Xinjiang Province, Republic of China
Xinjiang Province (Chinese: 新疆省; pinyin: Xīnjiāng Shěng; or Sinkiang) refers to a former province of the Republic of China. First set up in 1884 as a province of the Qing dynasty, it was replaced in 1955 by the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. The original provincial government was relocated to Taipei as the Sinkiang Provincial Government Office (新疆省政府辦事處) until its dissolution in 1992.
Sinkiang Province (red) in the Republic of China
|Status||Province of the Republic of China (1912–1992)|
Taipei (Provincial Government in exile, 1950–1992)
|Historical era||20th Century|
|13 October 1949|
• Dissolution of the Sinkiang Provincial Government Office
|16 January 1992|
|1928||1,711,931 km2 (660,980 sq mi)|
|Today part of||People's Republic of China (Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region)|
The province inherited the borders of the Qing Dynasty province, bordering Kansu, Tsinghai, the Mongol Area, Tibet Area and the countries Soviet Union, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India. The claimed boundaries of the province included all of today's Xinjiang and parts of Mongolia, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Pakistan. The province had an area of 1,711,931 km2.
In 1912, the Qing dynasty was replaced by the Republic of China. Yuan Dahua, the last Qing governor of Xinjiang, fled. One of his subordinates, Yang Zengxin, took control of the province and acceded in name to the Republic of China in March of the same year. Through Machiavellian politics and clever balancing of mixed ethnic constituencies, Yang maintained control over Xinjiang until his assassination in 1928 after the Northern Expedition of the Kuomintang.
The Kumul Rebellion and other rebellions arose against his successor Jin Shuren in the early 1930s throughout Xinjiang, involving Uyghurs, other Turkic groups, and Hui (Muslim) Chinese. Jin drafted White Russians to crush the revolt. In the Kashgar region on November 12, 1933, the short-lived self-proclaimed First East Turkistan Republic was declared. The Hui Kuomintang 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army) destroyed the army of the First East Turkestan Republic at the Battle of Kashgar (1934), bringing the Republic to an end. The Soviet Union invaded the province in the Soviet Invasion of Xinjiang. In the Xinjiang War (1937), the entire province was brought under the control of northeast Manchu warlord Sheng Shicai, who ruled Xinjiang for the next decade with close support from the Soviet Union. In 1944, the President and Premier of China, Chiang Kai-shek, informed by the Soviets of Sheng's intention to join the Soviet Union, decided to shift him out of Xinjiang to Chongqing as the Minister of Agriculture and Forest. More than a decade of Sheng's era had ended. However, a short-lived Soviet-backed Second East Turkestan Republic was established in that year, which lasted until 1949 in what is now Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture (Ili, Tarbagatay and Altay Districts) in northern Xinjiang.
During the Ili Rebellion the Soviet Union backed Uyghur separatists to form the Second East Turkistan Republic (2nd ETR) in Ili region while the majority of Xinjiang was under Republic of China Kuomintang control. The People's Liberation Army entered Xinjiang in 1949 and the Kuomintang commander Tao Zhiyue surrendered the province to them. The original provincial government was relocated to Taipei as the Sinkiang Provincial Government Office (新疆省政府辦事處) to symbolize the ROC's claim of sovereignty over the province; it was eventually dissolved in 1992.
|Ethnic group||Estimated population|
|Han Chinese||202,239 (5.41%)|
List of governorsEdit
Chairperson of the Provincial Government (Nationalist Government)Edit
|Term of office||Political Party|
|1912||7 July 1928||Xinjiang clique|
|7 July 1928||12 April 1933||Xinjiang clique|
|Deposed in a coup.|
|14 April 1933||September 1933|
|Removed from office and placed under house arrest by Sheng Shicai.|
|September 1933||5 March 1934|
|Figurehead Chairman appointed by Sheng Shicai and not recognized by the Central government. Died in office.|
|October 1934||21 March 1940|
|Figurehead Chairman. Died in office.|
|4 April 1940||29 August 1944||People's Anti-Imperialist Association|
|Recognized by the Central government only as a duban (military governor), Sheng was de facto ruler of Sinkiang from 1933. In 1940, the Central government recognized him as Provincial Chairman. Removed from office.|
|29 August 1944||29 March 1946||Kuomintang|
|March 1946||June 1947||Kuomintang|
|Removed from office.|
مەسئۇت سابرى U+200E
|June 1947||January 1949||Kuomintang|
بۇرھان شەھىدى U+200E
|January 1949||26 September 1949||Kuomintang|
|Surrendered to the People's Liberation Army.|
Xinjiang Provincial Government Office eraEdit
Chairperson of the Provincial GovernmentEdit
|Term of office||Political party|
بيۇلبارس خان U+200E
|11 April 1950||27 July 1971||Kuomintang|
|Died in office.|
Director, Xinjiang Provincial Government OfficeEdit
|Term of office||Political party|
|27 July 1971||?||Kuomintang|
|Son of Yulbars Khan.|
|?||16 January 1992||Kuomintang|
- ROC Administrative and Claims.jpg. Wikipedia. Map showing the claims of the ROC.
- Governors of Xinjiang: Yang Zengxin (1912–1928), Jin Shuren (1928–33), Sheng Shicai (1933–44); source: "Xinjiang". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2016. Retrieved June 19, 2016.
- Feener, R. Michael (2004). Islam in World Cultures: Comparative Perspectives. Religion in Contemporary Cultures. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. p. 174. ISBN 1-57607-516-8. OCLC 940831123.
- Bhattacharji, Preeti (May 29, 2012). "Uighurs and China's Xinjiang Region". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved June 19, 2016.
- Brown, Jeremy (2010). Dilemmas of Victory: The Early Years of the People's Republic of China. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. p. 186. ISBN 9780674033658. OCLC 822561761.
- Klimeš 2015, p. 154.