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Near-close central rounded vowel

The near-close central rounded vowel, or near-high central rounded vowel,[1] is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The International Phonetic Alphabet can represent this sound in a number of ways (see the box on the right), but the most common symbols are ⟨ʊ̈⟩ (centralized [ʊ]) and ⟨ʉ̞⟩ (lowered [ʉ]) for a protruded vowel, and ⟨ʏ̈⟩ for a compressed vowel.

Near-close central rounded vowel
ʊ̈
ʉ̞
IPA number 321 415
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʊ​̈
Unicode (hex) U+028A U+0308
X-SAMPA U\ or }_o
Braille ⠷ (braille pattern dots-12356) ⠈ (braille pattern dots-4) ⠒ (braille pattern dots-25)

The symbol ⟨ᵿ⟩, a conflation of ⟨ʊ⟩ and ⟨ʉ⟩, is used as an unofficial extension of the IPA to represent this sound by a number of publications, such as Accents of English by John C. Wells and the Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch,[2] a pronunciation dictionary for German. In the third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, ⟨ᵿ⟩ represents free variation between /ʊ/ and /ə/.

Contents

Near-close central protruded vowelEdit

The near-close central protruded vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨ʊ̈⟩ or ⟨ʉ̞⟩. This article uses the first symbol. As there is no dedicated diacritic for protrusion in the IPA, symbol for the near-close central rounded vowel with an old diacritic for labialization, ⟨  ̫⟩, can be used as an ad hoc symbol ⟨ʊ̫̈⟩ or ⟨ʉ̫˕⟩ for the near-close central protruded vowel. Another possible transcription is ⟨ʊ̈ʷ⟩, ⟨ʉ̞ʷ⟩, ⟨ɪ̈ʷ⟩ or ⟨ɨ̞ʷ⟩ (a near-close central vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.

FeaturesEdit

IPA: Vowels
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded

OccurrenceEdit

Note: Because ⟨ʊ⟩ is commonly used for the close-mid near-back rounded vowel (see near-close near-back rounded vowel), some of the vowels transcribed with ⟨ʊ̈⟩ can actually be close-mid as well. See close-mid central rounded vowel.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch Standard Northern[3] fuut [fʉ̞t] 'grebe' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨y⟩; also described as close near-front [][4] and near-close near-front [ʏ].[5] See Dutch phonology
English Cockney[6] good [ɡʊ̈d] 'good' Only in some words, particularly good, otherwise realized as near-back [ʊ].[6]
Rural white Southern American[7] Can be near-front [ʏ] instead.[7]
Southeastern English[8] May be unrounded [ɪ̈] instead;[8] it corresponds to [ʊ] in other dialects. See English phonology
Ulster[9] Short allophone of /u/.[9]
Shetland[10] strut [stɹʊ̈t] 'strut' Can be [ɔ̟] or [ʌ] instead.[10]
New Zealand[11][12] goose [ɡʉ̞ːs] 'goose' Possible realization of /ʉː/.[11][12] See New Zealand English phonology
Irish Munster[13] giobal [ˈɟjʊ̟bˠəɫ̪] 'rag' Slightly retracted; allophone of /ʊ/ after a slender consonant.[13] See Irish phonology
Norwegian Urban East[14] gull [ɡʉ̞lː] 'gold' The quality has been variously described as near-close near-front [ʉ̞˖],[15] near-close central [ʉ̞][14] and close central [ʉ],[16] whereas the type of rounding has been variously described as compressed[17][18] and protruded.[18][19] It may differ from /ʏ/ only by the type of rounding. Typically, it is transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʉ⟩. See Norwegian phonology
Russian[20] ютиться [jʊ̈ˈtʲit̪͡s̪ə] 'to huddle' Occurs only between palatalized consonants and in unstressed syllables. See Russian phonology

Near-close central compressed vowelEdit

Near-close central compressed vowel
ʏ̈
ʏ̵
ɨ̞͡β̞
ɨ̞ᵝ

As there is no official diacritic for compression in the IPA, the centering diacritic is used with the near-front rounded vowel [ʏ], which is normally compressed. Another possibility is ⟨ʏ̵⟩, a centralized [ʏ] by analogy with the close central vowels, though this symbol may not display properly in all browsers. Other possible transcriptions are ⟨ɨ̞͡β̞⟩ or ⟨ɪ̈͡β̞⟩ (simultaneous [ɨ̞] or [ɪ̈] and labial compression) and ⟨ɨ̞ᵝ⟩ or ⟨ɪ̈ᵝ⟩ ([ɨ̞] or [ɪ̈] modified with labial compression).

FeaturesEdit

OccurrenceEdit

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Norwegian Urban East[14] gull [ɡʏ̈lː] 'gold' The quality has been variously described as near-close near-front [ʏ],[15] near-close central [ʏ̈][14] and close central [ÿ],[16] whereas the type of rounding has been variously described as compressed[17][18] and protruded.[18][19] It may differ from /ʏ/ only by the type of rounding. Typically, it is transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʉ⟩. See Norwegian phonology
Swedish[21] duell   [dʏ̈ˈɛ̝lː] 'duel' Unstressed allophone of /ɵ/ in some environments;[22] can be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʉ̞⟩. See Swedish phonology

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Krech et al. (2009:171). The authors use that symbol to transcribe the vowel in Urban East Norwegian that is otherwise normally transcribed as ⟨ʉ̞⟩ or simply ⟨ʉ⟩.
  3. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  4. ^ Gussenhoven (2007), p. 30.
  5. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), p. 132.
  6. ^ a b Mott (2011), p. 75.
  7. ^ a b Thomas (2004), pp. 303, 308.
  8. ^ a b Lodge (2009), p. 174.
  9. ^ a b Jilka, Matthias. "Irish English and Ulster English" (PDF). Stuttgart: Institut für Linguistik/Anglistik, University of Stuttgart. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014. 
  10. ^ a b Melchers (2004), p. 42.
  11. ^ a b Bauer et al. (2007), p. 98.
  12. ^ a b Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).
  13. ^ a b Ó Sé (2000), p. ?.
  14. ^ a b c d Popperwell (2010), pp. 30–31.
  15. ^ a b Vanvik (1979), p. 13.
  16. ^ a b Strandskogen (1979), pp. 15, 21.
  17. ^ a b Haugen (1974), p. 40.
  18. ^ a b c d Kristoffersen (2000), pp. 15–16.
  19. ^ a b Popperwell (2010), pp. 29, 31.
  20. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), p. 38.
  21. ^ Riad (2014), pp. 28-29.
  22. ^ Riad (2014), p. 27.

BibliographyEdit