The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Malayalam pronunciations. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see Template:IPA and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

IPA Malayalam ISO 15919 English approximation
k k sky
kh key
ɡ g ago
ɡʱ gh loghouse
ŋ sink
t͡ʃ c church
t͡ʃʰ ch church
d͡ʒ j object
d͡ʒʱ jh hedgehog
ɲ ñ canyon
ʈ stalk but retroflex
ʈʰ ṭh talk but retroflex
ɖ idea but retroflex
ɖʱ ḍh redhead but retroflex
ɳ spin but retroflex
t stalk but dentalized
t̪ʰ th talk but dentalized
d idea but dentalized
d̪ʱ dh redhead but dentalized
n spin but dentalized
n ഩ/ന[a] spin
p p spin
[b] ph pin
f[b] f fin
b b about
bh clubhouse
m m mall
j y yes
ɾ r American English atom
l l list
ʋ v curve
ʃ ś shoe
ʂ shoe but retroflex
s s so
h h head
ɭ list but retroflex
ɻ ɻ run
r Scottish English run
t റ്റ stalk
d[c] *ന്റ idea
IPA Malayalam ISO 15919 English approximation
a a cut
ə[d] a about
ാ, ആ ā father
i ി, ഇ i sit
ീ, ഈ ī seat
u ു, ഉ u full
ൂ, ഊ ū fool
ൃ, ഋ better
e െ, എ e eight
േ, ഏ ē eight but longer
o ൊ, ഒ o own
ോ, ഓ ō own but longer
ai ൈ, ഐ ai mile
au ൗ, ൌ[e], ഔ au foul
ˈ stress
(placed before stressed syllable)

Notes Edit

  1. ^ modern orthography uses ന for both /n̪/ and /n/, and ഩ is no longer used.
  2. ^ a b ഫ is used to represent both /f/ and /pʰ/.
  3. ^ only occurs after /n/
  4. ^ [ə] may occur as an allophone of /a/ in some word-medial and final positions.
  5. ^ archaic, modern orthography uses ൗ instead

See also Edit