Charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Nepali pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see Template:IPA and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Nepali phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Nepali.

IPA Examples English Approximation
Nepali IAST
b बाटो bāṭo cabbie
[1] भट्टी bhaṭṭī clubhouse
d[2] दाउरा dāurā width
[2] धान dhān adhere (but dental)
ɖ[2][3] डब्बा abbā American bird
ɽ[3] गाडी ī American bird
ɖʱ[2] ढक्कन ḍhakkan American birdhouse
d͡z जल jal dads
d͡zʱ झरना jharanā dad's house
ɡ गीत gīt again
ɡʱ[1] घर ghar loghouse
ɦ[3] हलो halo ahead
k कलम kalam scan
[1] खाना khānā can
l लामो lāmo leaf
m माटो māṭo much
n नाम nām not
ŋ नङ na sing
ɳ[4] अण्डा aḍā American burn
p पल pal span
[1] फल phal pan
r[5] रातो rāto Trilled ring
ɾ[5] तारा rā American atom
s[6] सानो sāno sun
t͡s चोर cor bats
t͡sʰ छाना chānā cats head
t[2] तर tara stick (but dental)
[2] थाल thāl tub (but dental)
ʈ[2] टमाटर amāar American parts
ʈʰ[2] ठीक ṭhīk American partake
w[7] हावा hawa want
j याद yād yes
IPA Examples English Approximation
Nepali IAST
a आमा āmā father
ʌ असल asal cut (conservative dialects)
e केरा ke Scottish may
i इनाम inām happy
ईनार īnār
o थोपा tho force
u उमेर umēr boot
ऊन ūn
ʌi̯ ऐना ai Canadian writer
ʌu̯ मौका mau Canadian about
ou̯ धोऊ dh goat
oi̯ खोइ khoi toy
au̯ पाउ pāu now
ei̯ केही kehī day
ai̯ माइत māita my
iu̯ जीउ jīu similar to few
ui̯ दुई d similar to wheel
eu̯ एउटा euṭā No English Equivalent, similar to hey ooh
Vowel Diacritic
◌̃ आँसु ā̃su nasal vowel [ʌ̃], [ã], [ũ], etc.)
◌ ̤ː Doubled vowel
(placed after vowel[8])
◌ː Doubled consonant
(placed after consonant)

Notes Edit

  1. ^ a b c d Voiced and voiceless aspirated/murmured labials and velars can undergo fricativization, therefore, realized as the corresponding homorganic fricatives e.g. /sʌpʰa/ transcribed phonetically as [sʌɸa], /bʱ/as [β], /kʰ/ as [x], and /ɡʱ/ as [ɣ].
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Nepali contrasts dental [t] and [d] with apical postalveolar [ʈ] and [ɖ] (as well as aspirated variants). Both sets sound like /t/ and /d/ to most English speakers although the dental [t] and [d] are used in place of the English /θ/ and /ð/ for some speakers with th-stopping.
  3. ^ a b c Due to a process of h-deletion in some words, ɦ may be replaced by a retroflex flap [ɽ] if words are pronounced with long vowels e.g. पहाडी which is phonetically [paːɽi] can be analyzed phonemically as /pʌhaɖi/. Additionally, [ɽ] can occur if ɖ or ɖʱ are flapped in postvocalic position.
  4. ^ /ɳ/ may occur as a retroflex nasal flap [ɽ̃] in spellinɡ pronunciations of some Sanskrit loanwords.
  5. ^ a b /r/ is usually trilled [r] but may be tapped [ɾ] when in intervocalic position.
  6. ^ /s/ phonetically may be either [s] or [ʃ].
  7. ^ The combination of the labio-velar approximant /w/ and /e, i, o, ʌi̯, r, w, j/ is constrained in Nepali, thus the orthographic ⟨⟩ is pronounced as a bilabial stop /b/ in such cases.
  8. ^ Words are pronounced with long vowels due to the process of intervocalic h deletion, e.g पहाडी phonemically /pʌɦaɖi/ is realized phonetically as [paːɽi].

Bibliography Edit

  • Khatiwada, Rajesh (2009), "Nepali", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 337–380, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990181
  • Pokharel, Madhav Prasad (1989), Experimental analysis of Nepali sound system (Ph.D.), University of Pune, India
  • Masica, Colin (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2.
  • Hutt, Michael; Subedi, Abhi (1999), Teach Yourself Nepali (2003 ed.), McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-142468-4.
  • Acharya, Jayaraj (1991), A Descriptive Grammar of Nepali and an Analyzed Corpus, Georgetown University Press, ISBN 0878400737

See also Edit