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Near-close central rounded vowel

The near-close central rounded vowel, or near-high central rounded vowel,[1] is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The International Phonetic Alphabet can represent this sound in a number of ways (see the box on the right), but the most common symbols are ⟨ʉ̞⟩ (lowered [ʉ]) and ⟨ʊ̈⟩ (centralized [ʊ]) for a protruded vowel, and ⟨ʏ̈⟩ for a compressed vowel. Other possible transcriptions of the protruded variant include ⟨ʊ̟⟩ (advanced [ʊ]) and ⟨ɵ̝⟩ (raised [ɵ]).

Near-close central rounded vowel
ʉ̞
ʊ̈
ɵ̝
IPA number318 430
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʊ​̈
Unicode (hex)U+028A U+0308
X-SAMPA}_o or U\
Braille⠷ (braille pattern dots-12356)⠈ (braille pattern dots-4)⠒ (braille pattern dots-25)

The symbol ⟨ᵿ⟩, a conflation of ⟨ʊ⟩ and ⟨ʉ⟩, is used as an unofficial extension of the IPA to represent this sound by a number of publications, such as Accents of English by John C. Wells and the Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch,[2] a pronunciation dictionary for German. In the third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, ⟨ᵿ⟩ represents free variation between /ʊ/ and /ə/.

Contents

Near-close central protruded vowelEdit

The near-close central protruded vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨ʉ̞⟩ or ⟨ʊ̈⟩. As there is no dedicated diacritic for protrusion in the IPA, symbol for the near-close central rounded vowel with an old diacritic for labialization, ⟨  ̫⟩, can be used as an ad hoc symbol ⟨ʉ̫˕⟩ or ⟨ʊ̫̈⟩ for the near-close central protruded vowel. Another possible transcription is ⟨ʉ̞ʷ⟩, ⟨ʊ̈ʷ⟩, ⟨ɨ̞ʷ⟩ or ⟨ɪ̈ʷ⟩ (a near-close central vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.

FeaturesEdit

IPA: Vowels
Front Central Back
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Paired vowels are: unrounded  rounded

OccurrenceEdit

Note: Because ⟨ʊ⟩ is commonly used for the close-mid near-back rounded vowel (see near-close back rounded vowel), some of the vowels transcribed with ⟨ʊ̈⟩ can actually be close-mid as well. See close-mid central rounded vowel.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch Randstad[3] hut [ɦɵ̝t] 'hut' Found in Amsterdam, Rotterdam and The Hague. Lower [ɵ] in Standard Dutch.[3] See Dutch phonology
English Cockney[4] good [ɡʊ̈d] 'good' Only in some words, particularly good, otherwise realized as near-back [ʊ].[4]
Rural white Southern American[5] Can be front [ʏ] instead.[5]
Southeastern English[6] May be unrounded [ɪ̈] instead;[6] it corresponds to [ʊ] in other dialects. See English phonology
Ulster[7] Short allophone of /u/.[7]
New Zealand[8][9] goose [ɡʉ̞ːs] 'goose' Possible realization of /ʉː/.[8][9] See New Zealand English phonology
Shetland[10] strut [stɹʊ̈t] 'strut' Can be [ɔ̟] or [ʌ] instead.[10]
Irish Munster[11] giobal [ˈɟjʊ̟bˠəɫ̪] 'rag' Allophone of /ʊ/ after a slender consonant.[11] See Irish phonology
Limburgish Hamont dialect[12] bul [bʉ̞l¹] 'a paper bag' Close front [y] or close central [ʉ] in other dialects;[13][14][15] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨y⟩.
Norwegian Urban East[16] gull [ɡʉ̞lː] 'gold' The quality has been variously described as near-close front [ʉ̞˖],[17] near-close central [ʉ̞][16] and close central [ʉ],[18] whereas the type of rounding has been variously described as compressed[19][20] and protruded.[20][21] Typically, it is transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʉ⟩. See Norwegian phonology
Russian[22] ютиться [jʉ̞ˈtʲit̪͡s̪ə] 'to huddle' Occurs only between palatalized consonants and in unstressed syllables. See Russian phonology

Near-close central compressed vowelEdit

Near-close central compressed vowel
ʏ̈
ɨ̞͡β̞
ɨ̞ᵝ

As there is no official diacritic for compression in the IPA, the centering diacritic is used with the front rounded vowel [ʏ], which is normally compressed. Other possible transcriptions are ⟨ɨ̞͡β̞⟩ or ⟨ɪ̈͡β̞⟩ (simultaneous [ɨ̞] or [ɪ̈] and labial compression) and ⟨ɨ̞ᵝ⟩ or ⟨ɪ̈ᵝ⟩ ([ɨ̞] or [ɪ̈] modified with labial compression).

FeaturesEdit

OccurrenceEdit

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Norwegian Urban East[16] gull [ɡʏ̈lː] 'gold' The quality has been variously described as near-close front [ʏ],[17] near-close central [ʏ̈][16] and close central [ÿ],[18] whereas the type of rounding has been variously described as compressed[19][20] and protruded.[20][21] Typically, it is transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʉ⟩. See Norwegian phonology
Swedish[23] duell [dʏ̈ˈɛ̝lː] 'duel' Unstressed allophone of /ɵ/ in some environments;[24] can be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʉ̞⟩. See Swedish phonology

NotesEdit

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Krech et al. (2009:171). The authors use that symbol to transcribe the vowel in Urban East Norwegian that is otherwise normally transcribed as ⟨ʉ̞⟩ or simply ⟨ʉ⟩.
  3. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003:128, 131). The source describes the Standard Dutch vowel as front-central [ɵ̟], but more sources (e.g. van Heuven & Genet (2002) and Verhoeven (2005)) describe it as central [ɵ]. As far as the raised varieties of this vowel are concerned, Collins and Mees do not describe their exact backness.
  4. ^ a b Mott (2011), p. 75.
  5. ^ a b Thomas (2004), pp. 303, 308.
  6. ^ a b Lodge (2009), p. 174.
  7. ^ a b Jilka, Matthias. "Irish English and Ulster English" (PDF). Stuttgart: Institut für Linguistik/Anglistik, University of Stuttgart. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014.
  8. ^ a b Bauer et al. (2007), p. 98.
  9. ^ a b Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).
  10. ^ a b Melchers (2004), p. 42.
  11. ^ a b Ó Sé (2000), p. ?.
  12. ^ Verhoeven (2007), pp. 221, 223.
  13. ^ Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 110.
  14. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  15. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  16. ^ a b c d Popperwell (2010), pp. 30–31.
  17. ^ a b Vanvik (1979), p. 13.
  18. ^ a b Strandskogen (1979), pp. 15, 21.
  19. ^ a b Haugen (1974), p. 40.
  20. ^ a b c d Kristoffersen (2000), pp. 15–16.
  21. ^ a b Popperwell (2010), pp. 29, 31.
  22. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), p. 38.
  23. ^ Riad (2014), pp. 28-29.
  24. ^ Riad (2014), p. 27.

ReferencesEdit