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Two-axis political spectrum chart with an economic axis and a socio-cultural axis, and ideologically representative colors

In social studies, a political ideology is a certain set of ethical ideals, principles, doctrines, myths or symbols of a social movement, institution, class or large group that explains how society should work and offers some political and cultural blueprint for a certain social order. A political ideology largely concerns itself with how to allocate power and to what ends it should be used. Some political parties follow a certain ideology very closely while others may take broad inspiration from a group of related ideologies without specifically embracing any one of them. The popularity of an ideology is in part due to the influence of moral entrepreneurs, who sometimes act in their own interests. Political ideologies have two dimensions: (1) goals: how society should be organized; and (2) methods: the most appropriate way to achieve this goal.

An ideology is a collection of ideas. Typically, each ideology contains certain ideas on what it considers to be the best form of government (e.g. autocracy or democracy) and the best economic system (e.g. capitalism or socialism). The same word is sometimes used to identify both an ideology and one of its main ideas. For instance, socialism may refer to an economic system, or it may refer to an ideology which supports that economic system. The same term may also be used to refer to multiple ideologies and that is why political scientists try to find consensus definitions for these terms. While the terms have been conflated at times, communism has come in common parlance and in academics to refer to Soviet-type regimes and Marxist–Leninist ideologies whereas socialism has come to refer to a wider range of differing ideologies which are distinct from Marxism–Leninism.[1]

Political ideology is a term fraught with problems, having been called "the most elusive concept in the whole of social science".[2] While ideologies tend to identify themselves by their position on the political spectrum (such as the left, the centre or the right), they can be distinguished from political strategies (e.g. populism as it is commonly defined) and from single issues around which a party may be built (e.g. civil libertarianism and support or opposition to European integration), although either of these may or may not be central to a particular ideology. There are several studies that show that political ideology is heritable within families.[3][4][5][6][7][8]

The following list is strictly alphabetical and attempts to divide the ideologies found in practical political life into a number of groups, with each group containing ideologies that are related to each other. The headers refer to names of the best-known ideologies in each group. The names of the headers do not necessarily imply some hierarchical order or that one ideology evolved out of the other. Instead, they are merely noting that the ideologies in question are practically, historically and ideologically related to each other. As such, one ideology can belong to several groups and there is sometimes considerable overlap between related ideologies. The meaning of a political label can also differ between countries and political parties often subscribe to a combination of ideologies.

Contents

AnarchismEdit

Political internationals

ClassicalEdit

Libertarianism

Post-classicalEdit

ContemporaryEdit

Religious variantsEdit

Regional variantsEdit

AfricanEdit

AmericanEdit

AsianEdit

EuropeanEdit

OceanianEdit

Christian democracyEdit

Political internationals

GeneralEdit

OtherEdit

Regional variantsEdit

AfricanEdit

AmericanEdit

AsianEdit

EuropeanEdit

OceanianEdit

CommunitarianismEdit

CommunismEdit

Political internationals

AuthoritarianEdit

LibertarianEdit

OtherEdit

Religious variantsEdit

Regional variantsEdit

AfricanEdit

AmericanEdit

AsianEdit

EuropeanEdit

OceanianEdit

ConservatismEdit

Political internationals

TraditionalEdit

ReactionaryEdit

OtherEdit

Religious variantsEdit

Regional variantsEdit

AfricanEdit

AmericanEdit

AsianEdit

EuropeanEdit

OceanianEdit

CorporatismEdit

GeneralEdit

OtherEdit

Religious variantsEdit

Regional variantsEdit

DemocracyEdit

Political internationals

GeneralEdit

OtherEdit

Direct democracy movementsEdit

Pirate politicsEdit

Pirate Party
IdeologyPirate politics

Religious variantsEdit

Regional variantsEdit

AfricanEdit

AsianEdit

AmericanEdit

EuropeanEdit

OceanianEdit

EnvironmentalismEdit

Political internationals

Bright green environmentalismEdit

Deep green environmentalismEdit

Light green environmentalismEdit

OtherEdit

Religious variantsEdit

Regional variantsEdit

AfricanEdit

AmericanEdit

AsianEdit

EuropeanEdit

OceanianEdit

FascismEdit

GeneralEdit

OtherEdit

OppositionEdit

Religious variantsEdit

Regional variantsEdit

AfricanEdit

AmericanEdit

AsianEdit

EuropeanEdit

OceanianEdit

Identity politicsEdit

Political internationals

Age-related rights movementsEdit

  • Children's rights movement
  • Elder rights movement
  • Intergenerational equity
  • Youth rights movement
  • Animal-related rights movementsEdit

    Disability-related rights movementsEdit

    FeminismEdit

    GeneralEdit

    Chronological variantsEdit

    Ethnic and social variantsEdit

    Religious variantsEdit

    Regional variantsEdit

    AfricanEdit
    AmericanEdit
    AsianEdit
    EuropeanEdit
    OceanianEdit

    LGBT social movementsEdit

    Men's movementEdit

    Self-determination movementsEdit

    African-AmericanEdit

    Indigenous peoplesEdit

    Latin AmericanEdit

    Separatist and supremacist movementsEdit

    EthnicEdit

    BlackEdit
    WhiteEdit
    Regional wariantsEdit
    AfricanEdit
    AmericanEdit
    AsianEdit
    EuropeanEdit
    OceaniaEdit

    GenderEdit

    Religious variantsEdit

    Student movementsEdit

    GeneralEdit

    Regional variantsEdit

    LiberalismEdit

    Political internationals

    GeneralEdit

    OtherEdit

    Regional variantsEdit

    AfricanEdit

    AmericanEdit

    AsianEdit

    EuropeanEdit

    OceanianEdit

    LibertarianismEdit

    Political internationals

    GeneralEdit

    Left-libertarianismEdit

    Right-libertarianismEdit

    OtherEdit

    Religious variantsEdit

    Regional variantsEdit

    AfricanEdit

    AmericanEdit

    AsianEdit

    EuropeanEdit

    OceanianEdit

    NationalismEdit

    Political internationals

    GeneralEdit

    OtherEdit

    OppositionEdit

    Religious variantsEdit

    Regional variantsEdit

    AfricanEdit

    AmericanEdit

    AsianEdit

    EuropeanEdit

    OceanianEdit

    Unification movementsEdit

    PopulismEdit

    Political internationals

    GeneralEdit

    Left-wing populismEdit

    Right-wing populismEdit

    OtherEdit

    Regional variantsEdit

    AfricanEdit

    AsianEdit

    AmericanEdit

    EuropeanEdit

    OceanianEdit

    ProgressivismEdit

    Religio-political ideologiesEdit

    Political internationals

    GeneralEdit

    Political atheism and agnosticismEdit

    Political BuddhismEdit

    Political ChristianityEdit

    Political ConfucianismEdit

    Political HinduismEdit

    Political indigenous religionsEdit

    Political IslamEdit

    Political JudaismEdit

    Political MormonismEdit

    Political NeopaganismEdit

    Political ShintoEdit

    Political SikhismEdit

    Satirical and anti-politicsEdit

    Social democracyEdit

    Political internationals

    GeneralEdit

    OtherEdit

    Regional variantsEdit

    AfricanEdit

    AmericanEdit

    AsianEdit

    EuropeanEdit

    OceanianEdit

    SocialismEdit

    Political internationals

    GeneralEdit

    AuthoritarianEdit

    LibertarianEdit

    OtherEdit

    Religious variantsEdit

    Regional variantsEdit

    AfricanEdit

    AmericanEdit

    AsianEdit

    EuropeanEdit

    OceanianEdit

    SyndicalismEdit

    Transhumanist politicsEdit

    See alsoEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ Roberts, Andrew (2004). The State of Socialism: A Note on Terminology. Cambridge University Press. 63 (2). 349–366.
    2. ^ D. McLellan, Ideology, University of Minnesota Press, 1986, p. 1.
    3. ^ Bouchard, T. J.; McGue, M. (2003). "Genetic and environmental influences on human psychological differences". Journal of Neurobiology. 54 (1). 44–45.
    4. ^ Eaves, L. J.; Eysenck, H. J. (1974). "Genetics and the development of social attitudes". Nature. 249, 288–289.
    5. ^ Hatemi, P. K.; Medland, S. E.; Morley, K. I.; Heath, A. C.; Martin, N. G. (2007). "The genetics of voting: An Australian twin study". Behavior Genetics. 37 (3). 435–448.
    6. ^ Hatemi, P. K.; Hibbing, J.; Alford, J.; Martin, N.; Eaves, L. (2009). "Is there a 'party' in your genes?". Political Research Quarterly. 62 (3). 584–600.
    7. ^ Settle, J. E.; Dawes, C. T.; Fowler, J. H. (2009). "The heritability of partisan attachment". Political Research Quarterly. 62 (3). 601–613.
    8. ^ Anonymous Conservative (2012). The Evolutionary Psychology Behind Politics.

    External linksEdit