The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Korean language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. It is based on the standard dialect of South Korea and may not represent some of the sounds in the North Korean dialect or in other dialects. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see Template:IPA and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Korean phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Korean.

Korean consonants
IPA Hangul Example English approximation
Hangul Revised Romanization
b[1] 아버지 abeoji ball
βʷ[2][3] 오후 ohu roughly like upvote
ç[4] 힘, 효도 him, hyodo human
ɕ[5] 시작 sijak roughly like she
ɕ͈[5] ssi seen
d[1] 구도 gudo doll
dz[6] 지반 jiban beds
[1] 아직 ajik roughly like gee
ɸʷ[3] 후손, 화물 huson, hwamul roughly like who
ɡ[1] 베개 begae gall
ɣ[2][7] 암흑 amheuk Spanish amigo or again, but without the tongue touching the roof of the mouth
h 하늘 haneul hall
ɦ[2] 여행 yeohaeng RP behind
j [ㅛ, ㅠ,ㅑ,ㅕ,
ㅖ, ㅒ][8]
ya you
ʝ[2][4] 감히 gamhi roughly like you
k gang sky
ㄱ ㅋ[9] 음악 eumak lock
까마귀 kkamagwi skin
ㅋ [ㄱㅎ] [ㅎㄱ] 크기, 박하, 않기 keugi, baka, anki cup
ɭ ㄹ [ㄴ][10] 알, 신라 al, Silla hall
m ㅁ [ㅂ][11] 말, 압력 mal, amnyeok mall
[ㄹ, ㄷ, ㅅ, ㅈ][12]
나, 나뭇잎 na, namunnip not
ŋ ㅇ [ㄱ][13] 왕, 악마 wang, angma king
p 바람 baram spa
[14] jip clip
빨강 ppalgang spit
[ㅂㅎ] [ㅎㅂ] 파랑, 접하다 parang, jeopada paint
ɾ 사람 saram Scottish great or American atom
s sa like see, but aspirated (with more breath)
ssal saw
t dal star
ㄷ, ㅌ, ㅅ, ㅈ, ㅊ[15] 곧, 끝, 맛, 곶, 꽃 got, kkeut, mat, got, kkot let
뜨다 tteuda stall
[ㄷㅎ] [ㅎㄷ] 타다, 맏형, 않다 tada, matyeong, anta tall
ts[6] j cats
ts͈[6] jj
tsʰ[6] ㅊ [ㅈㅎ] [ㅎㅈ] ch let's have
jang roughly like patch
tɕ͈ 짜다 jjada
tɕʰ ㅊ [ㅈㅎ] [ㅎㅈ] 관찰, 앉히다, 않지 gwanchal, anchida, anchi roughly like cheek
w [ㅜ, ㅗ][16] wae wall
x[7] heuk loch
Korean vowels and diphthongs[17]
IPA Hangul Example English approximation
Hangul Revised Romanization[18]
a 사랑 sarang up
사건 sageon spa
ʌ eok Conservative up
əː 선물 seonmul RP herd
ɛ bae bet
ɛː gae GA bed
e 베개 begae rate
세상 sesang raid
i ki beat
시설 siseol bead
o 오늘 oneul sort
오후 ohu sword
ø [16] 외톨이 oetori wet
øː 외국 oeguk wed
u 구슬 guseul root
웃다 utda rude
ɯ 음악 eumak foot
ɯː 음식 eumsik good
ɰi 의사 uisa somewhat like we
y [16] 위험 wiheom somewhat like sweet
dwi somewhat like swede
Korean suprasegmentals
IPA Hangul Revised Romanization Explanation
ː [19] geminated consonant
ˈ primary stress
ˌ secondary stress

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ a b c d The plain stops and affricate /p t k/ are voiced to [b d ɡ] respectively between voiced sounds.
  2. ^ a b c d ㅎ is voiced between voiced sounds.
  3. ^ a b [ɸʷ] is the allophone of /h/ before /u/ or /w/.
  4. ^ a b [ç] is the allophone of /h/ before /i/ or /j/.
  5. ^ a b ɕ͈] are the allophones of /s s͈/ before /i/ and /j/.
  6. ^ a b c d [ts ts͈ tsʰ dz] occur before back vowels.
  7. ^ a b [x] is the allophone of /h/ before /ɯ/.
  8. ^ /j/ cannot be spelled by itself, but by doubling the short line on the vowel which it phonetically precedes.
  9. ^ ㄱ and ㅋ are and RR k at the end of a syllable.
  10. ^ ㄹ is [ɭ] at the end of a syllable. ㄹㄴ and ㄴㄹ may be [ɭː].
  11. ^ ㅂ is [m] before /n/ or /m/.
  12. ^ ㄹ may be [n] at the start of a word. ㄷ, ㅅ, ㅈ are [n] before /n/ or /m/.
  13. ^ ㅇ is [ŋ] at the end of a syllable. ㄱ is [ŋ] before /n/, /m/, or /ɾ/.
  14. ^ ㅂ and ㅍ are [] and RR p at the end of a syllable.
  15. ^ ㄷ, ㅌ, ㅅ, ㅈ, ㅊ are and RR t at the end of a syllable.
  16. ^ a b c /w/ is spelled ㅜ before /ʌ/, /e/, /i/ (the latter combination producing /y/~[ɥi]) and ㅗ before /ɛ/, /a/; ㅚ /ø/ can also be pronounced [we].
  17. ^ In Standard Korean, vowel length is contrastive, but this has mostly been lost in the spoken language.
  18. ^ Vowel length is not reflected in the romanization.
  19. ^ Resulting from various sequences of consonants (and their relative transcriptions) in regressive assimilation.

References edit

  • Heo, Yong (2013). "An analysis and interpretation of Korean vowel systems". Acta Koreana. 16 (1): 23–43.
  • Lee, Hyun-bok (1999). "An IPA Illustration of Korean". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. p. 120–123.
  • Lee, Hyun-bok (2002). 음성의 연구와 음성의 표기법 [Phonetic Notation in Phonetic Research: IPA and International Korean Phonetic Alphabet] (PDF). INTERSPEECH-2002.
  • Lee, Hyun-bok (2004). In search of a universal phonetic alphabet – theory and application of an organic visible speech (PDF). INTERSPEECH-2004.
  • Shin, J. (2015). Vowels and Consonants. In L. Brown & J. Yeon (Eds.). The Handbook of Korean Linguistics (pp. 36–21). Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell.
  • Shin, J., Kiaer, J., & Cha, J. (2012). The Sounds of Korean. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Sohn, Ho-min (2001). The Korean Language. Cambridge language surveys. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521369436.

External links edit