Socialist Republic of Serbia
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The Socialist Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Социјалистичка Република Србија / Socijalistička Republika Srbija), previously known as Federal State of Serbia and People’s Republic of Serbia, commonly referred to as Socialist Serbia, or simply as Serbia, was one of the six constituent republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It was the largest constituent republic in terms of population and territory. Its capital, Belgrade, was also the federal capital of Yugoslavia.
|Socialist Republic of Serbia|
Социјалистичка Република Србија
Socijalistička Republika Srbija
|Constituent republic of Yugoslavia|
|Yugoslavia in 1990|
Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republic
Titoist one-party socialist republic
de facto federation
|•||1945-1953||Siniša Stanković (first)|
|•||1989-1990||Slobodan Milošević (last)|
|Historical era||Cold War, World War II|
|•||ASNOS||9–12 November 1945|
|•||End of World War II||8 May 1945|
|•||Last Constitution adopted||28 September 1990|
|•||Federal Republic of Yugoslavia declared||27 April 1992|
|•||1981||88,361 km2 (34,116 sq mi)|
|Density||105.4 /km2 (273 /sq mi)|
In April 1945, the Anti-fascist Assembly for the National Liberation of Serbia officially created the Federated State of Serbia (Serbian: Федерална Држава Србија / Federalna Država Srbija), as a federated state within Yugoslavia. In January 1946, after the first constitution of federal Yugoslavia was adopted, the Federated State of Serbia was renamed to Peoples's Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Народна Република Србија / Narodna Republika Srbija). It also had two autonomous units, Autonomous Province of Vojvodina and Autonomous Region of Kosovo and Metohija.
From 1946 to 1963, the republic was officially known as People's Republic of Serbia, and from 1963 to 1990 as Socialist Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Социјалистичка Република Србија / Socijalistička Republika Srbija). The republic now had two provinces, Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija (renamed to Kosovo, in 1968).
After the Croatian Spring in 1971, almost whole party leadership of Serbia was removed from office, under the charge of being "liberal".
In 1974 new constitution was adopted, increasing the powers of provinces, and making them de facto republics. For the first time the institution of president was formed, as President of the Presidency of Socialist Republic of Serbia. Assembly was electing 15 members of presidency and one president for a 4 years , and later 2 years term.
For most of its existence in the SFRY, Serbia was loyal and generally subordinate to the federal government. This changed after the death of Josip Broz Tito in 1980, when Albanian, as well as Serbian nationalism in Kosovo arised. In 1981 a major protests erupted in Kosovo demanding the status of republic. The League of Communists was split on how to respond. At the same time economic crisis in Yugoslavia started. The leaders of the cuntry were unable to mke any reforms, thanks to the political instability.
In 1988 and 1989 a successful round of coups in the Communist party leadership, known as Antibureucratic revolution, in Vojvodina, Kosovo as well as Montenegro, replaced autonomous leaderships in this regions. The coups were led by Slobodan Milošević; supporter of Serbian nationalism. The events were condemned by the communist governments of the western Yugoslav republics (especially SR Slovenia and SR Croatia), who successfully resisted the attempts to expand the revolt onto their territories, and turned against Milošević. The rising antagonism eventually resulted in the dissolution of the ruling League of Communists of Yugoslavia in 1990, and subsequently in the breakup of Yugoslavia.
In 1989, Slobodan Milošević was elected as President of the State Presidency of Serbia. He demanded that the federal Yugoslav government act for the interests of Serbia in Kosovo by sending in the Yugoslav People's Army to suppress separatism in the province. In the same time, several reforms of federal electoral system were proposed, with Serbia supporting a "one-citizen, one-vote" system, which would have given a majority of votes to Serbs. By that time, ethnic tensions in Yugoslavia increased, and the ruling League of Communists of Yugoslavia collapsed, followed by the crisis of federal institutions. After this events, in 1989 Assembly of Socialist Republic of Serbia voted for constitution amendments that revoked high autonomy for provinces of Vojvodina and Kosovo.
After 1990, the state was known simply as Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Република Србија / Republika Srbija), and in December of the same year Slobodan Milošević was elected as first President of the Republic In 1992, when the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was formed, Serbia became one of its two constituent republics. In 2003 this state union was re-formed into Serbia and Montenegro, and in 2006 Serbia became an independent republic after Montenegro separated.
Within Socialist Republic of Serbia two autonomous provinces existed: Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina and Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo. The central part of the Socialist Republic of Serbia located outside of the two autonomous provinces was generally known as "Serbia proper" ("Uža Srbija").
Geographically SR Serbia bordered Hungary to the north, Romania and Bulgaria to the east and Albania to the south-west. Within Yugoslavia it bordered SR Macedonia to the south and SR Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia to the west.
In 1971, total population of the Socialist Republic of Serbia numbered 8,446,591 people, including:
- Serbs = 6,142,071 (72.71%)
- Albanians = 984,761 (11.66%)
- Hungarians = 430,314 (5.10%)
- Croats = 184,913 (2.19%)
- Muslims = 154,330 (1.83%)
- Yugoslavs = 123,824 (1.47%)
- Slovaks = 76,733 (0.82%)
- Romanians = 57,419 (0.62%)
- Bulgarians = 53,800 (0.58%)
- Romani = 49,894 (0.54%)
- Macedonians = 42,675 (0.46%)
- Rusyns = 20,608 (0.22%)
- Turks = 18,220 (0.20%)
- Slovenes = 15,957 (0.17%)
- Vlachs = 14,724 (0.16%)
In 1981, total population of the Socialist Republic of Serbia numbered 9,313,677 people, including:
In the Socialist Republic, the only legal political party was the League of Communists of Serbia (SKS), which was part of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (SKJ). The party remained relatively stable and loyal to the federal party until the late 1980s, when the party became split over what action to take in Kosovo when protests and fights broke out between ethnic Albanians and Serbs.
The more traditional Communists supported President Ivan Stambolic, who advocated continued neutrality as a means to solve the dispute; while more radical and nationalist-leaning members supported Slobodan Milosevic, who advocated the protection of Kosovo Serbs, who had claimed that their population was being pressured to leave Kosovo by Albanian separatists. Milosevic utilized public sentiment and opposition to Kosovo Albanian separatism to rally large numbers of supporters to help him overthrow the Communist leadership in Vojvodina, Kosovo and the Socialist Republic of Montenegro in what was known as the anti-bureaucratic revolution. Afterwards, the Serbian League of Communists selected Milosevic as its leader. Milosevic took a hard stand on Albanian nationalism in Kosovo and pressured the Yugoslav government to give him emergency powers to deal with Kosovo Albanian separatists. Furthermore, he reduced the autonomy of the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina and installed politicians loyal to him to serve as their representatives.
In the congress of the Yugoslav League of Communists in 1990, Milosevic and his subordinate representatives for Vojvodina, Kosovo and the Socialist Republic of Montenegro attempted to silence opposition from the Socialist Republic of Slovenia who opposed the actions taken against Kosovo Albanian leadership, by blocking all reforms proposed by the Slovene representatives. The tactic failed and Slovenia, along with its ally Croatia, abdicated from the Yugoslav Communist Party. This caused the Yugoslav Communist party to fall apart, and then the state of Yugoslavia itself one year later.
Heads of institutionsEdit
Chairman of ASNOS (1944 - 1945)Edit
- Siniša Stanković (12 November 1944 - 7 April 1945)
- President of the Presidium of the People's Assembly (1945 - 1953)
- Siniša Stanković (7 April 1945 - March 1953)
- Presidents of the National Assembly (1953 - 1974)
- Presidents of the Presidency (1974 - 1990)
- Dragoslav Marković (6 May 1974 - 5 May 1978)
- Dobrivoje Vidić (5 May 1978 - 5 May 1982)
- Nikola Ljubičić (5 May 1982 - 5 May 1984)
- Dušan Čkrebić (5 May 1984 - 5 May 1986)
- Ivan Stambolić (5 May 1986 - 14 December 1987)
- Petar Gračanin (14 December 1987 - 20 March 1989)
- Ljubiša Igić (20 March - 8 May 1989) (acting)
- Slobodan Milošević (8 May 1989 - 28 September 1990)
- Minister for Serbia in Yugoslav government
- Jaša Prodanović (7 March 1945 - 9 April 1945)
- President of the Government
- President of the Executive Council
- Petar Stambolić (5 February 1953 - 16 December 1953)
- Jovan Veselinov (16 December 1953 - 6 April 1957)
- Miloš Minić (6 April 1957 - 9 June 1962)
- Slobodan Penezić Krcun (9 June 1962 - 6 November 1964)
- Stevan Doronjski (Acting; 6 November 1964 - 17 November 1964)
- Dragi Stamenković (17 November 1964 - 6 June 1967)
- Đurica Jojkić (6 June 1967 - 7 May 1969)
- Milenko Bojanić (7 May 1969 - 6 May 1974)
- Dušan Čkrebić (6 May 1974 - 6 May 1978)
- Ivan Stambolić (6 May 1978 - 5 May 1982)
- Branislav Ikonić (5 May 1982 - 6 May 1986)
- Desimir Jevtić (6 May 1986 - 5 December 1989)
- Stanko Radmilović (5 December 1989 - 28 September 1990)
- Media related to Socialist Republic of Serbia at Wikimedia Commons