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The close central rounded vowel, or high central rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʉ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is }. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as "barred u".

Close central rounded vowel
ʉ
ü
IPA Number318
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʉ
Unicode (hex)U+0289
X-SAMPA}
Braille⠴ (braille pattern dots-356)⠥ (braille pattern dots-136)
Audio sample

The close central rounded vowel is the vocalic equivalent of the rare labialized post-palatal approximant [ẅ].[2]

In most languages this rounded vowel is pronounced with protruded lips (endolabial). However, in a few cases the lips are compressed (exolabial).

Some languages feature the near-close central rounded vowel, which is slightly lower. It is most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʉ̞⟩ and ⟨ʊ̈⟩, but other transcriptions such as ⟨ʊ̟⟩ and ⟨ɵ̝⟩ are also possible. The symbol ⟨ᵿ⟩, a conflation of ⟨ʊ⟩ and ⟨ʉ⟩, is used as an unofficial extension of the IPA to represent this sound by a number of publications, such as Accents of English by John C. Wells. In the third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, ⟨ᵿ⟩ represents free variation between /ʊ/ and /ə/.

Close central protruded vowelEdit

The close central protruded vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨ʉ⟩, and that is the convention used in this article. As there is no dedicated diacritic for protrusion in the IPA, symbol for the close central rounded vowel with an old diacritic for labialization, ⟨  ̫⟩, can be used as an ad hoc symbol ⟨ʉ̫⟩ for the close central protruded vowel. Another possible transcription is ⟨ʉʷ⟩ or ⟨ɨʷ⟩ (a close central vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.

FeaturesEdit

  • Its vowel height is close, also known as high, which means the tongue is positioned close to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel.
  • Its roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, and the inner surfaces exposed.

OccurrenceEdit

Because central rounded vowels are assumed to have protrusion, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have compression.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Angami Khonoma[3] su [sʉ˦] 'deep' Allophone of /u/ after /s/.[3]
Armenian Some Eastern dialects[4] յուղ [jʉʁ] 'oil' Allophone of /u/ after /j/.
Berber Ayt Seghrouchen[5] ? [lːæjˈɡːʉɾ] 'he goes' Allophone of /u/ after velar consonants.
Dutch Standard Northern[6] nu [nʉ] 'now' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨y⟩; also described as close front [y][7] and near-close front [].[8] See Dutch phonology
English Australian[9] goose [ɡʉːs] 'goose' See Australian English phonology
English English[10][11] Can be back [] or front [] instead. The rounding is variable in some varieties.[12]
New Zealand[13] See New Zealand English phonology
Received Pronunciation[14] Realized as back [] in the conservative variety.[14]
South African[15] Realized as back [] in the conservative variety and in many Black and Indian varieties.[15] See South African English phonology
General American[16] [ɡʉs] Can be back [u] instead.[16]
Estuary[17] foot [fʉ̞ʔt] 'foot' The exact height, backness and roundedness is variable.[17]
German Upper Saxon[18] Buden [ˈb̥ʉːd̥n̩] 'booths' The example word is from the Chemnitz dialect.
Hausa[19] [example needed] Allophone of /u/.[19]
Ibibio Dialect of the Uruan area and Uyo[20] fuuk [fʉ́ʉk] 'cover many things/times' Allophone of /u/ between consonants.[20]
Some dialects[20] [example needed] Phonemic; contrasts with /u/.[20]
Irish Munster[21] ciúin [cʉːnʲ] 'quiet' Allophone of /u/ between slender consonants.[21] See Irish phonology
Ulster[22] úllaí [ʉ̜ɫ̪i][stress?] 'apples' Often only weakly rounded;[22] may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨u⟩.
Limburgish Some dialects[23][24] bruudsje [ˈbʀ̝ʉtʃə] 'breadroll' Close [ʉ][23] or near-close [ʉ̞],[24] depending on the dialect. Close front [y] in other dialects.[25] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨y⟩. The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect, in which the vowel is close.
Lüsu[26] [lʉ˥zʉ˥˧] 'Lüsu'
Russian[27] кюрий [ˈkʲʉrʲɪj] 'curium' Allophone of /u/ between palatalized consonants. Near-close when unstressed.[27] See Russian phonology
Scots[28] buit [bʉt] 'boot' May be more front [ʏ] instead.[28]
Swedish Bohuslän[29] yla [²ʉᶻːlä] 'howl' A fricated vowel that corresponds to [y̫ː] in Central Standard Swedish.[29] See Swedish phonology
Närke[29]
Tamil[30] வால் [väːlʉ] 'tail' Epenthetic vowel inserted in colloquial speech after word-final liquids; can be unrounded [ɨ] instead.[30] See Tamil phonology

Close central compressed vowelEdit

Close central compressed vowel
ÿ
ɨ͡β̞
ɨᵝ

As there is no official diacritic for compression in the IPA, the centering diacritic is used with the front rounded vowel [y], which is normally compressed. Other possible transcriptions are ⟨ɨ͡β̞⟩ (simultaneous [ɨ] and labial compression) and ⟨ɨᵝ⟩ ([ɨ] modified with labial compression[31]).

FeaturesEdit

  • Its vowel height is close, also known as high, which means the tongue is positioned close to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel.
  • Its roundedness is compressed, which means that the margins of the lips are tense and drawn together in such a way that the inner surfaces are not exposed.

OccurrenceEdit

This vowel is typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʉ⟩. It occurs in some dialects of Swedish, but see also close front compressed vowel. The close back vowels of Norwegian and Swedish are also compressed. See close back compressed vowel. Medumba has a compressed central vowel [ɨᵝ] where the corners of the mouth are not drawn together.[32]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Japanese Some younger speakers[33] 空気/kūki [kÿːki] 'air' Near-back [] for other speakers.[33] See Japanese phonology
Norwegian Urban East[34][35] hus [hÿːs] 'house' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʉː⟩. Also described as front [].[36] See Norwegian phonology
Swedish Some dialects ful [fÿːl] 'ugly' More front [ ~ ʏː] in Central Standard Swedish; typically transcribed in IPA as ⟨ʉː⟩. See Swedish phonology

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Instead of "post-palatal", it can be called "retracted palatal", "backed palatal", "palato-velar", "pre-velar", "advanced velar", "fronted velar" or "front-velar".
  3. ^ a b Blankenship et al. (1993), p. 129.
  4. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 14.
  5. ^ Abdel-Massih (1971), p. 20.
  6. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  7. ^ Gussenhoven (2007), p. 30.
  8. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), p. 132.
  9. ^ Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997).
  10. ^ Schneider et al. (2004), pp. 138, 170, 188, 190.
  11. ^ Watson (2007), p. 357.
  12. ^ Schneider et al. (2004), pp. 121, 138, 188, 190.
  13. ^ Schneider et al. (2004), p. 582.
  14. ^ a b Gimson (2014), p. 133.
  15. ^ a b Lass (2002), p. 116.
  16. ^ a b Wells (1982), pp. 476, 487.
  17. ^ a b Schneider et al. (2004), pp. 188, 191–192.
  18. ^ Khan & Weise (2013), p. 236.
  19. ^ a b Schuh & Yalwa (1999), p. 90.
  20. ^ a b c d Urua (2004), p. 106.
  21. ^ a b Ó Sé (2000), p. ?.
  22. ^ a b Ní Chasaide (1999), p. 114.
  23. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  24. ^ a b Verhoeven (2007), pp. 221, 223.
  25. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  26. ^ Chirkova & Chen (2013), p. 75.
  27. ^ a b Jones & Ward (1969), pp. 38, 67–68.
  28. ^ a b Schneider et al. (2004), p. 54.
  29. ^ a b c Riad (2014), p. 21.
  30. ^ a b Keane (2004), p. 114.
  31. ^ e.g. in Flemming (2002) Auditory representations in phonology, p. 83.
  32. ^ [1]
  33. ^ a b Okada (1999), p. 118.
  34. ^ Strandskogen (1979), pp. 15, 21.
  35. ^ Popperwell (2010), pp. 16, 29.
  36. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 18.

ReferencesEdit

  • Abdel-Massih, Ernest T. (1971), A Reference Grammar of Tamazight, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan
  • Blankenship, Barbara; Ladefoged, Peter; Bhaskararao, Peri; Chase, Nichumeno (1993), "Phonetic structures of Khonoma Angami", in Maddieson, Ian (ed.), Fieldwork studies of targeted languages, 84, Los Angeles: The UCLA Phonetics Laboratory Group, pp. 127–141
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013), "Lizu" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 75–86, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000242[permanent dead link]
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan (ed.), Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies, 29: 155–166, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006526
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (2007), Wat is de beste transcriptie voor het Nederlands? (PDF) (in Dutch), Nijmegen: Radboud University, archived (PDF) from the original on 25 March 2017
  • Harrington, J.; Cox, F.; Evans, Z. (1997), "An acoustic phonetic study of broad, general, and cultivated Australian English vowels" (PDF), Australian Journal of Linguistics, 17: 155–184, doi:10.1080/07268609708599550
  • Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28: 107–112, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006307
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press
  • Keane, Elinor (2004), "Tamil", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 111–116, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001549
  • Khan, Sameer ud Dowla; Weise, Constanze (2013), "Upper Saxon (Chemnitz dialect)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (2): 231–241, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000145
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend (ed.), Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052
  • Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe (1999), "Irish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 111–16, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Okada, Hideo (1999), "Japanese", in International Phonetic Association (ed.), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 117–119, ISBN 978-0-52163751-0
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Irish), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann, ISBN 0-946452-97-0
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 117–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002428
  • Popperwell, Ronald G. (2010) [First published 1963], Pronunciation of Norwegian, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-15742-1
  • Riad, Tomas (2014), The Phonology of Swedish, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-954357-1
  • Scobbie, James M; Gordeeva, Olga B.; Matthews, Benjamin (2006), Acquisition of Scottish English Phonology: an overview, Edinburgh: QMU Speech Science Research Centre Working Papers
  • Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, eds. (2004), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Schuh, Russell G.; Yalwa, Lawan D. (1999), "Hausa", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 90–95, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Strandskogen, Åse-Berit (1979), Norsk fonetikk for utlendinger, Oslo: Gyldendal, ISBN 82-05-10107-8
  • Urua, Eno-Abasi E. (2004), "Ibibio", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 105–109, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001550
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2007), "The Belgian Limburg dialect of Hamont", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (2): 219–225, doi:10.1017/S0025100307002940
  • Watson, Kevin (2007), "Liverpool English" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (3): 351–360, doi:10.1017/s0025100307003180
  • Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Volume 3: Beyond the British Isles (pp. i–xx, 467–674). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52128541-0 .

External linksEdit