This is the pronunciation key for IPA transcriptions of Nguni on Wikipedia.
It provides a set of symbols to represent the pronunciation of Nguni in Wikipedia articles, and example words that illustrate the sounds that correspond to them. Integrity must be maintained between the key and the transcriptions that link here; do not change any symbol or value without establishing
The charts below show the way in which the
IPA is used to transcribe the Nguni languages Swazi, Xhosa, and Zulu. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see Template:IPA and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.
marks a sound or spelling found specifically in Xhosa, X in Swazi, and S specifically in Zulu. Sounds marked * only appear in loanwords.
dv s han d valve
k z good, but implosive
ba ck, with glottalization
k s Glottalized ba g
kl , z kr x No English equivalent
kl , z kr x Similar to clinic
No English equivalent; Welsh llwyd
No English equivalent; Welsh llwyd, but
ngʼ , x ng z s  si ng
li p, with glottalization
bi t, with glottalization
s though tful
ca ts, with glottalization
ca tch, with glottalization
rh x Scottish lo ch
gr x No English equivalent; Spanish ami go
zh x plea sure
(ʔ) x Pause in uh-oh!
Click  IPA
ᵏǀ ʼ c
ᵏǁ ʼ x
ᵏǃ ʼ q
◌̃ nasalisation (placed above consonant)
◌ʰ Aspirated consonant (placed after consonant)
◌ʱ Breathy voice (placed after consonant)
◌ʲ Palatalisation (placed after consonant)
◌̠ Retracted consonant (placed below consonant)
/ ◌̤ ◌̈ / / ◌̥
◌̊ slack voice (placed above or below consonant)
^ The velar nasal [ŋ] may be pronounced as [ŋg] in Swazi.
^ The click consonants do not have any equivalent phoneme in
English. The nearest equivalents to English-speakers are the or Tut-tut Tsk! Tsk!, , and tchick! clip-clop! interjections.
/a/ is phonetically realised as an open front unrounded vowel [ ] in Swazi, an open central unrounded vowel [ a ] in Zulu and an open back unrounded vowel in Xhosa [ ä ]. ɑ