Voiceless bilabial fricative

The voiceless bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɸ, a Latinised form of the Greek letter Phi.

Voiceless bilabial fricative
IPA Number126
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)ɸ
Unicode (hex)U+0278
Braille⠨ (braille pattern dots-46)⠋ (braille pattern dots-124)

Features edit

Features of the voiceless bilabial fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the centrallateral dichotomy does not apply.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the intercostal muscles and abdominal muscles, as in most sounds.

Occurrence edit

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Ainu[citation needed] フチ [ɸu̜tʃi] 'grandmother'
Angor[citation needed] fi [ɸi] 'body'
Bengali Eastern dialects [ɸɔl] 'fruit' Allophone of /f/ in some eastern dialects; regular allophone of /pʰ/ in western dialects
English Scouse [example needed] Allophone of /pʰ/. See British English phonology[1]
Southern England
(some accents)
thought [ˈɸɔːt] Conflation of /f/ and /θ/ (see th-fronting)
Ewe[2] éƒá [éɸá] 'he polished' Contrasts with /f/
Italian Tuscan[3] i capitani [iˌhäɸiˈθäːni] 'the captains' Intervocalic allophone of /p/.[3] See Italian phonology and Tuscan gorgia.
Itelmen чуфчуф [tʃuɸtʃuɸ] 'rain'
Japanese[4] 腐敗 / fuhai [ɸɯhai] 'decay' Allophone of /h/ before /ɯ/. See Japanese phonology
Kaingang fy [ɸɨ] 'seed'
Korean 후두개 / hudugae [ɸʷudugɛ] 'epiglottis' Allophone of /h/ before /u/ and /w/. See Korean phonology
Kwama[citation needed] [kòːɸɛ́] 'basket'
Māori whakapapa [ɸakapapa] 'genealogy' Now more commonly /f/ due to the influence of English. See Māori phonology.
Nepali वा [bäɸ] 'vapour' Allophone of /pʰ/. See Nepali phonology
Odoodee[citation needed] pagai [ɸɑɡɑi] 'coconut'
Okinawan fifaci [ɸiɸatɕi] 'type of spice'
Spanish Some dialects [5][6] fuera [ˈɸwe̞ɾa̠] 'outside' Non-standard variant of /f/. See Spanish phonology
Standard European[7] pub [ˈpa̠ɸ̞] 'pub' An approximant; allophone of /b/ before a pause.[7]
North-Central Peninsular[8] abdicar [a̠ɸðiˈka̠ɾ] 'abdicate' Allophone of /b/ in the coda. In this dialect, the unvoiced coda obstruents - /p, t, k/ - are realized as fricatives only if they precede a voiced consonant; otherwise, they emerge as stops.
Southern Peninsular[9] los vuestros [lɔh ˈɸːwɛhtːɾɔh] 'yours' It varies with [βː] in some accents. Allophone of /b/ after /s/.
Shompen[10] [koɸeoi] 'bench'
Sylheti ꠙꠥ [ɸua] 'boy'
Tahitian ʻōfī [ʔoːɸiː] 'snake' Allophone of /f/
Turkish Some speakers[11] ufuk [uˈɸʊk] 'horizon' Allophone of /f/ before rounded vowels and, to a lesser extent, word-finally after rounded vowels.[11] See Turkish phonology
Turkmen fabrik [ɸabrik] 'factory'
Yalë dife [diɸe] 'village'

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Watson, Kevin (2007). Illustrations of the IPA: Liverpool English (Cambridge University Press ed.). Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37. pp. 351–360.
  2. ^ Ladefoged (2005:156)
  3. ^ a b Hall (1944:75)
  4. ^ Okada (1999:118)
  5. ^ Boyd-Bowman (1953:229)
  6. ^ Cotton & Sharp (1988:15)
  7. ^ a b Wetzels & Mascaró (2001), p. 224.
  8. ^ "Microsoft Word - codaobs-roa.do" (PDF). Retrieved 2019-04-21.
  9. ^ Pérez, Aguilar & Jiménez (1998:225–228)
  10. ^ "The language of the Shom Pen: a language isolate in the Nicobar Islands" (PDF). Mother Tongue. 12: 179–202.
  11. ^ a b Göksel & Kerslake (2005:6)

Sources edit

External links edit