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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Icelandic language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-is}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Icelandic phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Icelandic.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
c gys skew
kær cute
ç hjá hue
ð verða weather
f fyrir, dýpka fun
ɣ laga (like Spanish trigo)
h hús hop
ʰc ekki skew (with an h sound before it)
ʰk þakka sky (with an h sound before it)
ʰp tappi spy (with an h sound before it)
ʰt stutt sty (with an h sound before it)
j jú, lagi yes
k göng, líka sky
koma kite
l líf leap
stelpa, öll[note 1] (voiceless, like hl)
m miði moon
lampi (voiceless, like hm)
n níu noon
hnífur (voiceless, like hn)
ɲ lengi canyon
ɲ̊ banki [ˈpauɲ̊cɪ] (voiceless, like hny)
ŋ ungs sing
ŋ̊ þungt (voiceless, like hng)
p böl, hjálpa, nafni spy
páfi pie
r rós ring (trilled)
hreinn (voiceless, like hr)
s saga sing
t dagur, út, öll,[note 1] seinna sty
tala tie
θ þ think
v afi, verk very
x sjúkt, sagt Bach
hver (rare)[note 2] why (without the winewhine merger)
Vowels[note 3]
IPA Examples English approximation
Monophthongs
a Karl art
raka father
ɛ kenna bet
ɛː nema[note 4] roughly like yes
i fínt, sýndi leaf
líf, hlýt leave
ɪ yi kit
ɪː yfir, vita kid
ɔ loft [lɔft] RP/Australian hot
ɔː von [vɔːn][note 4] roughly like water
œ dökk [tœʰk] Somewhat like nurse
œː öl [œːl][note 4] like French actuel but with lips rounded even at the end
u ungur boot
núna [ˈnuːna] food
ʏ upp [ʏʰp] German Mütter
ʏː kul [kʰʏːl] German schön
Diphthongs
ai ætla RP right
aiː æfing pie
au sjálfur mouth
auː páfi allow
ei engi pace
eiː heim pay
ou hóll goat
ouː kólna go
œi[note 5] laust No English equivalent. It can be thought of as the sound in nurse followed by the sound in leaf.
œiː[note 6] auga
Other symbols
IPA Explanation
ˈ◌ Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable),
langur [ˈlauŋ̊kʏr̥]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b Double ll is in most cases pronounced [tl̥], as if spelled tl.
  2. ^ Hver is usually pronounced as "kver". [] is a part of a dialect from the Southern Region and is rare nowadays.
  3. ^ Vowels are usually long if they are stressed and followed by no more than one consonant double consonant. Vowel length is not phonemic.
  4. ^ a b c Long [ɛː, ɔː, œː] are most typically realized as smooth transitions from [ɪ, ʊ, ʏ] to [ɛː, ɔː, œː]. Thus, they are monophthongs phonologically and diphthongs phonetically (Árnason 2011:60, Gussmann 2011:71, 88).
  5. ^ Sometimes transcribed as [øi], although that is not a part of the standard Icelandic IPA.
  6. ^ Sometimes transcribed as [øiː], although that is not a part of the standard Icelandic IPA.

BibliographyEdit

  • Rögnvaldsson, Eiríkur (2013). Hljóðfræði og hljóðritun (PDF).
  • Árnason, Kristján (2011). The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-922931-4.
  • Gussmann, Edmund (2011). "Getting your head around: the vowel system of Modern Icelandic" (PDF). Folia Scandinavica Posnaniensia. 12: 71–90. ISBN 978-83-232-2296-5.
  • Haugen, Einar (1958). "The Phonemics of Modern Icelandic". Language. 34 (1): 55–88. doi:10.2307/411276. JSTOR 411276.
  • Volhardt, Marc Daniel Skibsted (2011). Islændinges udtale af dansk. En sammenlignende analyse af lydsystemerne i islandsk og dansk, og islandske studerendes danskudtale (Bachelor's degree essay) (in Danish). Reykjavík: University of Iceland.