Help:IPA/Punjabi

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Punjabi pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-pa}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Punjabi phonology, Gurmukhi, and Shahmukhi for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Punjabi.

Consonants
IPA Examples English Approximation
Gurmukhi Shahmukhi ISO 15919
b ਬਿਸਤਰਾ ابستر bistarā butter
d ਦਿੱਤਾ دتا dittā duck[1]
ਜਦੋਂ جدوں jadōṁ jug
ɖ ਡੰਗਰ ڈنگر angar guard[1]

(Rhotic dialects)

ɡ ਗੱਡੀ گڈی gaḍḍī gut
ɦ ਹਾਏ ہائے hāe ahead
j ਯਾਰੀ یاری yārī yuck
k ਕਿੱਖੇ
کتھے
گھر
kitthe
ghar
scab
ਔਖਾ اوکھا aukhā cab
l ਲਾਂਬਾ لامبا lāmbā leaf
ɭ[2] ਰੌਲ਼ਾ روࣇا rauā garlic

(Rhotic dialects)

m ਮਸੀਤ مسیت masīt much
n ਨੂਹ نوہ nūh not
ɳ[2] ਸੋਹਣਾ سوہݨا sohā burn
ɲ ਉਂਞ انج uñj canyon
ŋ ਕੰਙਣ کنگݨ kaṅgaṇ bang
p ਸੁਪਨਾ
ਭਰਿਆ
سپنا
بھریا
sup
bhariyā
spot
ਫੁੱਲ پھلّ‎ phull pot
ɾ ਵਾਰੀ واری rī American atom[3]
ɽ ਕੂੜ کوڑ garter (Rhotic dialects)
ɽʱ ਉਲੇੜ੍ਹ الیڑھ uleṛh no English equivalent
s ਸਾਡਾ ساڈا sāḍā sun
t ਤਿੱਲੜ تلّڑ tillaṛ stub[1]
ਓਥੇ اوتھے othē tub[1]
ਚੜ੍ਹਦਾ
ਝੂਠ
چڑھدا
جھوٹھ
caṛhdā
jhūṭh
catch
tʃʰ ਛੱਡ چھڈّ‎ chaḍḍ choose
ʈ ਸੱਟ
ਢੀਠ
سٹ
ڈھیٹھ
saṭṭa
ḍhīṭh
carts[1]
ʈʰ ਕਾਠ کاٹھ ṭh trip[1]
ʋ ਵਹੁਟੀ وہوٹی vahuṭī vat[4]
Marginal consonants
f[5] ਫ਼ੇਰ فیر fer fuss
ɣ[6] ਕਾਗ਼ਜ਼ کاغذ ġaz similar to a French r
q[6] ਕ਼ਲਮ قلم qalam somewhat like caught
r[3] ਮੁਕ਼ੱਰਰ مقرّر muqarrar Trilled R
ʃ ਹੋਸ਼ ہوش hoś shoe
x[5] ਖ਼ਾਲਿਸ خالص k͟hālis Scottish Loch
z[6] ਹਜ਼ਾਰ ہزار hazār zoo
Vowels
IPA Examples English Approximation
Gurmukhi Shahmukhi ISO 15919
ə ਕਮ کم kam about
ਨਾਲ਼ ناࣇ nā father
e ਵਾਹਿਗੁਰੂ واہِگرو vāhiguru say (shortened ē)
ਜੇਬ جیب jēb say
ɛ ਰਹਿਣਾ رَہݨا rahiṇā pen[7]
ɛː ਪੈਂਦਾ پَیندا painda fairy
ɪ ਇਮਲੀ اِملی imalī sit[8]
ਈਖ اِیکھ īkh seat[8]
i ਬੱਤੀ بَتّی battī happy[8]
ਬੋਲੋ بولو bōlō border (Received Pronunciation) go (General American)
ɔː ਕੌਣ کَوݨ kaun dog (Received Pronunciation) horse (General American)
ʊ ਤੁਕ تُک tuk book
ਸੂਤ سُوت sūt moon[8]
◌̃ ਹੰਸ ہن٘س has nasal vowel faun
([ãː, õː], etc.)
ਮੈਂ مَیں mai
Suprasegmentals
IPA Example Notes
ˈ◌ [pənˈdʒaːb] stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
◌ː [ˈʊtːəɾ pɾəˈdeːʃ] doubled consonant
(placed after doubled consonant)
á, é, ... ਕੋੜ੍ਹਾ کوڑھا kohṛā 'leper' high, or high-falling tone
à, è, ... ਘੋੜਾ گھوڑا ghoṛā 'horse' low, or low-rising tone

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f Punjabi contrast dental [t] and [d] with apical postalveolar [ʈ] and [ɖ] (as well as aspirated variants). Both sets sound like /t/ and /d/ to most English speakers.
  2. ^ a b Considered an allophone of l and n in the Shahmukhi alphabet, though pronounced.
  3. ^ a b /ɾ/ can surface as a trill [r] in word-initial and syllable-final positions. Geminate /ɾː/ is always a trill.
  4. ^ [w] occurs as an allophone of [ʋ] when / و/ is in an onglide position between an onset consonant and a following vowel while [ʋ], which may phonetically be [v], occurs otherwise.
  5. ^ a b f and x are not considered native sounds, and only present in loanwords or can be considered a tonal sound of for Indian dialects. In Pakistani dialects, and the Shahmukhi alphabet, it is not considered a tonal sound and some words are natively derived such as فیر 'fer' (ਫੇਰ 'pher' ~ ਫਿਰ 'phir'). x can, however, be considered a tonal sound for in Pakistani dialects and are pronounced as such, but not written as such.
  6. ^ a b c Not considered a native sound (nor a native letter in Gurmukhi, hence written as a modified consonant with a Nuqta placed below the corresponding letter, unlike Shahmukhi, where the original letter from Persian (whence derived from the Arabic script)). The phonology is however retained in Pakistani dialects, with the exception of q, where the spelling is retained only but pronounced interchangeably with k.
  7. ^ [ɛ] occurs as an allophone of /ə/ near an /ɦ/ that is surrounded on both sides by schwas. Usually, the second schwa becomes silent, which results in an [ɛ] preceding an /ɦ/.
  8. ^ a b c d /iː, ɪ/ and /uː, ʊ/ are neutralised to [i, u] at the end of a word.