Arrow Cross Party

The Arrow Cross Party (Hungarian: Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, lit.'Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement', abbreviated NYKP) was a national socialist Hungarian-nationalist party led by Ferenc Szálasi, which formed a government in Hungary they named the Government of National Unity. They were in power from 15 October 1944 to 28 March 1945. During its short rule, ten to fifteen thousand civilians were murdered outright, including many Jews and Romani,[2][3] and 80,000 people were deported from Hungary to concentration camps in Austria.[4] After the war, Szálasi and other Arrow Cross leaders were tried as war criminals by Hungarian courts.

Arrow Cross Party – Hungarist Movement
Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom
AbbreviationNYKP
LeaderFerenc Szálasi (1935–1945)
FounderFerenc Szálasi
Founded4 March 1935
(as the National Will Party)
15 March 1939
(Reconstituted as the Arrow Cross Party)
Dissolved7 May 1945
Merger of • Christian National Socialist Front
 • United National Socialist Party
HeadquartersNap utca 19, Budapest (first)
Andrássy út 60, Budapest (last)
Membership (1939)300,000
IdeologyHungarism
 • Hungarian nationalism
 • Clerical fascism
 • Agrarianism
 • Hungarian Turanism
 • Fascism
 • Nazism
Political positionFar-right
ReligionRoman Catholicism
Colours  Red
  white
  green
(Hungarian national colours)
Slogan"Felébredek, magyar!""
("Awaken, Hungarian!")[1]
Anthem"Ébredj Magyar"
("Hungarian Arrow Cross Party Anthem")
Most MPs
29 / 260
(1939)
Party flag
Flag of the Hungarist Movement.svg
Other Flags:
  • Flag of the Arrow Cross Party 1937 to 1942.svg

    Flag of the Arrow Cross Party 1942 to 1945.svg

FormationEdit

The party was founded by Ferenc Szálasi in 1935 as the Party of National Will.[5] It had its origins in the political philosophy of pro-German extremists such as Gyula Gömbös, who coined the term "national socialism" in the 1920s.[6] The party was outlawed in 1937 but was reconstituted in 1939 as the Arrow Cross Party, and was modelled fairly explicitly on the Nazi Party of Germany, although Szálasi often harshly criticised the Nazi regime of Germany.[7] The party's iconography was clearly inspired by that of the Nazis. The Arrow Cross emblem was an ancient symbol of the Magyar tribes who settled Hungary, thereby suggesting the racial purity of the Hungarians in much the same way that the Nazi swastika was intended to allude to the racial purity of the Aryans.[8] The Arrow Cross symbol also referred to the desire to nullify the Treaty of Trianon, and expand the Hungarian state in all cardinal directions out to the former borders of the Kingdom of Hungary.[8]

IdeologyEdit

 
Ministers of the Arrow Cross Party government. Ferenc Szálasi is in the middle of the front row.

The party's ideology was similar to those of Nazism or Fascism[9] and Hungarian Turanism combined, which Ferenc Szálasi called "Hungarism". It combined nationalism, the promotion of agriculture, anti-capitalism, anti-communism and a special type of anti-Semitism, called a-Semitism. In a series of four books on Hungarism, Szálasi distinguished between a-Semitism, which called for a society completely absent of Jews, and anti-Semitism, which, he argued, would nominally allow Jews to exist in a particular society with limited rights. He argued that a-Semitism was not opposed to the existence of Jews per se, but regarded their existence as being incompatible with European society. Szálasi extended this argument to Arabs as well, and to the whole Semitic Race.[10] The party and its leader originally opposed German geopolitical ambitions, so Hitler was slow to accept Szálasi's connationalism, the support of nationalist movements within their historical territories and spheres of influence on the grounds of historical evidence of cultural dominance. This concept was poorly understood by the Germans and combined nationalism and internationalism, the co-operation of nationalist movements. Consequently, the party conceived Jews in racial as well as religious terms as incapable of being integrated into any society outside the place and culture of their historical origins. Although the Arrow Cross Party was certainly far more racist than the Horthy regime, it still differed from the German Nazi Party. It was also more economically radical than other fascist movements, advocating some workers' rights and land reforms.[8]

Rise to powerEdit

The roots of Arrow Cross influence can be traced to the anti-Semitism that followed the Communist putsch, the creation of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, and Red Terror during the spring and summer of 1919. Some Communist leaders were from Jewish families such as like Tibor Szamuely. Béla Kun, the Republic's leader and instigator of the Terror, had a secular Jewish father and a mother who despite converting to the Reformed Church of Hungary, was still seen as being a Jew. The Hungarian Soviet Republic's policies were credited by some anti-communists as being part of a "Judeo-Bolshevist conspiracy."

After the Soviet Republic was overthrown in August 1919, conservative authoritarians under the leadership of Admiral Miklós Horthy seized control. Many Hungarian military officers took part in the counter-reprisals known as the White Terror – parts of that violence was directed at Jews.[8] Although the White Guard was officially suppressed, many of its most prevalent members went underground and formed the core membership of a spreading nationalist anti-Semitic movement.

During the 1930s, the Arrow Cross began to dominate Budapest's working class neighborhoods, defeating the Social Democrats. The Social Democrats did not contest elections effectively and they were forced into a pact with the conservative Horthy regime in order to prevent their abolition. The Arrow Cross recruited from the poorest members of society, including the chronically unemployed, alcoholics, ex-convicts, prisoners, rapists, and the uneducated.[11] These members later committed some of the most brutal crimes against Jews, intellectuals, socialists, and other civilians.

 
World War II propaganda poster for the party – the text reads "Despite it all..!"

The Arrow Cross subscribed to the Nazi ideology of "master races",[8] which, in Szálasi's view, included the Hungarians and Germans, and also supported the concept of an order based on the power of the strongest – what Szálasi called a "brutally realistic étatism". But its espousal of territorial claims under the banner of a "Greater Hungary" and Hungarian values ("Hungarizmus" or "Hungarianism") clashed with Nazi ambitions, delaying Hitler's endorsement of that party by several years.

The German Foreign Office instead endorsed the pro-German Hungarian National Socialist Party, which had some supporters among ethnic Germans. Before World War II, the Arrow Cross were not proponents of the racial antisemitism of the Nazis, but utilised traditional stereotypes and prejudices to gain votes among voters both in Budapest and the countryside. Nonetheless the constant bickering among these diverse fascist groups prevented the Arrow Cross Party from gaining more support and power.

The Arrow Cross obtained most of its support from a disparate coalition of military officers, soldiers, nationalists and agricultural workers. It was only one of several similar fascist factions in Hungary but was by far the most prominent, through effective recruiting. In the only election it participated in, in May 1939, the party won 15% of the vote and 29 seats in the Hungarian Parliament but this was only superficially impressive as most Hungarians were not permitted to vote. It did become one of the most powerful parties in Hungary but the Horthy leadership banned the Arrow Cross on the outbreak of World War II, forcing it to operate clandestinely.

In 1944, the Arrow Cross Party's fortunes abruptly reversed when Hitler lost patience Horthy and his moderate prime minister, Miklós Kállay's reluctance to fully toe the Nazi line. In March 1944, the Germans invaded and occupied Hungary, which resulted in Kállay fleeing, and a Nazi proxy, Döme Sztójay, replacing him who quickly legalised the Arrow Cross.

During the spring and summer of 1944, more than 400,000 Jews were driven into centralised ghettos and then deported from the Hungarian countryside to death camps by the Nazis, with the enthusiastic assistance of the Hungarian Interior Ministry and its gendarmerie (the csendőrség), both of which had members closely linked to the Arrow Cross. Budapest Jews were forced into Yellow Star Houses, approximately 2,000 single-building mini-ghettos identified by a yellow Star of David at the entrance.[2]: 578 In August 1944, before deportations from Budapest began, Horthy used what remaining influence he had to stop them, and force the radical antisemites out of his government.

As the summer progressed, and with the Allied and Soviet armies closing in on central Europe, the ability of the Nazis to devote resources to Hungary's "Jewish Solution" waned, but they still carried out many massacres. Jews were often rounded up on the streets by Arrow Cross men, and their standard procedure was to take children away from their parents, then killing or beating any parent or child who protested. The Arrow Cross repeatedly organized mass murders next to the Danube, shooting people in the head, with the bodies falling into the river. They would often tie Jewish couples to each other, shooting one of them in the head so that when they fell into the water, the second person would drown.[citation needed]

Arrow Cross ruleEdit

 
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men in the court of the Dohány Street Synagogue

In October 1944, Horthy negotiated a cease-fire with the Soviets and ordered Hungarian troops to lay down their arms. In response, Nazi Germany launched the covert Operation Panzerfaust which took Horthy into "protective custody" in Germany and forced him to abdicate. Szálasi was made "Leader of the Nation" and prime minister of a "Government of National Unity" the same day.

Soviet and Romanian forces were already well within the Hungarian borders by this time. As a result, its authority was limited to an ever-narrowing band of territory around Budapest. Nonetheless their rule was brutal. In under three months, their death squads killed as many as 38,000 Hungarian Jews. Arrow Cross officers helped Adolf Eichmann re-start deportations from which the Jews of Budapest had thus far been spared, sending some 80,000 Jews out of the city on slave labour details and many more straight to death camps. Virtually all Jewish males of conscription age were already serving as slave labour for the Hungarian Army's Forced Labor Battalions. Most died, including many who were murdered as they were returning home after the end of the fighting.[12][13]

Red Army troops reached the outskirts of the city in December 1944, and the Battle of Budapest siege began. Arrow Cross members and the Germans may have conspired to destroy the Budapest ghetto but any evidence remains disputed.[12] Days before fleeing, Arrow Cross Interior Minister Gábor Vajna ordered that streets and squares named for Jews be renamed.[2]: 586

As control of the city's institutions weakened, the Arrow Cross trained their guns on the most helpless possible targets including patients in the city's two Jewish hospitals on Maros Street and Bethlen Square, remaining women and children, and residents in the Jewish poorhouse on Alma Road. As order collapsed, Arrow Cross members continued their attacks on Jews so that the majority of Budapest's Jews were only saved by the heroic efforts of a handful of Jewish leaders and foreign diplomats, most famously the Swedish Raoul Wallenberg, the Papal Nuncio Monsignor Angelo Rotta, Swiss Consul Carl Lutz, Spanish Consul Ángel Sanz Briz and the Italian cattle trader Giorgio Perlasca.[2]: 589

The Arrow Cross government effectively fell at the end of January 1945, when the Soviet Army took Pest and the Axis forces retreated across the Danube to Buda. Szálasi had escaped from Budapest on December 11, 1944,[7] taking with him the Hungarian royal crown, while Arrow Cross members and German forces continued to fight a rear-guard action in the far west of Hungary until the end of the war in April 1945.

Post-war developmentsEdit

 
The "Shoes on the Danube Bank" memorial in Budapest, conceived by film director Can Togay with sculptor Gyula Pauer [hu] to honour those Jews murdered by fascist Arrow Cross militiamen in Budapest during World War II.

After the war, many Arrow Cross leaders were captured and tried for war crimes and no fewer than 6,200 indictments for murder were served against Arrow Cross men in just a few months.[2]: 587 Some Arrow Cross officials were executed, including Szálasi.

A memorial created by Gyula Pauer [hu], Hungarian sculptor, and Can Togay in 2005 on the bank of the river Danube in Budapest recalls when Arrow Cross militiamen shot Budapest Jews there, between 1944 and 1945. The victims were forced to remove their shoes, to be confiscated later,[14] and then shot so that their bodies would fall into the river.

In 2006, a former high-ranking member, Lajos Polgár, was found in Melbourne, Australia.[4] He died of natural causes in July of that year after the war crimes case against him was dropped.[15]

The ideology of the Arrow Cross has resurfaced to some extent in recent years, with the neofascist Hungarian Welfare Association prominent in reviving Szálasi's "Hungarizmus" through its monthly magazine, Magyartudat ("Hungarian Awareness") but "Hungarism" remains a fringe element of modern Hungarian politics, and the Hungarian Welfare Association has since dissolved.[16]

Electoral resultsEdit

National AssemblyEdit

Election Votes Seats Rank Government Leader of the
national list
# % ±pp # +/−
1939 530,405 14.4%  14.4
29 / 260
  29 3rd in opposition Ferenc Szálasi

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Szálasi Induló - Ébredj Magyar!". YouTube. 2008-05-17. Retrieved 2017-06-17.
  2. ^ a b c d e Patai, Raphael (1996). The Jews of Hungary:History, Culture, Psychology. 590: Wayne State University Press. p. 730. ISBN 0-8143-2561-0.CS1 maint: location (link)
  3. ^ Historical Dictionary of the Holocaust, Jack R. Fischel, Scarecrow Press, 17 Jul 2010, pg106
  4. ^ a b Johnston, Chris (2006-02-16). "War Crime Suspect Admits to his Leading Fascist Role". The Age. Archived from the original on 17 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-19.
  5. ^ Frucht, Richard C. (2005). Eastern Europe: an Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. 376: ABC-CLIO. p. 928. ISBN 1-57607-800-0.CS1 maint: location (link)
  6. ^ Miklos Molnar, 'A Concise History of Hungary
  7. ^ a b "Amerikai Népszava Online". Nepszava.com. 2015-03-23. Archived from the original on 2009-02-02. Retrieved 2017-06-17.
  8. ^ a b c d e Moshe Y. Herczl (1993). Christianity and the Holocaust of Hungarian Jewry. NYU Press. pp. 67, 70, 233. ISBN 0814773206 – via Google Books. A considerable portion of the media in Hungary described the swastika as a symbol of the forces defending European Christian culture, struggling bravely against the danger of Red expansion from the east and against the Bolshevik-Jewish Weltanschauung. It served as a source of inspiration for the various cross movements, including the Arrow-Cross party.
  9. ^ Payne, Stanley. "Fascism." Comparison and Definition, Madison (1980): 7.
  10. ^ Szálasi Ferenc, Hungarizmus 1. A Cél - alapvető tanulmányok és beszédek - Ferenc Szálasi, Hungarism 1. The Goal - Basic studies and speeches of the ideology, Budapest 2004., Gede Testvérek Bt., ISBN 9639298077
  11. ^ Nazismens och Fascismens idéer
  12. ^ a b "Szita Szabolcs: A budapesti csillagos házak (1944-45) | Remény". Remeny.org. Retrieved 2017-06-17.
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-02-02. Retrieved 2013-05-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ Stephanie Geyer. "Shoes on the Danube, Budapest". Visitbudapest.travel. Retrieved 2017-06-17.
  15. ^ Lack of political will over Polgar, says Holocaust Centre Archived September 21, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, Australian Jewish News, July 13, 2006
  16. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-02-02. Retrieved 2009-01-20.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

Further readingEdit

  • Braham, R. The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary (New York: Columbia University Press, 2 vol.; 2nd ed. 1994).
  • Cohen, Asher. "Some Socio-Political Aspects of the Arrow Cross Party in Hungary." East European Quarterly 21.3 (1987): 369+
  • Deák, István. “Hungary” in Hans Rogger and Egon Weber, eds., The European right: A historical profile (1963) pp. 364-407.
  • Deak, Istvan. "Collaborationism in Europe, 1940–1945: the case of Hungary." Austrian History Yearbook 15 (1979): 157-164.
  • Deák, István. "A fatal compromise? The debate over collaboration and resistance in Hungary." East European Politics and Societies 9.2 (1995): 209-233.
  • Herczl, Moshe Y. Christianity and the Holocaust of Hungarian Jewry (1993) online
  • Lackó, M. Arrow-Cross Men: National Socialists 1935–1944 (Budapest, Akadémiai Kiadó 1969).

External linksEdit

  Media related to Arrow Cross Party at Wikimedia Commons