Charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Nepali pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-ne}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Nepali phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Nepali.

KeyEdit

Consonants
IPA Examples English Approximation
Nepali IAST
b बाटो bāṭo back
[1] भट्टी bhaṭṭī clubhouse
d दाउरा dāurā deal (dental), the (Th-stopping)
धान dhān redhead (dental)
ɖ[2] डब्बा abbā American English bird
ɽ[2] गाडी ī American English bird
ɖʱ ढक्कन ḍhakkan American English birdhouse
d͡z जल jal dads
d͡zʱ झरना jharanā dad's house
ɡ गीत gīt again
ɡʱ[1] घर ghar loghouse
ɦ[2] हलो halo ahead
k कलम kalam scan
[1] खाना khānā can
l लामो lāmo leaf
m माटो māṭo much
n नाम nām not
ŋ नङ na sing
ɳ[3] अण्डा aḍā American English burn
p पल pal span
[1] फल phal pan
r[4] रातो rāto ring (Trilled R)
ɾ[4] तारा rā American atom
s[5] सानो sāno sun
t͡s चोर cor bats
t͡sʰ छाना chānā cats head
t तर tara stick (dental), birth (Th-stopping)
थाल thāl tell (dental), think (Th-stopping)
ʈ टमाटर amāar American English parts
ʈʰ ठीक ṭhīk American English partake
w[6] हावा hawa want
j याद yād yes
Vowels
IPA Examples English Approximation
Nepali IAST
Monophthongs
a आमा āmā father
ʌ असल asal cut (conservative dialects)
e केरा ke may (monophthongal pronunciation)
i इनाम inām happy
ईनार īnār
o थोपा tho force
u उमेर umēr boot
ऊन ūn
Diphthongs
ʌi̯ ऐना ai writer (Canadian raising)
ʌu̯ मौका mau about (Canadian raising)
ou̯ धोऊ dh goat
oi̯ खोइ khoi toy
au̯ पाउ pāu now
ei̯ केही kehī day
ai̯ माइत māita my
iu̯ जीउ jīu similar to few
ui̯ दुई d similar to wheel
eu̯ एउटा euṭā No English Equivalent, similar to hey ooh
Vowel Diacritic
◌̃ आँसु ā̃su nasal vowel [ʌ̃], [ã], [ũ], etc.)
Suprasegmentals
IPA
◌ ̤ː Doubled vowel
(placed after vowel[7])
◌ː Doubled consonant
(placed after consonant)

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Voiced and voiceless aspirated/murmured labials and velars can undergo fricativization, therefore, realized as the corresponding homorganic fricatives e.g. /sʌpʰa/ transcribed phonetically as [sʌɸa], /bʱ/as [β], /kʰ/ as [x], and /ɡʱ/ as [ɣ].
  2. ^ a b c Due to a process of h-deletion in some words, ɦ may be replaced by a retroflex flap [ɽ] if words are pronounced with long vowels e.g. पहाडी which is phonetically [paːɽi] can be analyzed phonemically as /pʌhaɖi/. Additionally, [ɽ] can occur if ɖ or ɖʱ are flapped in postvocalic position.
  3. ^ /ɳ/ may occur as a retroflex nasal flap [ɽ̃] in spellinɡ pronunciations of some Sanskrit loanwords.
  4. ^ a b /r/ is usually trilled [r] but may be tapped [ɾ] when in intervocalic position.
  5. ^ /s/ phonetically may be either [s] or [ʃ].
  6. ^ The combination of the labio-velar approximant /w/ and /e, i, o, ʌi̯, r, w, j/ is constrained in Nepali, thus the orthographic ⟨⟩ is pronounced as a bilabial stop /b/ in such cases.
  7. ^ Words are pronounced with long vowels due to the process of intervocalic h deletion, e.g पहाडी phonemically /pʌɦaɖi/ is realized phonetically as [paːɽi].

BibliographyEdit

  • Khatiwada, Rajesh (2009), "Nepali", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 337–380, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990181
  • Pokharel, Madhav Prasad (1989), Experimental analysis of Nepali sound system (Ph.D.), University of Pune, India
  • Masica, Colin (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2.
  • Hutt, Michael; Subedi, Abhi (1999), Teach Yourself Nepali (2003 ed.), McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-142468-4.
  • Acharya, Jayaraj (1991), A Descriptive Grammar of Nepali and an Analyzed Corpus, Georgetown University Press, ISBN 0878400737