ^ a b c d e f The ejectives have no equivalent in English. The way that ejectives are sounded is by building up pressure in your throat, like when you sneeze, and then release the built-up air as you articulate the consonant where you normally would. So, /t'/ and /t/ are articulated in the same place but the difference is whether you build up pressure or not.
  4. ^ /l/ has two allophones, velarized [ł] before back vowels /ɑ, ɔ, u,/ and plain [l] before front vowels /i, ɛ,/
  5. ^ Often realized as an alveolar tap [ɾ].
  6. ^ [f~ɸ] are allophones of /v/ before voiceless consonants.
  7. ^ [ʔ] occurs as an allophone of // in free variation with [], [q͡χʼ], and [χʼ].