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Souverainism (also spelled Souverainisme French: [su.vʁɛ.nism] (listen), i.e. the ideology of sovereignty), sovereigntism or sovereignism is a doctrine which supports acquiring or preserving political independence of a nation or a region. It opposes federalism and supranational unions, leaning instead toward confederation or isolationism, and can be associated with certain independence movements.
In Europe, such political movements aim at a "Europe of the nations" so that every country could see its independence and differences respected. Supporters of the doctrine regard themselves as Euro-realists opposed to the Euro-federalists and call for a confederal version of a European Union. Thus, souverainism is opposed to federalism and typically involves nationalism, particularly in France where the parties lean on it.
The souverainiste doctrine is particularly influential in France, where numerous political movements adhere to it:
- French Action (monarchist, far-right reactionary)
- France Arise (Gaullist and republican)
- La France Insoumise (left-wing)
- Mouvement for France (conservative)
- Citizen and Republican Movement (left-wing)
- National Rally (right-wing nationalist)
- Nouvelle Action Royaliste (monarchist)
- Democratic Rally (centrist and monarchist)
- Rally for France (Gaullist and republican)
- Popular Republican Union (Gaullist and republican)
- Pole of Communist Revival in France (Marxist–Leninist)
Parties with tendencies that could be described also as souverainists can also be found in Greece:
- Syriza (left-wing, civic nationalist, democratic socialist)
- Independent Greeks (right-wing, ethnic nationalist, conservative)
- Communist Party of Greece (Marxist–Leninist)
Parties with tendencies that could be described also as souverainist can be also found in Italy:
In the Canadian province of Quebec, souverainisme or sovereigntism refers to the Quebec sovereignty movement which argues for Quebec to separate from Canada and become its own nation. Many leaders in the movement, notably René Lévesque, have preferred the terms "sovereignty" and "sovereigntist" over other common names such as separatist or independentist, although this terminology may be objected to by opponents.
- Parti Québécois (centre-left, nationalist and social democratic)
- Bloc Québécois (centre-left, nationalist and social democratic, represents Quebec separatism in Canada's federal parliament)
- Option nationale (centre-left, nationalist and progressive)
- Québec solidaire (left-wing, democratic socialist)
- "sovereigntism - Wiktionary". en.wiktionary.org. Retrieved 2019-03-12.
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