Nguyễn Phú Trọng

Nguyễn Phú Trọng (born April 14, 1944) is a Vietnamese politician who has been the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam, the highest position in Vietnam since 2011. In addition, Trọng served as president of Vietnam from 2018 to 2021. As general secretary, Trọng heads the party's secretariat[1][2][3] and is the Secretary of the Central Military Commission[4][5] in addition to being the de facto head of the politburo, the highest decision-making body in Vietnam, which currently makes him the most powerful person in Vietnam.[6]

Nguyễn Phú Trọng
General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam
Assumed office
January 19, 2011
DeputyLê Hồng Anh
Đinh Thế Huynh
Trần Quốc Vượng
Võ Văn Thưởng
(Executive Secretary)
Preceded byNông Đức Mạnh
Secretary of the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party
Assumed office
January 19, 2011
DeputyPhùng Quang Thanh
Ngô Xuân Lịch
Preceded byNông Đức Mạnh
9th President of Vietnam
In office
October 23, 2018 – April 5, 2021
Prime MinisterNguyễn Xuân Phúc
Vice PresidentĐặng Thị Ngọc Thịnh
Preceded byTrần Đại Quang
Đặng Thị Ngọc Thịnh (acting)
Succeeded byNguyễn Xuân Phúc
President of the Vietnam Red Cross Society
In office
December 5, 2018 – April 5, 2021
Preceded byTrần Đại Quang
Chairman of the National Assembly
In office
June 26, 2006 – July 23, 2011
Preceded byNguyễn Văn An
Succeeded byNguyễn Sinh Hùng
Secretary of the Hanoi Party Committee
In office
January 2000 – June 26, 2006
Preceded byLê Xuân Tùng
Succeeded byPhạm Quang Nghị
Member of the National Assembly
Assumed office
May 19, 2002
Personal details
Born (1944-04-14) April 14, 1944 (age 77)
Đông Hội, Đông Anh District, French Indochina
(now Vietnam)
Political partyCommunist Party of Vietnam (1968–present)
Spouse(s)Ngô Thị Mẫn
Alma materUniversity of Hanoi
National Academy of Public Administration
Russian Academy of Sciences

He was Chairman of the National Assembly from 2006 to 2011, representing Hanoi, was elected General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam at the party's 11th National Congress in 2011[7][8][9][10] and re-elected twice at the 12th National Congress in 2016 and the 13th National Congress in 2021.[11]

On October 3, 2018, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam formally nominated Trọng to be the next President of Vietnam to be voted on the next session of the National Assembly where the party holds an overwhelming majority, making him the third person to simultaneously head the party and the state after Ho Chi Minh (in North Vietnam only) and Trường Chinh. On October 23, 2018, he was elected as the 9th President of Vietnam in a meeting of the sixth session of the National Assembly. Trọng stepped down as President in 2021 but remained as General Secretary of the Communist Party.

Early life and careerEdit

General Secretary Trọng arrives at Joint Base Andrews to meet President Barack Obama, July 6, 2015
President Donald Trump and President Trọng in front of a statue of Vietnamese revolutionary leader Ho Chi Minh, February 27, 2019

Nguyễn Phú Trọng was born in Đông Hội Commune, Đông Anh District, Hanoi. His official biography gives his family background only as "average peasant".[12] He studied philology and earned a Ph.D. in philosophy at Vietnam National University, Hanoi from 1963 to 1968 and received a Ph.D. in Law Degree in University of Ho Chi Minh and also received a Master in Diplomat at Ho Chi Minh University. Trọng officially became a member of the Communist Party of Vietnam in December 1968. He worked for the Tạp chí Cộng Sản (Communist Review), the theoretical and political agency of the Communist Party of Vietnam (formerly the Labor Party) in the periods of 1968–1973, 1976–1981 and 1983–1996. From 1991 to 1996, he served as the editor-in-chief of the Tạp chí Cộng Sản. Trọng went to the Soviet Union in 1981 to study at the Academy of Sciences and received a Candidate of Sciences degree in history in 1983.[13] In 1998, Trọng entered the party section devoted to political work, making him one of the most prominent Vietnamese political theoreticians, heading the party Central Committee's Theoretical Council in charge of the party's theoretical work from 2001 to 2006.

Trọng is a Marxist theoretician, and has long railed against some party members' loss of "Marxist-Leninist virtue".[14]

Trọng has been member of the party's Central Committee since January 1994, member of the party's Political Bureau since December 1997 and deputy to the National Assembly since May 2002. From January 2000 to June 2006, Trọng was secretary of the party's Executive Committee of Hanoi, the de facto head of the city authority. On June 26, 2006, Trọng was elected as the Chairman of the National Assembly.[15] During this period, he was elected secretary of the party organization in the National Assembly and member of the Council for Defence and Security. On October 23, 2018, Trọng was elected as the 9th President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in a seasonal meeting of National Assembly.

On April 14, 2019, it was reported that Trọng had been rushed to the Chợ Rẫy Hospital in Ho Chi Minh City after visiting Kiên Giang, according to overseas news sources.[16][17] He was rumoured to have suffered a stroke.[18] The Vietnamese government initially had no comment on the subject matter, but later confirmed from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Vietnam that he was "unwell, but will soon return to work".[19] He reappeared on May 14, 2019 to discuss about the upcoming Party Congress.[20]

Leader of VietnamEdit

First term as General SecretaryEdit

Trọng was elected General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam in 2011. The 5th plenum of the 11th Central Committee decided to take the Central Steering Committee for Anti-Corruption away from the Prime Minister's control and Trọng was elected its head.[21][22]

On July 6, 2015, General Secretary Trọng arrived in the United States to begin his United States visit to July 10, 2015. This visit coincided with the milestone of twenty years since the United States and Vietnam normalized diplomatic relations. The talks with President Barack Obama were about human rights, security and defense and the Trans-Pacific Partnership.[23][24]

Reelection as General SecretaryEdit

On January 27, 2016, Trọng was re-elected as General Secretary of the 12th Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam at the first conference of the committee.[25] At 72 years old, he was the 12th Committee's oldest member. For this term, Trong is ranked number one in the Politburo, marking a return to normality.

Trọng hopes, under a one-party rule, to strengthen Vietnam's position in the world, turning it into an industrial country rather than a country that produces on primary products.[26] "A country without discipline would be chaotic and unstable [...]. [W]e need to balance democracy and law and order", he said at the close of a meeting to choose the country's leadership for the next five years. "I very much hope the new faces in the politburo will push with reforms and bring the country forward, but I don't know whether they can do that", said Tran Thi Tram. "They will also have to really tackle the corruption problem, otherwise the people would be the ones to suffer most".[26]

On January 31, 2021, Trong was re-elected as General Secretary for a third five-year term at the 13th National Congress.[11][27]

On February 1, 2021, Trong attended a press conference. Trong said I am not in great health [...] I am old and I want to rest, but the Congress has elected me so I will comply with my duty to serve as a party member..[28]


On October 3, 2018, Trọng was chosen by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam with 100% support to become the party nominee for the position of the President of Vietnam, becoming the official successor of Trần Đại Quang.[29][30]

The National Assembly elected Trọng as state president on October 23, 2018 with 99.79% percent of the vote. His swearing-in ceremony took place at the Grand Hall and was broadcast live on the afternoon on state radio and television systems.[31]

The National Assembly on April 2, 2021 voted to relieve Trọng's presidency with 91,25% of the vote. Trọng remains de facto top leader in the country, serving as the General Secretary of the Communist Party.[32]

Published worksEdit


  • Nguyen Phu Trong (2004). Viet Nam on The Path of Renewal. Hanoi: Thế giới Publishers. 351 p.[33]
  • Nguyen Phu Trong (2015). Renewal in Việt Nam: Theory and Reality. Hanoi: Thế giới Publishers. 397 p.[34]
  • Nguyen Phu Trong; Tran Dinh Nghiem; Vu Hien (1995). Vietnam from 1986. Hanoi: Thế giới Publishers. 116 p.[35]



  1. ^ "Party leader Trong announces Central Committee Secretariat", Viet Nam News, February 10, 2011.
  2. ^ "11th CPVCC Secretariat members named", Vietnam News Agency, February 9, 2011.
  3. ^ (in Vietnamese) "Ban Chấp hành trung ương, Bộ Chính trị, Ban Bí thư Archived 2013-01-30 at the Wayback Machine, Báo điện tử Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam, 25 January 2011.
  4. ^ (in Vietnamese) "Tổ chức trọng thể lễ tang Thượng tướng Nguyễn Trọng Xuyên Archived April 22, 2013, at", VOV Online, 27 June 2012.
  5. ^ "Tổng Bí thư dự Hội nghị quân chính toàn quân Archived June 14, 2013, at the Wayback Machine", VOV Online, 16 December 2011.
  6. ^ (in Vietnamese) "BBC News".
  7. ^ Vietnam: Foreign Policy and Government Guide International Business Publications, USA. – 2007– Page 8 "General Secretary Nông Ðức Mạnh – President Nguyễn Minh Triết – Prime Minister Nguyễn Tấn Dũng – National Assembly Chairman Nguyễn Phú Trọng"
  8. ^ "Nguyen Phu Trong elected Party Chief", Vietnam News Agency, January 19, 2011.
  9. ^ "Nguyen Phu Trong elected Party General Secretary Archived 2019-04-04 at the Wayback Machine", Nhan Dan, January 19, 2011.
  10. ^ "Party Congress announces CPVCC Politburo members", VGP News, January 19, 2011
  11. ^ a b "Biography of Nguyen Phu Trong, General Secretary of 13th Party Central Committee". Retrieved February 1, 2021.
  12. ^ "Biography of Party General Secretary, President Nguyễn Phú Trọng". Retrieved March 23, 2020.
  13. ^ Нгуен Фу Чонг - Деятельность Коммунистической партии Вьетнама по укреплению ее связи с массами на современном этапе : с учетом опыта КПСС : диссертация ... кандидата исторических наук : 07.00.14 - Search RSL. (in Russian). Retrieved May 18, 2018.
  14. ^ "The Costs of Trong's Crusade Against Corruption in Vietnam".
  15. ^ "Vietnam confirms new leadership", BBC, June 27, 2006.
  16. ^ "Sức khoẻ của TBT Nguyễn Phú Trọng không còn là bí mật 100%". (in Vietnamese). Retrieved June 27, 2019.
  17. ^ "PHÓNG SỰ VIỆT NAM: Nếu ông Nguyễn Phú Trọng bệnh nặng, ai sẽ là người lên thay?". (in Vietnamese). Retrieved June 27, 2019.
  18. ^ "Vietnam Says President to Return to Work Soon Following Health Worry".
  19. ^ "Bộ Ngoại Giao nói về sức khoẻ của Tổng bí thư". VnExpress. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
  20. ^ "Tổng bí thư trở lại làm việc và kỳ vọng "lò nóng, củi gộc'". Zing News. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
  21. ^ (in Vietnamese) "Tổng Bí thư sẽ làm Trưởng Ban Chỉ đạo phòng, chống tham nhũng Archived 2012-09-12 at the Wayback Machine", Pháp luật & Xã hội, May 16, 2012.
  22. ^ "Party Central Committee's conference concludes", VOV Online, May 15, 2012.
  23. ^ "Tổng thống Obama tiếp TBT Nguyễn Phú Trọng tại phòng Bầu dục ở Nhà trắng". Radio Free Asia (in Vietnamese). Retrieved May 18, 2018.
  24. ^ "Vietnam Communist party chief to make first US trip". US news. Associated Press. July 4, 2015.
  25. ^ Xuxin, ed. (January 27, 2016). "Nguyen Phu Trong re-elected as Vietnam's communist party chief". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved January 28, 2016.
  26. ^ a b "One-party rule best for Vietnam, says leader". The Guardian. Associated Press. January 28, 2016. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  27. ^ "Vietnam ruling Communist Party chief Trong re-elected for third term". Reuters. Retrieved January 31, 2021.
  28. ^ Vietnam’s Congress ends with focus on growth, graft fight and managing US-China ties - South China Morning Post(02/04/2021)
  29. ^ Trung ương giới thiệu Tổng bí thư để bầu làm Chủ tịch nước, translation: Central Committee introduce the General secretary to become new President
  30. ^ Vietnam nominates party chief as new president, Reuters, October 3, 2018
  31. ^ Phan, Anh (October 23, 2018). "It's official: Party chief Trong is Vietnam's new president". VnExpress International. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  32. ^ "Vietnam's National Assembly relieves President Nguyen Phu Trong (Vietnamese)".
  33. ^ "Welcome To NXB The Gioi".
  34. ^ "Welcome To NXB The Gioi".
  35. ^ "Vietnam from 1986 / Nguyen Phu Trong, Tran Dinh Nghiem, Vu Hien | National Library of Australia".
  36. ^ "Trong received Order of Jose Martí". Archived from the original on August 1, 2013.

External linksEdit

Party political offices
Preceded by
Nong Duc Manh
General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam
Secretary of the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of Vietnam
Political offices
Preceded by
Nguyễn Văn An
Chairman of the National Assembly of Vietnam
Succeeded by
Nguyễn Sinh Hùng
Preceded by
Trần Đại Quang
Đặng Thị Ngọc Thịnh
President of Vietnam
Succeeded by
Nguyễn Xuân Phúc