Pashto alphabet

The Pashto alphabet (پښتو الفبې) is a version of Perso-Arabic script used to write down the Pashto language.

FormEdit

 
The Pashto Alphabet
 
Two of the special Pashto letters: x̌in/ṣ̌in and ǵē/ẓ̌e

Pashto is written in the Arabic Naskh. Pashto uses all 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet, and shares 3 letters (چ, پ, and ژ) with Persian in the additional letters.

Differences from Persian alphabetEdit

Pashto has several letters which do not appear in any other Perso-Arabic scripts, which are shown in the table below:

Letter IPA Base Arabic letter
ټ /ʈ/ ت
ډ /ɖ/ د
ړ /ɭ̆/
ڼ /ɳ/ ن
ښ /ʂ/, /ç/ س
ږ /ʐ/, /ʝ/
څ /t͡s/ ح
ځ /d͡z/ ح + ء

All the additional characters are derived from existing Arabic letters by adding diacritics; for example, the consonants x̌īn/ṣ̌īn and ǵe/ẓ̌e look like Arabic's sīn and re respectively with a dot above and beneath. Similarly, note that the letters representing retroflex consonants are written with a small circle (known as a "panḍak", "ğaṛwanday" or "skəṇay") attached underneath the corresponding dental consonants.

The consonant /ɡ/ is written as either ګ or گ.

In addition to Persian vowels, Pashto has ئ, ې, ۀ, and ۍ for additional vowels and diphthongs.

StressEdit

Pashto employs stress:[1] this can change the aspect of the verb and the meaning of the word. The Arabic alphabet does not show stress placement, but in transliteration it is indicated by the use of acute accent diactric: ´ over the vowel.

Example

Diactric Pashto Transliteraltion Stress in Bold
á ډله ḍála ḍá-la
ó اوړى óṛay ó-ṛay
ā́ شاباس šā́bās šā́-bās
ә́ ګڼل gaṇә́l ga-ṇә́l
í ناخوښي nāxwaṣ̌í nā-xwa-ṣ̌í
ú اوږه úẓ̌a ú-ẓ̌a
é بې ښې be ṣ̌é be-ṣ̌é

LettersEdit

Pashto has 45 letters and 4 diacritic marks. The Southern (S), Northeastern (NE) and Northwestern (NW) dialects of Pashto are included.

Name IPA Transliteration Contextual forms Isolated ALA-LC
Romaniz.
Latin Unicode
(Hex)
Symbol English Examples Final Medial Initial
alep or alif [ɑ] bark ā ـا ـا آ, ا آ, ا ā Ā ā U+0627,
U+0622
be [b] born b ـب ـبـ بـ ب b B b U+0628
pe [p] peel p ـپ ـپـ پـ پ p P p U+067E
te [t̪] t ـت ـتـ تـ ت t T t U+062A
ṭe [ʈ] ـټ ـټـ ټـ ټ U+067C
se2 [s] biscuit s ـث ـثـ ثـ ث S s U+062B
jim [d͡ʒ] jug j (or ǰ) ـج ـجـ جـ ج j J j U+062C
če [t͡ʃ] cheese č ـچ ـچـ چـ چ ch Č č U+0686
he2 [h]3 house h ـح ـحـ حـ ح H h U+062D
xe [x] loch (Scottish) x ـخ ـخـ خـ خ kh X x U+062E
tse
śe
[t͡s] / [s] cats ts (or c) ـڅ ـڅـ څـ څ Ś ś U+0685
dzim
źim
[d͡z] / [z] adze dz (or j) ـځ ـځـ ځـ ځ ż Ź ź U+0681
dāl [d̪] d ـد ـد د د d D d U+062F
ḍāl [ɖ] ḍ (or dd) ـډ ـډ ډ ډ U+0689
zāl2 [z] zoo z ـذ ـذ ذ ذ Z z U+0630
re [r] rain r ـر ـر ر ر r R r U+0631
ṛe4 [ɽ] ṛ (or rr) ـړ ـړ ړ ړ U+0693
ze [z] zoo z ـز ـز ز ز z Z z U+0632
že [ʒ] / [d͡z] vision, delusion, division ž ـژ ـژ ژ ژ zh Ž ž U+0698
ẓ̌ey (S)
ǵey (NW)
gey (NE)
[ʐ] (S)
[ʝ] (NW)
[g] (NE)
vision or gift ẓ̌ (S)
γ̌/ǵ (NE)
g (NE)
ـږ ـږ ږ ږ ẓh (S)
g'h (NW)
gh (NE)
Ǵ ǵ (or Ẓ̌ ẓ̌) U+0696
sin [s] biscuit s ـس ـسـ سـ س s S s U+0633
šin [ʃ] / [t͡s] shoot š ـش ـشـ شـ ش sh Š š U+0634
ṣ̌in (S)
x̌in (NW)
x̌in (NE)
[ʂ] (S)
[ç] (NW)
[x] (NE)
ṣ̌ (S)
x̌ (NW)
x (NE)
ـښ ـښـ ښـ ښ ṣh (S)
k'h (NW)
kh (NE)
X̌ x̌ (or Ṣ̌ ṣ̌) U+069A
swād2 [s] see s ـص ـصـ صـ ص s S s U+0635
zwād2 [z] zoo z ـض ـضـ ضـ ض z Z z U+0636
twe2 [t] talk t ـط ـطـ طـ ط t T t U+0637
zwe2 [z] zebra z ـظ ـظـ ظـ ظ z Z z U+0638
ayn2 [ɑ] bark a ـع ـعـ عـ ع ʻ nothing U+0639
ğayn [ɣ] gh
(or γ)
ـغ ـغـ غـ غ gh Ğ ğ U+063A
pe or fe2 [f] / [p]5 peel f ـف ـفـ فـ ف f F f U+0641
qāp [q] / [k]6 keep q ـق ـقـ قـ ق q Q q U+0642
kāp [k] keep k ـک ـکـ کـ ک 7 k K k U+06A9
gāp [ɡ] get g ـګ ـګـ ګـ ګ 8 g G g U+06AB
lām [l] lamb l ـل ـلـ لـ ل l L l U+0644
mim [m] minute m ـم ـمـ مـ م m M m U+0645
nun [n] near n ـن ـنـ نـ ن n N n U+0646
ṇun [ɳ]
(or nn)
ـڼ ـڼـ ڼـ ڼ U+06BC
nun póza15

nose nun

[ ̃] macaron (French) ̃
(over the vowel)
or
ń
ں ـنـ نـ ں N n U+06BA
wāw [w], [u], [o] watch soup w, u, o ـو ـو و و w, ū, o W w, U u, O o U+0648
ğwə́nḍa he
round
[h], [a] hey  ; stuck (Cockney) h, a ـه ـهـ هـ ه h, a H h, A a U+0647
kajíra he
large-pretty
[ə] bird (Received Pronunciation) ə ـۀ ۀ 13 ə Ə ə U+06C0
tsərgánda ye
obvious
[j], [i] yacht; week (General American) y, i ـي ـيـ يـ ي y, ī Y y, I i U+064A
úǵda ye
long
[e] eight [Note: [e] is not lengthened] e ـې ـېـ ېـ ې 9 e E e U+06D0
nāriná ye
masculine or
wə́ča ye
dry
[ai], [j]10 try ay, y ـی
ـے
ـ ـ ی
ے
9
ay, y Ay ay, Y y U+06CC
U+06D2
x̌əźiná ye
feminine
or lakə́i ye
tail
[əi] stay əi ـۍ ـ ـ ۍ 10 ạy Əi əi U+06CD
fālí ye
verbal
[əi], [j]12 stay or see əi, y ـئ ـئـ ئـ ئ 9,12 ạy, y Əi əi, Y y U+0626

NotesEdit

  • ^1 At the beginning of a word, آ (alif with madda) represents the long vowel /ɑ/ in words borrowed from other languages (e.g. آغا āğā́, a title).[2] At the beginning of a word, the letter ا (alif) represents the vowel /a/, e.g. اسپهáspa, "mare".[3] In the middle or end of a word, ا represents the long vowel /ɑ/ which is following a consonant (e.g. کال – kāl, "year"; and نيا – nyā, "grandmother").[4][5] At the beginning of a word, the letter alif can also be used with a diactric mark [often not written] e.g. اِ (alif with a zer) as in اِسلامIslām, "Islam (the religion)".[6]
  • ^2 Ten letters, ق ف ع ظ ط ض ص ح ﺫ ث, appear only in loanwords of Arabic origin borrowed through Persian. Eight of these, ع ظ ط ض ص ح ﺫ ث, represent no additional phonemes of Pashto, and their pronunciation is replaced with other phonemes.
  • ^3 ح /h/ tends to be omitted in pronunciation when at the end of a word, e.g. اصلاح is always pronounced as [isˡlɑ].
  • ^4 The letter ړ represents /ɽ/ [7]
  • ^5 The phoneme /f/ ف occurs only in loanwords. It tends to be replaced with /p/ پ.
  • ^6 The phoneme /q/ ق occurs only in loanwords. It tends to be replaced with /k/ ک.
  • ^7 It is also common to write the letter ک as ك.
  • ^8 It is also common to write the letter ګ as   and گ.
  • ^9 In informal texts, ی as well as ې are sometimes replaced by the letter ے, especially in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
  • ^10 ی represents /ai/ when it is following a consonant (e.g. لرګیlargay, "wood"), and represents /j/ when it is following a vowel (e.g. دوی – duy, "they").
  • ^11 The letter ئ represents /j/ after a vowel, e.g. جدائي – judāyi, "separation".
  • ^12 It is also common to write with the hamza over the right side of the letter – ٸ.
  • ^13 The letter ۀ is only represented at the end of a word, e.g. تېرۀ – terə́, "sharp". The vowel /ə/, when present between consonants, is not represented by the letter ۀ, but instead is omitted, e.g. ننوتل – nənawatə́l, "to enter".
  • ^14 Some dialects also omit the letter غ in some words, e.g. consider the following words; دغه = دا، دغوی = دوی، دغه هومره = دومره، دغلته = دلته، هغلته = هلته، دغه سی = داسی
  • ^15 The nasalised vowel / ̃/ appears in certain dialects such as Banisi/Banuchi and Waṇetsi. It is represented with ں e.g. بويں –buĩ "smell" [in these dialects].[8][9]

Historical lettersEdit

The superscribed element of the letter ځ in earlier varieties was not hamza-shaped, but was very similar to little kāf of the letter ك.[10] Such shape of the upper element of the letter is hard to find in modern fonts.

Since the time of Bayazid Pir Roshan, ڊ (dāl with subscript dot) was used for /d͡z/, which was still used in the Diwan of Mirza written in 1690 CE,[11] but this sign was later replaced by ځ.

Another rare glyph for /d͡z/ is ج֗, a ج with the same dot above.

Diacritic marksEdit

 
The Pashto diacritic marks: zwarakay, pēš, zēr, and zwar

The four diacritic marks are used:

Diacritic Unicode Name Transliterated name Translit. IPA Latin
َ U+064E زوار zwar a [a] a
ٙ U+0659 زورکى zwarakay ə [ə] ə
ِ U+0650 زیر zer i [ɪ] i
ُ U+064F پیش peš u [ʊ] u

Notes

  • The diacritic marks are not considered separate letters. Their use is optional and are usually not written; they are only occasionally used to distinguish between two words which would otherwise appear similar, like the words ملا - back (body part) and مُلا - Mullah.
  • In Arabic loanwords, the tanwin fatha (ً) can be used, e.g. مَثَلاً – masalan, "for example".

"Ye" lettersEdit

 
"Ye"-letters in Pashto alphabet
Letter Pashto name Unicode name Transliteration IPA Position in a word Example
ي tsərgánda ye5 ARABIC LETTER YEH y, i [j], [i] can appear anywhere يم
yəm ('(I) am')
دي
di ('(they) are')
ې úǵda ye4 ARABIC LETTER E e [e] middle or end يې
ye ('you (sing.) are')
ی
or
ے
nāriná ye1 ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH
or
ARABIC LETTER YEH BARREE
ay
when following a consonant
[aj] end ستوری or ستورے
stóray ('star')
y
when following a vowel
[j] end دوى or دوے
duy ('they')
ۍ x̌əźiná ye2 ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH TAIL əi [əi] end وړۍ
waṛә́i ('wool')
ئ fālí ye3 ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH HAMZA ABOVE əi [əi] end يئ
yəi ('you (plur.) are')
y [j] middle جدائي
judāyí ('separation')

Notes

  • ^1 In Afghan orthography, this letter has ی shape, while in Pakistani orthography, its shape is ے. If the letter follows a consonant in a word, it indicates the word is masculine singular and in the direct case. At the end of verbs it is used to form verbal participle in the masculine[1].
  • ^2 If ۍ ends a word it always indicates that the word it occurs in is feminine.
  • ^3 If ئ occurs at the end of a verb, it indicates the verb is in second person plural form.
  • ^4 If ې appears at end of nouns and adjectives it indicates that those are feminine. At the end of verbs it is used as verbal suffix[2] and to form verbal participle in the feminine.[3] It also ends certain circumpositions[4].
  • ^5 If ي occurs at the end of a verb, it indicates the verb is in third person plural present form. At the end of nouns and adjectives it indicates that the word is masculine in the singular oblique case, plural direct case. It also used in the non-declining adjective class.

Orthography differencesEdit

Currently, there are two official standards for Pashto orthography, the Afghan orthography, which is regulated by the Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan, and the Pakistani orthography of the Pashto Academy in Peshawar. They used to be very similar in the past, until the orthography reforms were introduced in 1970s and 80s in Afghanistan. Both of them use additional letters: ټ ډ ړ ږ ښ ڼ ې ۍ‎.[11] The Afghan standard is currently dominant due to the lack of Pashto education in Pakistan. While province laws in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa offer Pashto courses in schools, many students are enrolled in private or army schools which are not regulated by the regional laws. Most writers use mixed orthography combining elements of both standards. In Pakistan, Pashto speakers who are not literate in their mother tongue sometimes use non-standard Urdu inspired spellings.

The main differences between the two are as follows:[12][13]

Word-final -y sound is denoted by ے‎ letter in Pakistan and dotless ی‎ letter in Afghanistan. Word-final -i sound is denoted by ي‎ letter in both Pakistan and Afghanistan. Pre-reform Afghan orthography used ی‎ for both cases, and some writers still often confuse them.

Word Pakistani
orthography
Afghan
orthography
saṛay "man" سړے سړی
dzāy "place" ځاے ځای
loy "big" لوے لوی
lari "has" لري
likunkay "writer" ليکونکے ليکونکی
likunki "writers" ليکونکي
day "is"[5] دے دی
di "(they) are" دي
  • ^ Also pronounced dəy in some dialects, and thus written دۍ‎ or دئ‎, chiefly in Afghanistan.

Pakistani writers also sometimes omit dots in ي‎. They may also use ے‎ for the -e sound instead of ې‎, influenced by the merger of e and ay in the Peshawar dialect.

Word-final -a sound is denoted by ه‎ in Pakistan, while the sound is denoted by ۀ‎. Afghan orthography uses ه‎ for both sounds.

Word Pakistani
orthography
Afghan
orthography
"I" زۀ زه
ṣ̌ə/xə "good (masculine)" ښۀ ښه
ṣ̌a/xa "good (feminine)" ښه

The letters گـ‎ and ګـ‎ for g are considered variants of the same character. Both are widely used, but the Afghan official materials prefer the گ‎ form, while the Pakistani orthography sets a specific glyph for ګ‎ which looks like ك‎ with a circle below. Most Arabic script fonts, however, only implement a form of ګ that looks like ک‎ with a circle.

Both standards prescribe the usage of ك‎ for k. In practice, however, even the official sources often use the ک‎ form. Historically, the two are calligraphic variants of the same character, ك‎ is more common in modern Arabic, and ک‎ is more common in Persian and Urdu. In Unicode they are split into two separate glyphs.

The y- sound before a ی‎-letter is written as ئـ‎ in the Pakistani orthography and as يـ‎ in the Afghan orthography. Pre-reform Afghan orthography also used ئـ‎.

Word Pakistani
orthography
Afghan
orthography
yəy "(you, plural) are"[6] ئئ یئ
ye/yi "him, his (pronominal clitic)" ئې يي
ibtidayi "initial" ابتدائي ابتدایي
  • ^ Also ياستyāst in Southern Pashto.

Pakistani orthography uses کښې‎ for the postposition kx̌e "in". Afghan standard prefers کي‎. In most dialects, this postposition is pronounced ke or ki, but the historical pronunciation, also found as a variant in some Southern Pashto dialects, is kṣ̌e. The verbal prefix کښېـ‎ (as in کښېناستلkenastəl or kṣ̌enastəl "to sit down") is still pronounced kṣ̌e- in Southern Pashto and ke- in Northern Pashto, but some Afghan authors may also spell it like کيـ‎. On the other hand, words with خښ‎ combination, like نخښهnәxṣ̌a "mark, sign", بخښلbәxṣ̌әl "forgive, pardon", are written identically according to both standards, but some authors speaking Northern Pashto may write them according to their pronunciation: نښهnәxa, بښلbәxәl.

In some auxiliary words like pronouns and particles, as well as in plural and oblique singular forms of feminine nouns, the Pakistani orthography uses ې‎, while the Afghan orthography often uses ي‎. It reflects the pronunciation of unstressed word-final -e in some Afghan dialects, particularly the Kandahari accent. Note also that the pronoun "you" is usually written تاسوtāso in Pakistan, reflecting the local dialects. In Afghanistan, this pronoun is written تاسيtāsi or تاسوtāso. In verbal prefixes like پرېـpre-, کښېـkṣ̌e-/ke-, both standards use ې‎.

Word Pakistani
orthography
Afghan
orthography
me/mi "me, my (pronominal clitic)" مې مي
ke/ki "in (a postpoistion and prefix)" کښې کي
tā́se/tā́si "you (plural)" تاسې تاسي
stә́rge/stә́rgi (unstressed -e/-i) "eyes" سترګې سترگي
fāydé (stressed ) "profits" فائدې فایدې
kenastəl/kṣ̌enastəl "to sit down" کښېناستل کښېناستل
کيناستل
prexodəl/preṣ̌odəl "to leave, to stop" پرېښودل

The auxiliary verb شول‎ in passive constructions is often written without a space with the copula in the Afghan orthography. E.g., لیکلې شوې دهlikәle šәwe da "is (fem.) written" may be spelled ليکلې شوېده‎ by some authors.

The potential/optative participles are written with ـای-āy in Afghanistan (e.g. لیکلایlikəlāy "able to write"), and with ـے-ay in Pakistan (لیکلےlikəlay). These participles are pronounced with -āy in Southern Pashto of Kandahar, but even the Kabuli writers who pronounce them with -ay use ـای-āy to distinguish them from the past participles (لیکلی‎\لیکلےlikəlay "written").

In both modern orthographies, matres lectionis (و‎ for o and u, ي‎ for i) should always be written in native Pashto words. Words like تروږمۍtәruǵmәy "darkness, dark night", وروستهwrusta "after, behind" etc used to be and still sometimes are written as ترږمۍ‎ and ورسته‎. The borrowed words should be written the way they were in the original languages: بلبلbulbul "nightingale", ګل‎ or گلgul "flower".

The phrase pә xayr "welcome", lit. "well, successfully" is written in two words in Afghanistan (په خیر‎), but often as a single word in Pakistan (پخیر‎).

The Afghan orthography does not use a space in compound and suffixed words, while in Pakistani standard the letters should be disconnected without a space. The zero-width non-joiner is used in such cases.

Word Pakistani
orthography
Afghan
orthography
lāslik "signature" لاس‌لیك
لاس‌لیک
لاسلیك
لاسلیک
baryālaytob "victory" بریالےتوب بریالیتوب
pāytaxt "capital" پاےتخت پایتخت
zṛәwar "brave, daring" زړۀور زړور
šāzādagān "princes" شاهزاده‌ګان شاهزادگان

Arabic words preserve their original form in Pakistani orthography (معنیٰmaʿnā/mānā "meaning", فائدهfāyda "profit"). In the Afghan orthography, alif maqṣūra letter is often replaced by plain alif (thus معنا‎ or مانا‎), and with hamza denoting i after other vowels is replaced with plain (thus فایده‎).

In Pakistan, some conservative spellings are occasionally used. In a few words ځdz was written instead of زz, even though they are not anymore pronounced like that in any dialect. The ڼ is also sometimes spelled نړnṛ, and some speakers still pronounce that way. Matres lectionis were not used even at the end of the words, the diactritics might be used instead. Some of these archaic spelling made their way until as late as 1980s in Pakistan even in "colloquial" usage, e.g. in movie posters, and some editions of old books may still keep them.

Word Pakistani
orthography
Afghan
orthography
Archaic
orthography
"I" زۀ زه ځه
zmung/zmug/zmuẓ̌ "our"[7] زمونږ
زموږ
زموږ
زمونږ
ځمونږ
zmā "my" زما ځما
zoy "son" زوے زوی ځوے
ځوی
Kandahār "Kandahar" قندهار کندهار قندهار
paṇa/paṇṛa "leaf" پاڼه
پانړه
پاڼه پانړه
če/či "that" چې چي چه
ke/kṣ̌e "in" کښې کي کښِ
dre "three" درې درِ
ğruna "mountains (direct case)" غرونه غرونَ
ğruno "mountains (oblique case)" غرونو غرونُ
  • ^ In different dialects, "we" and its derivatives are pronounced مونږmung or موږmug/muẓ̌. Both types are found in Pakistan and Afghanistan, but the Afghan tradition prefers موږ‎ after the Kandahari pronunciation.

Pakistani and Afghan standards also differ in the way they spell Western loanwords. Afghan spellings are influenced by Persian/Dari orthography, and through it often borrows French and German forms of the words, while Pakistani orthography is influenced by Urdu and English spellings.

Word Pakistani
orthography
Afghan
orthography
Parliament پارلیمان پارلمان
Process پروسیسه پروسه
Conference کانفرنس کنفرانس
Chicago شکاګو شیکاگو
Tunis تیونس تونس
Culture کلچر کلتور

HistoryEdit

 
Excerpt from Khayr al-Bayān, written in Pashto in Nastaʿlīq script in 1651. The book was originally written by Bayazid Pir Roshan in the 16th century

In the 16th century, Bayazid Pir Roshan from Waziristan invented the Roshani script to write Pashto. It had 41 letters:

ا

/ɑ, ʔ/
ب

/b/
پ

/p/
ت

/t̪/
ټ

/ʈ/
ث

/s/
ج

/d͡ʒ/
چ

/t͡ʃ/
څ

/t͡s/
ح

/h/
خ

/x/
د

/d̪/
ډ

/ɖ/
ڊ

/d͡z/


/z/
د·

/ʐ/


/r/
ړ

/ɺ˞, ɻ, ɽ/


/z/
ږ

/ʒ/
ڛ

/s/
س

/s/
ش

/ʃ/
ښ

/ʂ/
ص

/s/
ض

/z/
ط

/t̪/
ظ

/z/
ع

/ʔ/
غ

/ɣ/
ف

/f,p/
ق

/q, k/
ک

/k/
ګ

/ɡ/
ل

/l/
م

/m/
ن

/n/
ڼ

/ɳ/
و

/w, u, o/
ه

/h, a, ə/
ي

/j, i, e/

28 of his letters came from the Arabic alphabet. He introduced 13 new letters into the Pashto alphabet. Most of the new letters he introduced i.e. ګ ,ښ ,ړ ,ډ ,څ ,ټ and ڼ are still written in the same form and are pronounced almost in the same way in modern Pashto. The sound system of the southern dialect of modern Pashto preserves the distinction between all the consonant phonemes of his orthography.

Pir Roshan also introduced the letter ږ (rē with dot below and dot above) to represent /ʒ/, like the ⟨s⟩ in pleasure, for which modern Pashto uses ژ instead. Modern Pashto uses the letter ږ to represent the sound /ʐ/ (northern dialect: /g/), but for that sound, Pir Roshan used a letter looking like ·د (dāl with central dot). His letter ڊ (dāl with dot below) to represent /d͡z/ has been replaced by ځ in modern Pashto. He also used ڛ (sīn with three dots below), an obsolete letter from the medieval Nastaʿlīq script, to denote the letter س (representing /s/) only in the isolated form. The Arabic ligature (lām-alif) was also used. Two of his letters, پ and چ, were borrowed from the Persian alphabet.

RomanisationEdit

The following table (read from left to right) gives the letters' isolated forms, along with possible Latin equivalents and typical IPA values:

ا
ā
/ɑ, a/
ب
b
/b/
پ
p
/p/
ت
t
/t̪/
ټ

/ʈ/
ث
s
/s/
ج
j
/d͡ʒ/
ځ
ź, dz
/d͡z/
چ
č
/t͡ʃ/
څ
c, ts
/t͡s/
ح
h
/h/
خ
x
/x/
د
d
/d̪/
ډ

/ɖ/

z
/z/

r
/r/
ړ

/ɺ,ɻ, ɽ/

z
/z/
ژ
ž
/ʒ/
ږ
ǵ (or ẓ̌)
/ʐ, ʝ, ɡ, ʒ/
س
s
/s/
ش
š
/ʃ/
ښ
x̌ (or ṣ̌)
/ʂ, ç, x, ʃ/
ص
s
/s/
ض
z
/z/
ط
t
/t̪/
ظ
z
/z/
ع
ā
/ɑ/
غ
ğ
/ɣ/
ف
f
/f/
ق
q
/q/
ک
k
/k/
ګ
g
/ɡ/
ل
l
/l/
م
m
/m/
ن
n
/n/
ڼ

/ɳ/
ں
̃ , ń
/◌̃/
و
w, u, o
/w, u, o/
ه
h, a
/h, a/
ۀ
ə
/ə/
ي
y, i
/j, i/
ې
e
/e/
ی
ay, y
/ai, j/
ۍ
əi
/əi/
ئ
əi, y
/əi, j/

Dialect vowelsEdit

Waziristani has the following vowels:

Front Central Back
Unrounded Rounded
Close i u
Close-mid ə
Open-mid ɛ œ ɔ
Open a ɒ

These can potentially be romanised as:[14]

IPA Waziri Dialect Romanisation Notes With stress
ɔ North
ɒ South å as in Scandinivian ǻ
œ Both ö as in German ö́
ɛ Both ɛ by the Greek ɛ́

In the Marwat dialect and in the Karlāṇi dialects presence of nasalised vowels has been noted.[15] As such the nasalised vowels be transcribed in the following ways:

Nasalised IPA Romanisation With Stress
ɑ̃ ā̃ ā̃́
ã ã ã́
ẽ́
ĩ ĩ ĩ́
ũ ũ
õ õ
ə̃ ə̃ ə̃́

It can also be transcribed as:

Nasalised IPA Romanisation With Stress
ɑ̃ āń ā́ń
ã áń
éń
ĩ íń
ũ úń
õ óń
ə̃ əń ə́ń

Pashto KeyboardsEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

1.^ As 2nd Person Singular - example: ته کور ته ځې [you are going home]. And as Past Feminine 3rd Person Plural - example: هغوی ګډېدې [They (women) were dancing)
2.^ Example: پرې, پې, تر...پورې etc
3. ^ Example: سړی تللی و [the man had gone]
4. ^ Example: خځه تللې وه [the woman had gone]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Bečka, Jiří (1969). A Study in Pashto Stress. Academia.
  2. ^ Pashto-English Dictionary
  3. ^ Pashto-English Dictionary
  4. ^ Pashto-English Dictionary
  5. ^ Pashto-English Dictionary
  6. ^ mohammedanisme in Dutch and Flemish-Pashto Dictionary
  7. ^ Kaye, Alan S. (1997-06-30). Phonologies of Asia and Africa: (including the Caucasus). Eisenbrauns. p. 742. ISBN 978-1-57506-019-4.
  8. ^ Aajiz, Niaz Muhammad (2007). Bilingual primer Pashto - English (in Pashto). Pashto Academy Publications.
  9. ^ Jazab, Yousaf Khan. An Ethno-Linguistic Study of the Karlanri Varieties of Pashto. Pashto Academy, University of Peshawar. p. 63.
  10. ^ Ivanov, Vladimir; Novgorodova, Irina. "L2/01-316. Arabic Letter Final/Isolated Kaf Sign" (PDF). www.unicode.org. Unicode, Inc.
  11. ^ a b D. N. MacKenzie, "A Standard Pashto", Khyber.org
  12. ^ Mostefa, Djamel; Choukri, Khalid; Brunessaux, Sylvie; Boudahmane, Karim (May 2012). "New language resources for the Pashto language" (PDF): 2917–2922. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  13. ^ کاکاخېل, سيد تقويم الحقل; خټک, راج ولي شاه (2011). پښتو ليک لار (باړه ګلۍ) (PDF). Peshawar: Pashto Academy.
  14. ^ Kaye, Alan S. (1997-06-30). Phonologies of Asia and Africa: (including the Caucasus). Eisenbrauns. pp. 748–749. ISBN 978-1-57506-019-4.
  15. ^ Khan Jazab, Yousaf (2017). An Ethno-linguisitic Study of the Karlani Varieities of Pashto. Pashto Academy, University of Peshawar. pp. 60–64.

BibliographyEdit

  • Awde & Sarwan (2002). "Pashto dictionary & phrasebook", page 24.

External linksEdit