Help:IPA/Ligurian

The charts below show how the International Phonetic Alphabet represents Romance Ligurian pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-lij}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

Consonants[1]
IPA Examples English approximation
b bödisson, Bàrboa bill
d veddro, cadello dill
gianco, ongia, giærâva Jill
ʎ coniggio, figgeu, muâgia Jill or billion[2]
f safran, feliçitæ, stuffa fill
ɡ preghêa, mëgo, gregâ grill
k ancheu, credensa, quæxi skill
l lann-a, gallo lid
m mënda, famme mill
n pinna, n nest
ŋ n nn-a, donn-o[3] nest or ring[2]
ŋ tenpo, savon, gianda[3] ring
ɲ âgna, scignôro onion
p capriççi, päpêto spill
ɾ ɹ ingreize, rebelêa, spar batter (American English) or barrel[2]
s sêuxoo, paçiensa, pastiççê, nissêua sell
s ʃ pescòu, pastiççê, sfròuxo sell or shell[2]
ʃ sciô, léscico, scerpa shell
t çittæ, töa, roêta still
masccio, ociâli, cêuve chill
v levòu, vailezzo veal
z zenéize, mazzo, spozoéi zeal
z ʒ desmentegâ, asbasciâ, deslengoâse zeal or leasure[2]
ʒ xo, scixèrboa, chixêximo leasure
 
Semivowels[1]
IPA Examples English approximation
j scciapeuia, leitûga, ziàrdoa, socjêtæ young
w ægoa, ciammòu, quâgia well
Vowels[4]
IPA Examples English approximation
Short vowels
a mäveggia, babà, grasso brother
e ebrêo, öxello, avédise bait
ɛ bello, caffè, fænn-a[4] bet
i infinïo, piccin beet
ɔ o votta, òspitòu, Ouröpa bald, but shorter
ø béuisccio, cheuscia, euggezzâ bird (RP), but shorter
u môro, nasción, rotto bull
y cuggiæ, fumme, virtù cute (Scotland)
Long vowels
mäveggia, cicchettâ, ociâli father
ej ebrêo, candéia, gêxâ, çëxetta bail
ɛː sæa, coæ, bæxinâ bear (RP)
abaçîa, barbacïo, moî bead
ɔː stöia, öxello, dizö bald
øː nissêua, dêuviemmo, faxeu bird (RP)
môro, servitô, dôçeménte fool
lettûa, dûo, aogûri feud (Scotland)
 
Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ sciughêa [ʃyˈɡeːa] primary stress
ˌ brûxabaracche [ˌbɾyːʒabaˈɾakˑe] secondary stress
. létia [ˈleti.a] syllable break
ˑ Sann-a [ˈsaŋˑa] geminated consonant[1]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Consonant and semivowel lengthening (optionally occurring in paroxytones after stressed short vowels, for semivowels only if they are also followed by a vowel) is represented in IPA by either doubling the consonant or through the ⟨ˑ⟩ marker (e.g. euggio [ˈøddʒu]/[ˈødˑʒu]).
  2. ^ a b c d e The latter realizations are most common in peripheric areas, such as Ventimiglia or southern Piedmont. In particular, [ʃ] and [ʒ] are occurrences of /s/ and /z/ before consonants In the Tabarchino dialect of Carloforte.
  3. ^ a b Like most other Northern Italian languages, Ligurian nasals never assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant, unlike in Standard Italian. [ŋ] is used in all nasal plus consonant clusters, and it may contrast with /n/ only before vowels (e.g. nn-a /ˈpeŋa/ 'sorrow' vs pénna /ˈpena/ 'quill').
  4. ^ a b All vowels can occur in both stressed or unstressed positions except short /ɛ/, which is always stressed.

External linksEdit

  • Toso, Fiorenzo. "liguri, dialetti" [Ligurian dialects]. Enciclopedia Treccani (in Italian).
  • Official Website for the Académia Ligùstica do Brénno (in Ligurian)