|This is the pronunciation key for IPA transcriptions of West Frisian on Wikipedia.|
It provides a set of symbols to represent the pronunciation of West Frisian in Wikipedia articles, and example words that illustrate the sounds that correspond to them. Integrity must be maintained between the key and the transcriptions that link here; do not change any symbol or value without establishing consensus on the talk page first.
See West Frisian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of West Frisian.
- The syllable-final (and also word-final) voiceless obstruents [p, t, k, f, s, χ] are voiced to [b, d, ɡ, v, z, ɣ] (note that [χ] is velar when voiced) when the next syllable (including the next word) begins with a voiced stop and, in case of the fricatives [f, s, χ], also when the next word begins with a vowel (Tiersma (1999:24)).
- [ɡ] and [ɣ] are allophones of a single phoneme /ɣ/. The plosive [ɡ] appears word-initially and syllable-initially (the latter only when stressed), whereas the fricative [ɣ] occurs elsewhere (Hoekstra (2001:86), Sipma (1913:15, 17)).
- In most dialects, /h/ is deleted before [j] and [w] (Tiersma (1999:22)).
- The syllabic nasals [m̩, n̩, ŋ̍] are all phonemically /ən/, whereas the syllabic [l̩, r̩] are phonemically /əl, ər/. To read about their exact distribution, see e.g. Sipma (1913:36). The only sonorants that cannot be syllabic are [ʋ, j].
- Apart from being the phonetic realization of the phonemes /m, ŋ/, [m, ŋ] occur as allophones of /n/ before, bilabial and velar consonants (Tiersma (1999:24)).
- Word-final /b, d/ are realized as voiceless [p, t] (van der Veen (2001:104)). Note, however, that final /b/ is rare (Tiersma (1999:21)), and that in loanwords from Standard Dutch, final /ɣ/ can also appear, and is also devoiced and retracted to [χ].
- /r/ is silent before other alveolar consonants, i.e. /n, t, d, s, z, l/ (Tiersma (1999:28–29), Keil (2003:8)). An exception to this rule are recent loanwords from Standard Dutch (e.g. sport), which may or may not be pronounced with [r] (Tiersma (1999:29)).
- Intervocalic ⟨d⟩, as well as the sequence ⟨rd⟩ are often rhotacized to /r/ (Tiersma (1999:21)).
- In various pronouns and function words, the initial /d/ becomes voiceless [t] when a voiceless obstruent ends the preceding word (Tiersma (1999:24)).
- Both [ʋ] and [v] can be regarded as allophones of a single phoneme /v/, though [v] is the most common realization. The approximant [ʋ] can appear word-initially, whereas the fricative [v] occurs elsewhere (Keil (2003:7)).
- Among fricatives, neither the voiced /z/ nor the voiceless /χ/ can occur word-initially (Sipma (1913:16–17)).
- When a sequence of any vowel and /n/ occurs before any continuant besides /h/ (that is, /f, v, ʋ, s, z, r, l, j/), it is realized as a nasalized vowel. When the following consonant is /s/, such a nasalized vowel is also lengthened (but only in stressed syllables (Hoekstra (2001:86))), so that e.g. jûns (phonemically /juns/) is pronounced [jũːs], whereas prins (phonemically /prɪns/) is pronounced [prẽːs]. One exception to this lengthening rule is that when a short vowel precedes the sequence /nst/ in the second person singular verb form (as in winsʋ [vɪ̃st]), it is kept short by most speakers (Tiersma (1999:13)). It is unclear whether the lengthened short monophthongs /ɪ, ø/ (/o/ cannot be lengthened) are phonetically long monophthongs or diphthongs (as it is the case with the oral /eː, øː/), hence the transcription [prẽːs] rather than [prẽĩs].
- /ɑː/ has a phonemic status in the Aastersk dialect (van der Veen (2001:102)).
- /ɪː/ has a phonemic status in the Hindeloopers dialect (van der Veen (2001:102)).
- [øː] is the Hindeloopers realization of /øː/. In other dialects, /øː/ is commonly slightly diphthongal [øy] (van der Veen (2001:102)).
- Nearly all words with /øː/ are loanwords from Standard Dutch (Visser (1997:17)).
- The open-mid front rounded vowels /œ, œː/ have a phonemic status in the Hindeloopers and Súdwesthoeksk dialects, but not in the standard language (Hoekstra (2001:83), van der Veen (2001:102)).
- [ɵ] and [ɞ] are the southwestern realizations of, respectively, /wo/ and /wa/ (Hoekstra (2003:202), citing Hof (1933:14)).
- [ɔi] is a dialectal realization of /ai/ (Booij (1989:319)).
- In some dialects, /ui/ and /uːi/ are distinct phonemes. In the standard language, however, only /ui/ appears (Tiersma (1999:12)).
- Phonetically, /ə/ and /ø/ are quite similar, but the former appears only in unstressed syllables (Tiersma (1999:11)).
- Some speakers merge the long vowels /iː, uː/ with the centering diphthongs /iə, uə/ (Visser (1997:24)).
- The long close rounded vowels /uː, yː/ do not appear in the dialect of Leeuwarden (van der Veen (2001:102)).
- Even though they pattern with monophthongs, the long close-mid vowels /eː, øː, oː/ are often realized as narrow closing diphthongs ((Visser (1997:22–23), Tiersma (1999:10–11))), and that is how we transcribe them here.
- The falling diphthongs [iə, ɪə, oə, uə, yə] alternate with the rising diphthongs [jɪ, jɛ, wa, wo, jø] in the phenomenon called breaking. The [yə−jø] alternation occurs only in the word pair sluere−slurkje (Booij (1989:319)).
- Booij, Geert (1989). "On the representation of diphthongs in Frisian". Journal of Linguistics. 25: 319–332. JSTOR 4176008.
- Hoekstra, Eric (2003). "Frisian. Standardization in progress of a language in decay" (PDF). Germanic Standardizations. Past to Present. Vol. 18. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 193–209. ISBN 978-90-272-1856-8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 March 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
- Hoekstra, Jarich (2001). "12. Standard West Frisian". In Munske, Horst Haider; Århammar, Hans (eds.). Handbook of Frisian studies. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag GmbH. pp. 83–98. ISBN 3-484-73048-X. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
- Hof, Jan Jelles (1933). Friesche Dialectgeographie (PDF) (in Dutch). The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 October 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
- Keil, Benjamin (2003). "Frisian phonology" (PDF). Los Angeles: UCLA Department of Linguistics. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
- Sipma, Pieter (1913). Phonology & grammar of modern West Frisian. London: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
- Tiersma, Peter Meijes (1999) [First published 1985 in Dordrecht by Foris Publications]. Frisian Reference Grammar (2nd ed.). Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy. ISBN 90-6171-886-4.
- van der Veen, Klaas F. (2001). "13. West Frisian Dialectology and Dialects". In Munske, Horst Haider; Århammar, Hans (eds.). Handbook of Frisian studies. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag GmbH. pp. 98–116. ISBN 3-484-73048-X. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
- Visser, Willem (1997). The Syllable in Frisian (PDF) (PhD). Leiden: Holland Institute of Generative Linguistics. ISBN 90-5569-030-9. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
- Vissner, Willem. "The labial fricatives". Taalportaal. European Language Resources Association (ELRA). Retrieved 25 March 2019.