Help:IPA/Astur-Leonese

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Leonese, Asturian, Extremaduran and Mirandese pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-ast}}, {{IPA-le}}, {{IPA-mwl}}, {{IPA-ext}}, and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
Asturias

Province of León
AL

Extremadura
E
Miranda do Douro
 M
b b bota, vida / bida best
ɸ ː abdicar Japanese Fumiko (AL), best (M)
β β β la vida / la bida, cabra between baby and bevy
ɸː las vidas / las bidas between baby and bevy (AL, M), Japanese Fumiko (E)
d de, onda date
ð ð ð sedo, padre other
θː desde other (AL, M), thing (E)
f ɸ f fueu face (AL, M), Japanese Fumiko (E)
h fierro / hierro / fiêrro face (AL, M), hope (E)
nafta
ɡ ɡ gata, anguila got
x ŋ digno, ac Scottish loch (AL), sing (E), got (M)
ɣ ɣ ɣ agora, águila between ago and ahold
xː (d)esgracia / desgraça between ago and ahold (AL, M), Scottish loch (E)
ʝ h ʎ muyer / mujer / mulhier beyond (AL), hope (E), million (M)
ʝ j oye / oyi beyond
ɟʝ ʒ cónyuxe / cónyuji / cónjuge endure (AL), injure, Polish więk (E), genre, Polish źrebię (M)
k cun, que, cual / qual scan
l l l salir lip
ɾ alto lip (AL, M), US ladder (E)
l[1] bottle
ʎ llingua / lhéngua million
m mes, amar mother
n naide, sana need
ŋ pinga, en, álbum / álbun[2] sing
ɲ añus / anhos canyon
p pero spouse
r r r rato, carro rolled r
ɾ ɾ mar US ladder (AL, M), rolled r (E)
ɾ trato, caro US ladder
s s sol, pasu / passo between sip and ship (retracted), Polish sz[3][4]
h estar / estal / star between sip and ship (retracted), Polish szyć (AL, M),[3][4] hope (E)
ð casa / cada between sip and ship (retracted), Polish szyć (AL),[3][4] other (M), between zone and genre (retracted), Polish żyć (E)[3][4]
z ɦ esmeráu / smerado between zone and genre (retracted), Polish żyć (AL, M),[3][4] hope (E)
t tolos, ocho / oito stand
chano, ocho / oito catch, Polish ćma
v ɦ v afgano of (AL, M), hope (E)
θ ː d admira, ritmo thing (AL), date (M)
θ cielos thing (AL, E), sip, Polish syty (M)
h paz / paç thing (AL), hope (E), sip, Polish syty (M)
ð decir / idel / dezir thing (AL), other (E), zone, Polish zamek (M)
ð ɦ paz / paç de la tierra smooth (AL), hope (E), zone, Polish zamek (M)
ʃ s ʃ xorda / sorda ship, Polish śnieg (AL, M),[4] between sip and ship (retracted), Polish szyć (E)[3][4]
h caxa / caja ship, Polish śnieg (AL, M),[4] hope (E)
ʒ axunto / ajunto, orixe / ourige ship, Polish śnieg (AL),[4] hope (E), genre, Polish źrebię (M)[4]
ʒ ɦ [example needed] genre, Polish źrebię (AL, M),[4] ahold (E)
Dialectal consonants of Asturian and Leonese[clarification needed]
IPA Examples English approximation
Asturias

Province of León
AL

h ierro ham
ɖ ḷḷingua, patsuezu
(in some local orthographies)[5]
guard
ɖʐ somewhat like budge but retroflex, Polish em
ʈʂ somewhat like catch but retroflex, Polish czekać
ts otso (ocho / oito) between cats and catch (retracted), Polish czekać
c muyyer[6] cute
ɟʝ endure
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Asturias

Province of León
AL

Extremadura
E
Miranda do Douro
 M
a a cacho, pá father
ɐ cachico[7] tub
e e senu / seno, pie / piê pay
ɛ bezu / beç, sé bet
ɨ cebada roses
ɪ [example needed][7] kit (AL, E), roses (M)
i chícharo see
o o puerta / puôrta cold
ɔ home, abó thought
ʊ costiella / costiêlha influence
ʊ [example needed][7]
u pruma food
Dialectal vowels
ɛ [example needed] bet
ɔ [example needed] dog
 
Semivowels[8]
IPA Examples English approximation
Asturias

Province of León
AL

Extremadura
E
Miranda do Douro
M
j fierro / fiêrro you / boy
w puerta / puôrta wine / cow
 
Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples English approximation
Asturias

Province of León
AL

Extremadura
E
Miranda do Douro
M
ˈ [example needed] primary stress, as in explanation
ˌ [example needed] secondary stress, as in explanation
. [example needed] syllable break, as in reuse
ː esti [ˈehtːɪ] consonant gemination
Diacritics
◌̃ antes, cun[9] nasal vowel[9]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ In Mirandese, the article l (the) is pronounced [l̩] (phonemically /ɨl/).
  2. ^ In Extremaduran, /n/ is the only final consonant that is always pronounced.
  3. ^ a b c d e f The Mirandese contrast between the apical [s̺, z̺] and the laminal [s̻, z̻] is neutralized in favor of the former in Asturian, Leonese and Extremaduran, where the apical diacritic is not used for the sake of simplicity. The laminal [s̻, z̻] are the ordinary alveolar sibilants found in French, German, Mandarin Chinese and the Slavic languages.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k The contrast between the apical /s̺, z̺/, the laminal /s̻, z̻/ and the palato-alveolar /ʃ, ʒ, tʃ/ found in Mirandese is similar to the contrast between /ʂ, ʐ/, /s, z/ and /ɕ, ʑ, tɕ/ in Polish.
  5. ^ Varies from a voiced retroflex affricate to a voiceless retroflex affricate and, in southwestern Asturian dialects, a voiced retroflex plosive.
  6. ^ "Tinéu. Mapa del conceyu | El Teixu" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2019-11-24.
  7. ^ a b c Many dialects allow only /a/, /i/ and /u/ in final unstressed syllables.
  8. ^ The semivowels [j] and [w] can be combined with most vowels to form diphthongs and triphthongs.
  9. ^ a b Mirandese has the following nasal vowels: /ɐ̃/, /ɛ̃/, /ĩ/, /ɨ̃/, /õ/ and /ũ/.

ReferencesEdit

Leonese

  • Asociación Cultural Faceira (2012). Xurdir. Guía gramatical de leonés (in Spanish). Asociación Cultural Faceira.
  • "Curso basico de Llionés" (in Spanish).

Asturian

  • García Arias, Xosé Lluis (2003). Gramática histórica de la lengua asturiana (in Spanish). Academia de la Llingua Asturiana.
  • "Gramática de la Llingua Asturiana" (PDF) (in Asturian).

Extremaduran

Mirandese