A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system or single-party system is a governance structure in which only a single political party controls the ruling system.[1] All other parties are either outlawed or only enjoy limited and controlled participation in elections. Sometimes the term "de facto one-party state" is used to describe a dominant-party system that, unlike the one-party state, allows (at least nominally) democratic multiparty elections, but the existing practices or balance of political power effectively prevent the opposition from winning power.[2]

Membership in the ruling party tends to be relatively small compared to the population.[3] With such a small winning coalition, leaders in one-party states usually lack the incentive to care about the well-being of citizens.[4] Rather, they give out private goods to fellow elites to ensure continued support.  One-party, compared to dominant-party dictatorships, structure themselves unlike democracies. They also turn into democracies at a lower rate than dominant-party dictatorships.[5] While one-party states prohibit opposition parties, some allow for elections at the smallest local level. One-party states lack any legitimate competition. Therefore, they place elites and sympathetic candidates in key administrative races.[6] For example, the Chinese Communist Party exercises political control by infiltrating village administrations.[7] They view these positions as crucial for gathering information on the population and maintaining a presence in the far reaches of their borders.[8] One-party states recognize the trade-off between election victory and gathering valuable data.[9] To account for this, the regimes have been observed placing local nobility in easy-to-win races.[10] One-party states have also been observed using elections to ensure that only the most popular elites get chosen to office.[11] They also gather data from elections to indicate if a local official is performing poorly in the eyes of the residents.[11] This gives locals the opportunity to monitor local officials and communicate satisfaction with the local government.[11] Throughout the country, members of the one party hold key political positions.[5] In doing so, the party avoids committing outright fraud and rather sustains their power at the local level with strategic appointment of elites.[8] Data on one-party regimes can be difficult to gather given their lack of transparency.[6] 

Current one-party states edit

As of 2024 the following countries are legally constituted as one-party states:

Country Head of party Leader title Party Ideology Date of establishment Duration Notes
  China[12]
 
Xi Jinping
General Secretary   Chinese Communist Party Socialism with Chinese characteristics 1 October 1949 74 years, 255 days
  Cuba[13]
 
Miguel Díaz-Canel
First Secretary   Communist Party of Cuba Marxism–Leninism, Castroism, Guevarism, Left-wing nationalism 16 April 1961 63 years, 57 days
  Eritrea[14]
 
Isaias Afwerki
Chairperson   People's Front for Democracy and Justice Eritrean nationalism, Statism 24 May 1993 31 years, 19 days
  Laos[15]
 
Thongloun Sisoulith
General Secretary   Lao People's Revolutionary Party Kaysone Phomvihane Thought 2 December 1975 48 years, 193 days
  North Korea[16]
 
Kim Jong-un
General Secretary   Workers' Party of Korea Kimilsungism–Kimjongilism 9 September 1948 75 years, 277 days
  Vietnam[17]
 
Nguyễn Phú Trọng
General Secretary   Communist Party of Vietnam Ho Chi Minh Thought 30 April 1975 49 years, 43 days

De facto one-party states edit

A de facto one-party system is one that, while not officially linking a single political party to governmental power, utilizes some means of political manipulation to ensure only one party stays in power.[18] Many different countries have been claimed to be de facto one-party states, with differing levels of agreement between scholars, although most agree that the African continent is marked by this political system.[19][20][21] Below are just a few examples of governments that have been claimed to have single party rule due to political manipulation.

Country Party Date of

establishment

Information
  Rwanda Rwandan Patriotic Front 1994 Although Rwanda is nominally democratic, elections are manipulated in various ways, which include banning opposition parties, arresting or assassinating critics, and electoral fraud.[22][23]
  Syria[24] Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party 2012 While the 2012 constitution introduced by Bashar al-Assad theoretically enabled the establishment of political parties, Ba'athist Syria remains a de-facto one-party state with an extensive secret police apparatus that curtails independent political activities.[25]
  Venezuela[26] United Socialist Party of Venezuela 2017/2024 Since 2014, the country has been going through a period of crisis of legitimacy and exceptionality due to the order to close the National Assembly and the convocation of a Constituent Assembly by Nicolás Maduro on May 1, 2017, composed mostly of PSUV politicians. Since then, different laws have been approved to restrict political participation, including informal persecution and the disqualification of certain politicians (including complaints of electoral fraud), concluding in the year 2024 where, thanks to the new laws approved, the majority of opposition politicians have been disqualified and their organizations were banned, leaving only a controlled "opposition."[27][28]

Former one-party states edit

Country Party Ideology Date of establishment Date of dissolution Duration Continent
  Republic of Afghanistan   National Revolutionary Party Pashtun nationalism, Pashtunization, Republicanism, Secularism 14 February 1977[29][30] 28 April 1978 1 year, 73 days Asia
  Democratic Republic of Afghanistan   People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan-Khalq Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Stalinism, Pashtun nationalism, Anti-imperialism 30 April 1978 24 December 1979 1 year, 238 days Asia
   Democratic Republic of Afghanistan/Republic of Afghanistan   People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan-Parcham (National Fatherland Front) Communism (until 1990), Marxism–Leninism (until 1990), Afghan nationalism, Anti-imperialism 24 December 1979 28 July 1992 12 years, 217 days Asia
  Albanian Kingdom   Albanian Fascist Party Albanian nationalism, Greater Albania, Fascism, Italophilia, Serbophobia, Hellenophobia 2 June 1939 27 July 1943 4 years, 55 days Europe
  Albanian Kingdom Guard of Greater Albania Albanian nationalism, Fascism 27 July 1943 8 September 1943 43 days Europe
  Albanian Kingdom National Front Albanian nationalism, Greater Albania, Anti-communism, Republicanism, Big tent, Agrarian socialism 14 September 1943 29 November 1943 76 days Europe
   Democratic Government of Albania   Party of Labour of Albania (National Liberation Movement) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Hoxhaism, Anti-revisionism 20 October 1944 5 August 1945 289 days Europe
   Democratic Government of Albania   Party of Labour of Albania (Democratic Front) 5 August 1945 11 January 1946 159 days Europe
  Albania 11 January 1946 11 December 1990 44 years, 334 days Europe
  Algeria   National Liberation Front Arab socialism, Algerian nationalism, Pan-Arabism, Anti-imperialism 3 July 1962 23 February 1989 26 years, 235 days Africa
  People's Republic of Angola   People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola Communism, Left-wing nationalism, Marxism–Leninism 11 November 1975 30 May 1991 15 years, 200 days Africa
  Armenia Communist Party of Armenia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 2 December 1920 30 December 1922 2 years, 28 days Asia
  Transcaucasia Communist Party of Armenia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 12 March 1922 30 December 1922 293 days Asia
  Federal State of Austria   Fatherland Front Clerical fascism 1 May 1934 13 March 1938 3 years, 316 days Europe
    Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Communist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 30 April 1920 30 December 1922 2 years, 244 days Asia
  Transcaucasia Azerbaijan Communist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 12 March 1922 30 December 1922 293 days Asia
  Bangladesh Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League Mujibism, Bengali nationalism, Socialism 24 January 1975 15 August 1975 203 days Asia
  Bangladesh Jatiya Party Bangladeshi nationalism, Conservatism, Authoritarianism, Militarism 11 March 1988 6 December 1990 2 years, 270 days Asia
  Dahomey Dahomeyan Democratic Party African nationalism 15 December 1963 4 December 1965 1 year, 354 days Africa
  Benin   People's Revolutionary Party of Benin Communism, Marxism–Leninism (nominally) 30 November 1975 1 March 1990 14 years, 91 days Africa
  Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia   National Partnership Collaborationism, Nazism 6 April 1939 9 May 1945 6 years, 33 days Europe
     Bulgaria   Bulgarian Communist Party (Fatherland Front) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 15 September 1946 15 January 1990 43 years, 122 days Europe
  State of Burma Dobama Sinyetha Asi Ayon[31] 1943 1944 1 year, 0 days Asia
  State of Burma Maha Bama Asi Ayon[32] 1944 1945 1 year, 0 days Asia
  Burma   Burma Socialist Programme Party Burmese Way to Socialism 2 March 1962 18 September 1988 26 years, 200 days Asia
   Republic of Burundi   Union for National Progress Burundian nationalism, Tutsi interests 11 July 1974 13 March 1992 17 years, 246 days Africa
  Byelorussia Communist Party of Byelorussia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 31 July 1920 30 December 1922 2 years, 152 days Europe
  Cambodia (Sangkum era) Sangkum Khmer nationalism, National conservatism, Royalism, Statism, Buddhist socialism, Economic nationalism 22 March 1955 18 March 1970 14 years, 361 days Asia
   Kampuchea Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party Communism, Socialism, Marxism–Leninism, Revisionism, Left-wing nationalism 7 January 1979 1 May 1989 10 years, 114 days Asia
   Republic of Cameroon Cameroonian National Union Big tent 1 September 1966[33] 24 March 1985 18 years, 204 days Africa
  Cameroon Cameroon People's Democratic Movement Big tent, Nationalism, Francophilia 1975 1990 15 years, 0 days Africa
  Cape Verde   African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde Communism, Marxism–Leninism 1 July 1975 20 January 1981 5 years, 203 days Africa
  Cape Verde   African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde Communism, Marxism–Leninism 20 January 1981 28 September 1990 9 years, 251 days Africa
  Carpatho-Ukraine Ukrainian National Union [uk][34] Nationalism[35] 18 January 1939[36] March 1939 60 days Europe
  Central African Republic Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa African nationalism, Anti-colonialism, Progressivism, Anti-imperialism 1962 1980 18 years, 0 days Africa
  Central African Republic Central African Democratic Union African nationalism, Republicanism 1 March 1980 2 September 1981 1 year, 185 days Africa
  Central African Republic Central African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Democratic socialism, Social democracy, Republicanism 6 February 1987 22 April 1991[37] 4 years, 75 days Africa
  Chad Chadian Progressive Party African nationalism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-imperialism, African socialism, Federalism 16 April 1962 6 April 1973 10 years, 355 days Africa
  Chad National Movement for the Cultural and Social Revolution African nationalism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-imperialism, African socialism, Federalism 6 April 1973 13 April 1975 2 years, 7 days Africa
  Chad National Union for Independence and Revolution Nationalism 24 June 1984 3 December 1990 6 years, 162 days Africa
Guangzhou Chinese Communist Party Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 1927 1927 Asia
Hunan Chinese Communist Party Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 1927 1927 Asia
Jinggang Chinese Communist Party Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 1927 1928 1 year, 0 days Asia
Southwest Jiangxi Chinese Communist Party Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 1930 1931 1 year, 0 days Asia
  Chinese Soviet Republic   Chinese Communist Party Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 7 November 1931 22 September 1937 5 years, 319 days Asia
  Xinjiang People's Anti-Imperialist Association Six Great Policies 1 August 1935 1 April 1942 6 years, 243 days Asia
  Republic of China[note 1]/Taiwan   Kuomintang Tridemism 1 July 1925 15 July 1987 62 years, 14 days Asia
Yan'an Chinese Communist Party Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 1937 1949 12 years, 0 days Asia
  Comoros Comorian Union for Progress Nationalism 1982 1990 8 years, 0 days Africa
   People's Republic of the Congo Congolese Party of Labour Communism, Marxism–Leninism 31 January 1969 18 March 1992 23 years, 47 days Africa
  Tinoquista Costa Rica Peliquista Party Nationalism, Personalism, Authoritarianism 27 January 1917 12 August 1919 2 years, 197 days North America
  Czechoslovakia   Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (National Front) Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism, Husakism 25 February 1948 30 November 1989 41 years, 278 days Europe
  Dahomey Dahomeyan Unity Party African nationalism, Republicanism 11 April 1961 13 November 1963 2 years, 216 days Africa
  Danzig   Nazi Party Nazism 21 October 1937[38][39] 1 September 1939 1 year, 315 days Europe
  Djibouti People's Rally for Progress Issa interests 1 October 1981 4 September 1992 10 years, 339 days Africa
  Dominican Republic Dominican Party Trujillism, National conservatism, Right-wing populism, Antihaitianismo 2 August 1931 28 December 1961 30 years, 148 days North America
  East Germany   Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Democratic Bloc) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 7 October 1949 30 March 1950 174 days Europe
  East Germany   Socialist Unity Party of Germany (National Front of the German Democratic Republic) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 30 March 1950 1 December 1989 39 years, 246 days Europe
  Egypt Liberation Rally Egyptian nationalism, Pan-Arabism, Socialism 10 February 1953 1957 4 years, 0 days Africa
  Egypt National Union Nasserism, Pan-Arabism, Socialism 1957 1962 5 years, 0 days Africa
  Egypt Arab Socialist Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism 1961 1976 15 years, 0 days Africa
  Egypt National Democratic Party Egyptian nationalism, Big-Tent, Neo-liberalism 1976 2011 35 years, 0 days Africa
  El Salvador   National Pro Patria Party Fascism, Anti-communism, Conservatism, Agrarian oligarchy 1933 1944 11 years, 0 days Central America
  Equatorial Guinea United National Workers' Party African nationalism, Personalism, Anti-imperialism, Anti-colonialism, Anti-racism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-intellectualism, Totalitarianism 7 July 1970 25 August 1979 9 years, 49 days Africa
  Equatorial Guinea Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea African nationalism, Militarism 11 October 1987 16 November 1991 4 years, 36 days Africa
  Eritrea   Eritrean People's Liberation Front Left-wing nationalism 1991 (Provisional government)

1993 (Recognized state)

16 February 1994 3 years, 0 days Africa
  Estonia Patriotic League (National Front for the Implementation of the Constitution) Estonian nationalism, Personalism 9 March 1935 21 July 1940 5 years, 134 days Europe
  Estonia Communist Party of Estonia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 21 July 1940 9 August 1940 19 days Europe
  Ethiopia Commission for Organizing the Party of the Working People of Ethiopia Communism, Marxism–Leninism 12 September 1984 22 February 1987 2 years, 163 days Africa
  Ethiopia   Workers' Party of Ethiopia Communism, Marxism–Leninism 22 February 1987 28 April 1991 4 years, 65 days Africa
  Gabon Gabonese Democratic Party Conservatism 12 March 1968 22 May 1990 22 years, 71 days Africa
  Georgia Communist Party of Georgia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 25 February 1921 30 December 1922 1 year, 308 days Asia
  Transcaucasia Communist Party of Georgia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 12 March 1922 30 December 1922 293 days Asia
  Nazi Germany   National Socialist German Workers' Party Nazism 14 July 1933 23 May 1945 11 years, 313 days Europe
  Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch Territories   National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands Collaborationism, Dutch irredentism, Dutch nationalism and Nazism 14 December 1941 6 May 1945 3 years, 143 days Europe
  Ghana Convention People's Party Nkrumaism, African socialism, African nationalism, Pan-Africanism 31 January 1964 24 February 1966 2 years, 24 days Africa
  Grenada New Jewel Movement Communism, Marxism–Leninism 13 March 1979 25 October 1983 4 years, 226 days North America
  Guatemala Progressive Liberal Party Ubicoism, Liberalism, Nationalism, Anti-communism 1931 1944 Central America
  Guinea Democratic Party of Guinea – African Democratic Rally African nationalism, African socialism, Pan-Africanism 1960 1984 Africa
  Guinea-Bissau African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde Communism, Marxism–Leninism 1974 1991 Africa
  Haiti   National Unity Party Black nationalism, Haitian nationalism, Right-wing populism, Anti-communism, Anti-Americanism 14 June 1957 22 July 1985 28 years, 38 days North America
  Hawaii Reform Party Americanisation, Annexationism 4 July 1894 12 August 1898 4 years, 39 days North America
  Government of National Unity   Arrow Cross Party Hungarism, Fascism, Collaborationism, Agrarianism 16 October 1944 7 May 1945 203 days Europe
    Hungary   Hungarian Working People's Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Stalinism 20 August 1949 31 October 1956 7 years, 72 days Europe
    Hungary Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Kádárism 31 October 1956 16 October 1989 32 years, 350 days Europe
  Indonesia Indonesian National Party Nationalism, Marhaenism 17 August 1945 3 November 1945 78 days Asia
  Imperial State of Iran Rastakhiz Party Monarchism, Populism, Secularism, Democratic centralism, Third Position 2 March 1975 1 November 1978 3 years, 244 days Asia
  Iran Islamic Republican Party Velyât-e Faqih, Anti-imperialism, Iranian nationalism, Shi'ite Islamism, Anti-Monarchism, Anti-Americanism, Anti-communism, Anti-Sovietism, Anti-Zionism, Islamic fundamentalism, Homophobia, Anti-Western sentiment 1981 1987 Asia
   Iraq Iraqi Arab Socialist Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism 1964 1968 Asia
   Iraq   Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (National Progressive Front) Saddamist Ba'athism 1968 2003 Asia
  Kingdom of Italy   National Fascist Party Fascism, Corporatism, Ultranationalism, Totalitarianism 17 May 1928[40]
  • 9 January 1939
27 July 1943 Europe
  • Africa
  Italian Social Republic   Republican Fascist Party Fascism, Corporatism, Ultranationalism, Totalitarianism, Antisemitism, Collaborationism 13 September 1943 28 April 1945 Europe
  Ivory Coast Democratic Party of Ivory Coast – African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Conservatism, Populism, Houphouëtism, Pan-Africanism 1960 1990 Africa
  Empire of Japan Imperial Rule Assistance Association Shōwa statism 1940 1945 Asia
  Philippine Executive Commission   Association for Service to the New Philippines Filipino nationalism, National conservatism, Fascism, Japanophilia, collaborationism 8 December 1942 14 October 1943 Asia
  Kampuchea   Communist Party of Kampuchea Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Agrarianism, Autarky, Khmer nationalism, Ultranationalism 17 April 1975 22 June 1982 Asia
  Kenya Kenya African National Union Kenyan nationalism, Conservatism 1982 1991 Africa
  Independent State of Croatia Ustaša – Croatian Revolutionary Movement Croatian irredentism, Croatian ultranationalism, National conservatism, Social conservatism, Clerical fascism, Fascist corporatism, Political Catholicism, Anti-communism 10 April 1941 8 May 1945 Europe
  Latvia Communist Party of Latvia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 17 December 1918 13 January 1920 Europe
  Latvia Communist Party of Latvia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 21 July 1940 5 August 1940 Europe
  Libya Arab Socialist Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism, Nationalism 1971 1977 Africa
  Lithuania–Byelorussia Communist Party of Lithuania and Belorussia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 17 February 1919 17 July 1919 Europe
  Lithuania   Lithuanian Nationalist Union Lithuanian nationalism, National conservatism, Social conservatism, Fascist corporatism, Anti-communism 1936[41] 1940 Europe
  Lithuania Communist Party of Lithuania Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 21 July 1940 3 August 1940 Europe
  Democratic Republic of Madagascar National Front for the Defense of the Revolution Left-wing nationalism, Scientific socialism 1976 1989 Africa
  Malawi Malawi Congress Party Ubuntu, Conservatism, African nationalism, Anti-colonialism 1964 1993 Africa
   Mali Sudanese Union – African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Pan-Africanism, African socialism 1960 1968 Africa
  Mali Democratic Union of the Malian People African socialism, Democratic centralism 1976 1991 Africa
  Manchukuo   Concordia Association Fascism, Monarchism, Manchurian nationalism, Pan-Asianism, Anti-communism, Personalism, collaborationism 1 April 1932[42] 1 May 1945[42] Asia
  Mauritania Mauritanian People's Party Nationalism, Centralism, Islamic socialism 1961 1978 Africa
  Mexico Institutional Revolutionary Party Revolutionary nationalism, Big tent 4 March 1929 2 July 2000 71 years, 120 days North America
     Mongolia Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism 1921 29 July 1990 Asia
     Mozambique   FRELIMO Marxism–Leninism 25 June 1975 1 December 1990 Africa
  Niger Nigerien Progressive Party – African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Pan-Africanism 1960 1974 Africa
  Niger National Movement for the Development of Society Conservatism 1989 1991 Africa
  Vietnam (partially)   Workers' Party of North Vietnam (League for the Independence of Vietnam) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Ho Chi Minh Thought 2 September 1945 1946[citation needed] Asia
  North Vietnam Workers' Party of North Vietnam (Vietnamese Fatherland Front) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Ho Chi Minh Thought 1955 2 July 1976 Asia
  North Yemen   General People's Congress Yemeni nationalism, Arab nationalism, Pan-Arabism, Big tent 1982 1988 Asia
  National Government   National Rally Fascism, Nazism, Fascist corporatism, Anti-communism, Collaborationism 25 September 1940 8 May 1945 Europe
  Ottoman Empire Union and Progress Party[43] İttihadism 11 June 1913 1918 Asia/Europe
  Paraguay   Colorado Party Conservatism, national conservatism 1947 1962 South America
  Persia Communist Party of Persia Communism, Marxism–Leninism 1920 1921 Asia
  Republic of the Philippines   Association for Service to the New Philippines Filipino nationalism, National conservatism, Fascism, Japanophilia, collaborationism 14 October 1943 17 August 1945 Asia
   Poland   Polish United Workers' Party (Front of National Unity) Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 5 February 1947 July 1982 Europe
   Poland   Polish United Workers' Party (Patriotic Movement for National Rebirth) Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism July 1982 24 August 1989 Europe
  Portugal   National Union Salazarism, corporatism, Integralismo Lusitano 30 July 1930[44] 8 October 1945[44] Europe
  Portugal   National Union Salazarism, corporatism, Integralismo Lusitano 31 January 1948[45] September 1969[note 2] Europe
  Portugal   People's National Action (formerly National Union) Corporatism, Integralismo Lusitano 1970 25 April 1974 Europe
  Romania   Party of the Nation Big tent, Romanian nationalism, Monarchism 16 December 1938 6 September 1940 Europe
   National Legionary State   Iron Guard Legionarism, clerical fascism, Christian nationalism 6 September 1940 23 January 1941 Europe
     Romania   Romanian Communist Party (People's Democratic Front) Communism, Marxism–Leninism 5 February 1948 1968 Europe
    Romania   Romanian Communist Party (Front of Socialist Unity) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, National Communism 1968 1980 Europe
     Romania   Romanian Communist Party (Front of Socialist Unity and Democracy) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, National Communism 1980 29 December 1989 Europe
  Rwanda Parmehutu Hutu Power 1965 1973 Africa
  Rwanda   National Revolutionary Movement for Development Hutu Power, Ultranationalism, Social conservatism, Anti-communism 1978 1991 Africa
  San Marino Sammarinese Fascist Party Italian fascism, Corporatism 1926 1943 Europe
  San Marino Republican Fascist Party of San Marino Italian fascism 1943 1944 Europe
  Senegal Socialist Party of Senegal African nationalism, African socialism 1966 1974 Africa
  Seychelles Seychelles People's Progressive Front Communism, Marxism-Leninism 1979 1991 Africa
  Sierra Leone All People's Congress African nationalism, Democratic socialism 1978 1991 Africa
  Slovak Republic   Hlinka's Slovak People's Party – Party of Slovak National Unity Clerical fascism, Slovak nationalism 14 March 1939 8 May 1945 Europe
  Somalia Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party Islamic socialism, Marxism–Leninism, Pan-Somalism

Scientific socialism, Somali nationalism

July 1976 26 January 1991 Africa
  South Yemen   National Liberation Front Arab nationalism, Arab socialism 30 November 1967 31 October 1978 Asia
  South Yemen   Yemeni Socialist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism 31 October 1978 22 May 1990 Asia
  Yemen   Yemeni Socialist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism 21 May 1994 7 July 1994 Asia
  Estonia Russian Communist Party (Central Committee of the Estonian Sections) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 29 November 1918 5 June 1919 188 days Europe
   Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Russian Communist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 8 March 1918[46] 30 December 1922 4 years, 297 days Europe/Asia
   Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Russian Social Democratic Labour Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 19 January 1918 8 March 1918[46] 48 days Europe/Asia
     Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Russian Communist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 30 December 1922 31 December 1925[46] 3 years, 1 day Europe/Asia
     Union of Soviet Socialist Republics All-Union Communist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism, Stalinism 31 December 1925[46] 13 October 1952[46] 26 years, 287 days Europe/Asia
    Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Communist Party of the Soviet Union Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 13 October 1952[46] 9 October 1990[47] 37 years, 361 days Europe/Asia
  Kingdom of Spain Patriotic Union Spanish nationalism, Political Catholicism, Monarchism, Conservatism 1924 1930 Europe
  Spanish State   FET y de las JONS Francoism, Falangism, Spanish nationalism, traditionalism, National Catholicism, anti-liberalism, corporatism 1 April 1939 6 July 1976[48] Europe
  Democratic Republic of the Sudan   Sudanese Socialist Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Anti-communism 1971 1985 Africa
  Sudan National Congress Party Islamism, Arab nationalism, Salafism, Social conservatism 1989 2005 Africa
  Syrian Republic Arab Liberation Movement Pan-Arabism, Modernization, Pro-Western 1953 1954 Asia
  Syria   Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (National Progressive Front) Neo-Ba'athism 1963 27 February 2012[49][50] Asia
  São Tomé and Príncipe Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe – Social Democratic Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism 1975 1990 Africa
  Tanganyika   Tanganyika African National Union African nationalism, African socialism, Ujamaa 1961 1977 Africa
  Tanzania Chama Cha Mapinduzi Ujamaa, African socialism 1977 1992 Africa
  Togo Party of Togolese Unity African nationalism 1962 1963 Africa
  Togo Rally of the Togolese People African nationalism, Right-wing populism 1969 1991 Africa
  Tunisia Neo Destour Tunisian nationalism, Bourguibism 1963 1964 Africa
  Tunisia Socialist Destourian Party Tunisian nationalism, Secularism, Bourguibism 1964 1981 Africa
  Turkey (one-party period)   Republican People's Party Kemalism 1923 1945 Asia/Europe
  Turkmenistan Democratic Party of Turkmenistan Turkmen nationalism, Secularism, Social conservatism, Catch-all party 1992 2008 Asia
        Tuva   Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 14 August 1921 11 October 1944 Asia
  Uganda   Uganda People's Congress Social democracy, African nationalism, Pan-Africanism 1969 1971 Africa
  Ukraine Communist Party of Ukraine Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism 10 March 1919 30 December 1922 Europe
  United Arab Republic National Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism 1958 1961 Africa
  Upper Volta Voltaic Democratic Union-African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Pan-Africanism 1960 1966 Africa
  Yugoslavia Yugoslav Radical Peasants' Democracy Royalism, Yugoslav nationalism, Agrarianism, Centralism, Anti-liberalism 1929 1931 Europe
   Yugoslavia   League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Socialist Alliance of Working People of Yugoslavia) Marxism–Leninism, Titoism, Yugoslavism 29 November 1945 22 January 1990 Europe
  Zaire Popular Movement of the Revolution Mobutism, Zairean nationalism, Authenticité 1970 1990 Africa
  Zambia   United National Independence Party African socialism, African nationalism 1972 1990 Africa
  Zanzibar   Afro-Shirazi Party African nationalism, Marxism–Leninism 1964 1977 Africa

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ The Republic of China controlled the mainland from 1912 to 1949 and the island of Taiwan since 1945, in which the ROC currently administers the Free area. This government served China in the United Nations from 1945 to 1971. See Political status of Taiwan and the One-China policy for various viewpoints.
  2. ^ Following the appointment of Marcelo Caetano as Prime Minister in 1968, the opposition was allowed to run to the 1969 Portuguese legislative election, before being banned.

References edit

  1. ^ Clark, William Roberts; Golder, Matt; Golder, Sona Nadenichek (23 March 2012). Principles of Comparative Politics. SAGE. p. 611. ISBN 9781608716791.
  2. ^ "One-Party States | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  3. ^ Angiolillo, Fabio (27 April 2023). "Introducing the One-Party Membership Dataset: A dataset on party membership in autocracies". Journal of Peace Research: 002234332311552. doi:10.1177/00223433231155278. ISSN 0022-3433.
  4. ^ Hanson, Stephen E. (2009), "The Contribution of Area Studies", The SAGE Handbook of Comparative Politics, 1 Oliver's Yard, 55 City Road, London EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom: SAGE Publications Ltd, pp. 159–174, doi:10.4135/9780857021083.n10, ISBN 9781412919760, S2CID 184118662, retrieved 4 March 2023{{citation}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  5. ^ a b Magaloni, Beatriz; Kricheli, Ruth (1 May 2010). "Political Order and One-Party Rule". Annual Review of Political Science. 13 (1): 123–143. doi:10.1146/annurev.polisci.031908.220529. ISSN 1094-2939.
  6. ^ a b Creak, Simon; Barney, Keith (10 August 2018). "Conceptualising Party-State Governance and Rule in Laos". Journal of Contemporary Asia. 48 (5): 693–716. doi:10.1080/00472336.2018.1494849. ISSN 0047-2336. S2CID 158403649.
  7. ^ Hassan, Mai; Mattingly, Daniel; Nugent, Elizabeth R. (12 May 2022). "Political Control". Annual Review of Political Science. 25 (1): 155–174. doi:10.1146/annurev-polisci-051120-013321. ISSN 1094-2939. S2CID 241393914.
  8. ^ a b MALESKY, EDMUND; SCHULER, PAUL (26 October 2011). "The Single-Party Dictator's Dilemma: Information in Elections without Opposition". Legislative Studies Quarterly. 36 (4): 491–530. doi:10.1111/j.1939-9162.2011.00025.x. ISSN 0362-9805.
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