The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Franco-Provençal (also known as Arpitan) pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see Template:IPA and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

  IPA   Examples English approximation
b bâs bow
ç[1] [examples needed] hue
d dinar doe
ð[2] [examples needed] then
f[2] fèna foe
ɡ gran go
ɡʲ[2] dz ghoral goods
ɟ ague
ʒ measure
h[1][2] [examples needed] happy
k kilô sky
[2] c chalor skew
ʃ show
ts hats
l lârro low
ʎ lyata roughly like million
m mira mow
n nâs no
ɲ [examples needed] roughly like canyon
ŋ [examples needed] parking
p pâre spy
r[3] r curâ atom (GA)
ʁ roughly like loch (Scotland)
s[2] sôré so
t tanta stow
θ[2] [examples needed] thin
v[2] savuc vote
z[2] zérô zoo
Oral Nasal
  IPA   Examples English approximation   IPA   Examples English approximation
a tina pasta ɑ̃[4] chançon croissant (GA) or coq au vin
ɑ pâta bra
e [examples needed] clay ɛ̃ vent length
ɛ libertá festival
i [examples needed] see ĩ [examples needed] ring
ə [examples needed] again œ̃ [examples needed] nasalized [œ]
œ [examples needed] roughly like shirt (RP)
ø [examples needed]
o [examples needed] sole (GA), sword (RP) ɔ̃[5] chançon croissant (RP)
ɔ [examples needed] off
u [examples needed] zoo ũ [examples needed] nasalized [u]
y blu roughly like cute [examples needed] nasalized [y]
  IPA   Examples English approximation
j vreyer yet
w [examples needed] wet
ɥ [examples needed] simultaneous yet and wet
Other symbols
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ [examples needed] primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable)[6]
. [examples needed] syllable break (placed between the syllables)

Notes edit

  1. ^ a b /h/ varies in realization: [h], [x] and [ç] (the latter also a realization of other phonemes) all occur.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i There appears to be considerable variation among [dz], [dʒ], [ʒ], and [ɟ], as well as among [ts], [tʃ], [ʃ], and [c], as a result of the palatalization of /ɡ/ (or /d/) and /k/ (or /t/), respectively. Other possible realizations, which also occur separately, are [ð], [v], [z] for the voiced phoneme and [θ], [f], [s], [h] for the voiceless one.
  3. ^ The most common pronunciations include [ʁ], [ʀ] and [χ], albeit in many regions as well as in Switzerland and Italy the older [r] is still very common.
  4. ^ Also realized as [æ̃].
  5. ^ Also realized as [ɒ̃].
  6. ^ Stress always falls on one of the final two syllables.

See also edit