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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Sanskrit pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-sa}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See shiksha for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Sanskrit.

Contents

KeyEdit

Consonants
IPA[1] Nagari[1] IAST[1] [2] English approximation
b b about
bh abhor
ɕ ś sheep
d d do
dh roughly like old house
ɖ roughly like North American bord
ɖʱ ḍh roughly like North American birdhouse
ɡ g again
ɡʱ gh doghouse
h [3] head
ɦ h ahead
j y yak
j roughly like juice
dʑʱ jh roughly like hedgehog
ɟɲ ज्ञा roughly like igneous
k k skin
kh kin
l l leaf
m m much
n n tenth
ñ cinch[4]
ɳ roughly like burnt[4]
ŋ bank[4]
p p span
ph pan
ɽ r North American ladder
s s soup
ʂ Somewhat like North American worship
t t Somewhat like stable
th Somewhat like table
ʈ stable
ʈʰ ṭh table
c Somewhat like chew
tɕʰ ch chew
ʋ v between wine and vine
Vowels[4][5]
IPA Nagari IAST[2] English approximation
ɐ , a comma
, पा ā bra
ɪ , पि i sit
, पी ī feet
ʊ , पु u look
, पू ū loot
ɽɪ , पृ as ri
ɽiː , पॄ as
, पॢ as li
, पे e wait
ai , पै ai hi
, पो o old
au , पौ au h'ow
◌̃ ◌̃/m̐ nasal vowel [ɐ̃], [ãː], [õː], etc.)[4]


Suprasegmentals
IPA Nagari IAST[2] English equivalent
ˈ◌ stress
(placed before stressed syllable)

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Devanagari consonant letters such as have the inherent vowel a. Thus, is pronounced ka, even without any vowel sign added. But the IPA and IAST shown here have the consonant k only and do not include the vowel 'a'.
  2. ^ a b c Comparison of IAST with ISO 15919 transliteration.
  3. ^ visarga - a diacritic attached to vowels but realized as a consonant
  4. ^ a b c d e Vowels may occur nasalised as an allophone of the nasal consonants in certain positions: see anusvara and chandrabindu.
  5. ^ Sanskrit distinguishes between long and short vowels. Each monophthong has a long and short phoneme. The diphthongs, historically /əi, aːi, əu, aːu/, also have a difference in quality: [e, ei, o, ou]. Rarely, vowels may be extra-long.

ReferencesEdit

  • Zieba, Maciej; Stiehl, Ulrich (June 9, 2002). "The Original Pronunciation of Sanskrit" (PDF). Ulrich Stiehl. Retrieved 27 September 2011.