Voiceless retroflex plosive

The voiceless retroflex plosive or stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. This consonant is found as a phoneme mostly (though not exclusively) in two areas: South Asia and Australia.

Voiceless retroflex plosive
ʈ
IPA Number105
Audio sample
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʈ
Unicode (hex)U+0288
X-SAMPAt`
Braille⠲ (braille pattern dots-256)⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345)

Transcription edit

The symbol that represents this sound in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ʈ . Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of "t" (the letter used for the equivalent alveolar consonant). In many fonts lowercase "t" already has a rightward-pointing hook, but ʈ is distinguished from t by extending the hook below the baseline.

Features edit

 

Features of the voiceless retroflex stop:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a plosive.
  • Its place of articulation is retroflex, which prototypically means it is articulated subapical (with the tip of the tongue curled up), but more generally, it means that it is postalveolar without being palatalized. That is, besides the prototypical subapical articulation, the tongue contact can be apical (pointed) or laminal (flat)[citation needed].
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the intercostal muscles and abdominal muscles, as in most sounds.

Occurrence edit

Language Word IPA Translation Notes
Bengali[1] টাকা [ʈaka] 'taka' Apical postalveolar;[1] contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Bengali phonology
Brahui سىٹ [asiʈ] 'one'
Sylheti ꠐꠥꠟ꠆ꠟꠤ [ʈulli] 'skull' contains tonal pronunciation. [2] To know more look for Sylheti phonology
English time [ʈaɪm] 'time' Corresponds to alveolar /t/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Gujarati[3] ટાકા [bəʈaːka] 'potato' Subapical;[3] contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Gujarati phonology
Hindustani[4][5] टोपी [ʈoːpiː] 'hat' Apical postalveolar
ٹوپی
Hmong raus [ʈàu] 'immerse in liquid' Contrasts with aspirated form (written ⟨rh⟩).
Iwaidja yirrwartbart [jiɺwɑʈbɑʈ] 'taipan'
Javanese bathang [baʈaŋ] 'cadaver'
Kannada ತಟ್ಟು [t̪ʌʈːu] 'to tap' Contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms
Lo-Toga[6] dege [ʈəɣə] 'we (incl.)' Laminal retroflex.
Malayalam കാട്ട് [kaːʈːɨ̆] 'wild' Contrasts /t̪ t ʈ d̪ ɖ/.
Marathi[3] बटाटा [bəʈaːʈaː] 'potato' Subapical;[3] contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Marathi phonology
Mutsun TiTkuSte [ʈiʈkuʃtɛ] 'torn'
Nepali टोली [ʈoli] 'team' Apical postalveolar; contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Nepali phonology
Norwegian kort [kɔʈː] 'card' See Norwegian phonology
Nunggubuyu[7] rdagowa [ʈakowa] 'prawn'
Odia ଗର/ṭagara [ʈɔgɔrɔ] 'crepe jasmine' Apical postalveolar; contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms.
Pashto ټول [ʈol] 'all'
Punjabi ਟੋਪੀ [ʈoːpi] 'hat'
ٹوپی
Sicilian latru [ˈlaʈɽu] 'thief'
Scottish Gaelic árd [aːʈ] 'high' Corresponds to the sequence /rˠt/ in other dialects. See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Swedish[8] karta [ˈkʰɑːʈa] 'map' See Swedish phonology
Tamil[3][9] எட்டு [eʈːɯ] 'eight' Subapical.[3] See Tamil phonology
Telugu కొట్టు [koʈːu] 'to hit or beat' Contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms
Torwali[10][11] ٹیگیل [ʈiɡel] 'words' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms.
Vietnamese bạn tr [ɓa˧˨ʔɳˀ ʈa˧˩˧] 'you pay' May be somewhat affricated. See Vietnamese phonology
Welayta [ʈaza] 'dew'

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ a b Mazumdar (2000:57)
  2. ^ Wright, Tony (2002), "Doing language awareness", Language in Language Teacher Education, Language Learning & Language Teaching, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, vol. 4, pp. 113–130, doi:10.1075/lllt.4.09wri, ISBN 978-90-272-1697-7, retrieved 2023-07-11
  3. ^ a b c d e f Khatiwada (2009:374)
  4. ^ Ladefoged (2005:141)
  5. ^ Tiwari (2004:?)
  6. ^ François (2009:189); François (2016:35).
  7. ^ Ladefoged (2005:158)
  8. ^ Eliasson (1986:278–279)
  9. ^ Keane (2004:111)
  10. ^ Lunsford (2001:11–16)
  11. ^ "ٹیگیل". Online Torwali Dictionary. Center for Language Engineering.

References edit

External links edit